24 Vehicle/Roadway Warning/Control
WG 14 is focussed on the standardization of driving control technology using communications means or sensors or systems to obtain information from outside of the vehicle to reduce driver workload, improve convenience, raise awareness of danger, prevent accidents and mitigate damage .
24.2 Published Deliverables
24.2.1 ISO 11067:2015 Intelligent transport systems — Curve speed warning systems (CSWS) — Performance requirements and test procedures
The main function of Curve Speed Warning Systems (CSWS) is to warn the driver against the danger caused by maintaining excessive speed to negotiate an upcoming curved road. The system computes the current location of the vehicle with respect to the upcoming curved road of interest and determines a warning threshold speed, below which the vehicle can safely negotiate the upcoming curves. If the vehicle speed exceeds the warning threshold speed, the system provides a warning to the driver, prompting the driver to react and lower the subject vehicle speed to a level suitable for negotiating the curved road ahead. The CSWS scope does not include automated intervention features or means for controlling the vehicle to match a desired speed.
This International Standard contains the basic warning strategy, minimum functionality requirements, basic driver interface elements, minimum requirements for diagnostics and reaction to failure, and performance test procedures for Curve Speed Warning Systems (CSWS). CSWS warns the driver against the danger caused by maintaining excessive speed to negotiate the upcoming curved roads, so that the driver may reduce the speed. The system does not include the means to control the vehicle to meet the desired speed. The responsibility for safe operation of the vehicle always remains with the driver.
This International Standard applies to vehicles with four or more wheels.
24.2.2 ISO 11270:2014 Intelligent transport systems — Lane keeping assistance systems (LKAS) — Performance requirements and test procedures
The main system function of a Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) is to support the driver in keeping the vehicle within the current lane. LKAS acquires information on the position of the vehicle within the lane and, when required, sends commands to actuators to influence the lateral movement of the vehicle. LKAS provides status information to the driver.
Issues such as specific requirements for the detection sensor function and its performance, or the communication links for co-operative solutions, will not be considered here.
This International Standard contains the basic control strategy, minimum functionality requirements, basic driver interface elements, minimum requirements for diagnostics and reaction to failure, and performance test procedures for Lane Keeping Assistance Systems (LKAS). LKAS provide support for safe lane keeping operations by drivers and do not perform automatic driving nor prevent possible lane departures. The responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle always remains with the driver. LKAS is intended to operate on highways and equivalent roads. LKAS consist of means for recognizing the location of the vehicle inside its lane and means for influencing lateral vehicle movement. LKAS should react consistently with the driver expectations with respect to the visible lane markings. The support at roadway sections having temporary or irregular lane markings (such as roadwork zones) is not within the scope of this International Standard. This International Standard is applicable to passenger cars, commercial vehicles, and buses.
24.2.3 ISO 15622:2018 Intelligent transport systems — Adaptive cruise control systems — Performance requirements and test procedures
The main changes compared to the previous editions are as follows:
— the third edition of ISO 15622 is extended with the performance requirements and test procedures for full speed range adaptive cruise control systems formerly described in ISO 22179:2009 (with minor changes);
— in-vehicle devices are allowed as a possible source for the acquisition of driver commands (set-speed-advise);
— curve classification and related dependencies have been removed;
— automatic start from hold is no longer prohibited.
The main system function of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is to control vehicle speed adaptively to a forward vehicle by using information about: (1) distance to forward vehicles, (2) the motion of the subject (ACC equipped) vehicle and (3) driver commands (see Figure 24.2.3). Based upon the information acquired, the controller (identified as “ACC control strategy” in Figure 24.2.3) sends commands to actuators for carrying out its longitudinal control strategy and it also sends status information to the driver. Optionally, the driver may choose to have the ACC use set speed advice from in-vehicle devices.
Figure 24.2.3 — Functional ACC elements
The goal of ACC is a partial automation of the longitudinal vehicle control and the reduction of the workload of the driver with the aim of supporting and relieving the driver in a convenient manner. The generic ACC system comprehends two classes: Full Speed Range ACC (FSRA) and Limited Speed Range ACC (LSRA).
This document can be used as a system level standard by other standards, which extend the ACC to a more detailed standard, e.g. for specific detection and ranging sensor concepts or higher level of functionality. Therefore, issues like specific requirements for the detection and ranging sensor function and performance or communication links for co-operative solutions will not be considered here.
This document contains the basic control strategy, minimum functionality requirements, basic driver interface elements, minimum requirements for diagnostics and reaction to failure, and performance test procedures for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems.
ACC systems are realised as either Full Speed Range Adaptive Cruise Control (FSRA) systems or Limited Speed Range Adaptive Cruise Control (LSRA) systems. LSRA systems are further distinguished into two types, requiring manual or automatic clutch. Adaptive Cruise Control is fundamentally intended to provide longitudinal control of equipped vehicles while travelling on highways (roads where non-motorized vehicles and pedestrians are prohibited) under free-flowing and for FSRA-type systems also for congested traffic conditions. ACC can be augmented with other capabilities, such as forward obstacle warning. For FSRA-type systems the system will attempt to stop behind an already tracked vehicle within its limited deceleration capabilities and will be able to start again after the driver has input a request to the system to resume the journey from standstill. The system is not required to react to stationary or slow moving objects
24.2.4 ISO 15623:2013 Intelligent transport systems — Forward vehicle collision warning systems — Performance requirements and test procedures
The main system function of a forward vehicle collision warning system (FVCWS) is to warn the driver when the subject vehicle encounters the situation of a forward vehicle in the subject vehicle’s trajectory becoming a potential hazard. This is done by using information such as: (1) the range to forward vehicles, (2) the relative velocity of the forward vehicles with respect to subject vehicle and (3) whether a forward vehicle is in the subject vehicle trajectory. Based upon the information acquired, the controller identified as “FVCWS target selection and warning strategy” in Figure 24.2.4 produces the warning to the driver.
Figure 24.2.4 — Functional forward vehicle collision warning system’s elements
Automobile manufacturers and component suppliers throughout the world have been vigorously pursuing the development and commercialisation of these FVCWS systems. Systems of this type have already been introduced on to the market in some countries. Thus the standardization efforts began in 1994 amongst interested countries. This International Standard is composed to address only the basic performance requirements and test procedures for the FVCWS type systems. This International Standard may be used as a basis by other standards for systems which have more features and may extend beyond this International Standard.
This International Standard specifies performance requirements and test procedures for systems capable of warning the driver of a potential rear-end collision with other vehicles ahead of the subject vehicle while it is operating at ordinary speed. The FVCWS operate in specified subject vehicle speed range, road curvature range and target vehicle types. This International Standard covers operations on roads with curve radii over 125 m, and motor vehicle including cars, trucks, buses, and motorcycles. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.
24.2.5 ISO TS 15624:2001 Transport information and control systems — Traffic Impediment Warning Systems (TIWS) — System requirements
Once an accident occurs on a highway, the accident and congestion and other hazardous conditions may result in blocking of the lanes. This often leads to a situation where the safety of the traffic flow behind the accident cannot be guaranteed. Conventionally, it could take more than ten minutes before the occurrence of an accident is known, since accidents are generally reported by emergency telephones installed along the road. In the case of minor accidents, drivers usually drive away without reporting the incident. Detection, therefore, is very difficult, and there are cases where damaged facilities often obstruct traffic flow.
The main system function of a Traffic Impediment Warning System (TIWS) is to secure a smooth and safe flow of traffic subsequent to an accident, and can be achieved by: quick detection of an accident, rapid processing of the initial activities surrounding the accident and removal of impediments, dissipating traffic congestion at an early stage, and providing information to following vehicles.
The goal of TIWS is a partial automation of the traffic impediment information collection and provision, and the reduction of the workload of the driver with the aim to support and relieve the driver and the traffic system operator in a convenient manner.
This Technical Specification may be used as a system level standard by other standards, which extends the TIWS to a more detailed standard e.g. for specific sensor concepts or higher level of functionality. So, issues like specific requirements for the sensor function and performance or communication links for cooperative solutions will not be considered in this document.
This Technical Specification specifies system requirements for Traffic Impediment Warning Systems (TIWS). The purposes of the warning system are that information collected by the infrastructure is automatically and quickly provided to vehicles and reported to the traffic system operator, so vehicles can avoid secondary accidents. A major function of the system is to save lives by speedier rescue activities and, a quicker clearing up of accident-caused congestion.
This Technical Specification focuses on closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras as the sensors, to detect traffic impediments using image processing and variable message signs as the communication method to provide information to drivers.
24.2.6 ISO 16787:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Assisted parking system (APS) — Performance requirements and test procedures
Assisted parking system (APS) consists of non-contact sensors and steering control which assist the driver in parking the vehicle. The assistance starts with searching a suitable parking area, getting information on the area around the vehicle (environmental map), calculating the trajectory and finishes with the lateral control of the vehicle. APS also assists the driver in recognizing obstacles while manoeuvring into the parking slot.
This document covers the assisted parking system (APS) for light-duty vehicles, e.g. passenger cars, pick-up trucks, light vans and sport utility vehicles (motorcycles excluded) equipped with such APS.
This document establishes minimum functionality requirements that the driver can expect of the system, such as the detection of suitable parking spaces, calculation of trajectories and lateral control of the vehicle. Information on the presence of relevant obstacles in the driving path of the vehicle can also be included in the functionality of such systems. This document also sets minimum requirements for failure indication as well as performance test procedures. It includes rules for the general information strategy, but does not restrict the kind of information or display system.
APS is intended to provide automated parking assistance functionality to the driver. The APS searches the environment adjacent to the vehicle for suitable parking areas between other parked vehicles or markings on the road such as painted lines, evaluates the required information to calculate parking trajectories and sends steering commands to an electronic interface of the steering system for lateral control of the vehicle during the parking manoeuvre.
The basic APS function is to assist the driver with lateral control of the vehicle during parking manoeuvres. As an optional extension, APS can also offer limited longitudinal control of the vehicle movement, e.g. braking assistance while manoeuvring into the parking slot.
This document contains requirements for the lateral control capability of APS. It does not address longitudinal control.
During the parking manoeuvre, the driver can take over the control of the vehicle movement at any time and is also fully responsible for the parking manoeuvre.
APS uses object-detection devices for detection and ranging in order to search the environment for suitable parking areas. Such devices can be sensors with distance information or vision-based systems. In addition, sensors or counters, as well as relevant data available on the vehicle network (e.g. CAN), may be used to calculate the position of the vehicle relative to the parking area.
This document does not include assisted parking systems, reversing aids and obstacle-detection devices for use on heavy commercial vehicles or on vehicles with trailers.
24.2.7 ISO 17361:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Lane departure warning systems — Performance requirements and test procedures
Lane departure warning systems (LDWSs) are based on fundamental traffic rules. The main focus of an LDWS is to help the driver keep the vehicle in the lane on highways and highway-like roads. Accordingly, a warning is issued to alert the driver in case of lane departure caused by, for example, inattention. LDWSs are not intended to issue warnings with respect to collisions with other vehicles or to control vehicle motions.
This document specifies the definition of the system, classification, functions, human-machine interface (HMI) and test methods for lane departure warning systems. These are in-vehicle systems that can warn the driver of a lane departure on highways and highway-like roads. The subject system, which may utilize optical, electromagnetic, GPS or other sensor technologies, issues a warning consistent with the visible lane markings. The issuance of warnings at roadway sections having temporary or irregular lane markings (such as roadwork zones) is not within the scope of this document. This document applies to passenger cars, commercial vehicles and buses. The system will not take any automatic action to prevent possible lane departures. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.
24.2.8 ISO 17386:2010 Transport information and control systems — Manoeuvring Aids for Low Speed Operation (MALSO) — Performance requirements and test procedures
Today's aerodynamically-shaped vehicles often result in restricted rear and front visibility. Manoeuvring aids for low-speed operation (MALSO) enhance security and driver convenience during parking or manoeuvring situations at very low speed, e.g. in narrow passages. Drivers can avoid collisions with obstacles that cannot be seen but can be detected by the system and they can make more effective use of limited parking space.
MALSO systems are detection devices with non-contact sensors which assist the driver during low speed manoeuvring. MALSO systems indicate to the driver the presence of front, rear or corner objects when squeezing into small parking spaces or manoeuvring through narrow passages. They are regarded as an aid to drivers for use at speeds of up to 0,5 m/s, and they do not relieve drivers of their responsibility when driving the vehicle.
This International Standard addresses light-duty vehicles, e.g. passenger cars, pick-up trucks, light vans and sport utility vehicles (motorcycles excluded) equipped with MALSO systems. It specifies minimum functionality requirements which the driver can generally expect of the device, i.e. detection of and information on the presence of relevant obstacles within a defined (short) detection range. It defines minimum requirements for failure indication as well as performance test procedures; it includes rules for the general information strategy but does not restrict the kind of information or display system.
MALSO systems use object-detection devices (sensors) for ranging in order to provide the driver with information based on the distance to obstacles. The sensing technology is not addressed; however, technology affects the performance-test procedures set up in this International Standard ( Clause 7). The current test objects are defined based on systems using ultrasonic sensors, which reflect the most commonly used technology at the time of publishing this International Standard. For other sensing technologies possibly coming up in the future, these test objects shall be checked and changed if required.
Visibility-enhancement systems like video-camera aids without distance ranging and warning are not covered by this International Standard.
Reversing aids and obstacle-detection devices on heavy commercial vehicles are not addressed by this International Standard; requirements for those systems are defined in ISO TR 12155.
24.2.9 ISO 17387:2008 Intelligent transport systems — Lane change decision aid systems (LCDAS) — Performance requirements and test procedures
Lane Change Decision Aid Systems (LCDAS) warn the driver against collisions that may occur due to a lane change manoeuvre. LCDAS are intended to supplement the vehicle’s interior and exterior rear-view mirrors, not eliminate the need for such mirrors. LCDAS are intended to detect vehicles to the rear and sides of the subject vehicle When the subject vehicle driver indicates the desire to make a lane change, the system evaluates the situation and warns the driver if a lane change is not recommended. LCDAS are not meant to encourage aggressive driving. The absence of a warning will not guarantee that the driver can safely make a lane change manoeuvre. The system will not take any automatic action to prevent possible collisions. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.
NOTE Many figures in this document show vehicles on roadways with lane markings. This is not meant to imply that lane marking recognition or lane detection is required for an LCDAS. The lane markings are drawn for reference only.
1 subject vehicle
2 target vehicles
a The shaded area illustrates the concept of one possible system. The actual requirements are given in Clause 4.
Figure 24.2.9 — LCDAS concept
This International Standard specifies system requirements and test methods for Lane Change Decision Aid Systems (LCDAS). LCDAS are fundamentally intended to warn the driver of the subject vehicle against potential collisions with vehicles to the side and/or to the rear of the subject vehicle, and moving in the same direction as the subject vehicle during lane change manoeuvres. This standardization addresses LCDAS for use on forward moving cars, vans and straight trucks in highway situations.
This standardization does not address LCDAS for use on motorcycles or articulated vehicles such as tractor/trailer combinations and articulated buses.
24.2.10 ISO 18682:2016 Intelligent transport systems — External hazard detection and notification systems — Basic requirements
External hazard detection and notification systems recognize vehicle conditions and their ambient environment using on-board remote sensing or cooperatively through communication between infrastructure and vehicle (I-V), or among vehicles (V-V), and warn or inform the driver about external hazards.
This document addresses a number of functions, such as slow vehicle indication, collision hazard warning, lane change assistance, red light warning, and intersection crossing assistance. There are common requirements for several external hazard detection and notification systems. Many other standard development organizations may consider systems that assist driving safety. The scope of ISO/TC 204 WG14 is to promote a positive experience of vehicle/roadway warning and control systems for the driver.
This document is not intended to provide requirements for particular systems defined in each individual standard, but basic requirements based on basic principles for external hazard detection and notification systems. They are common requirements in similar systems, such as safety systems on nomadic devices and systems developed in ISO/TC 204, and should become root or primal requirements to define each system’s requirements. This document will be referred to when designing various systems in the future. It is expected to ensure uniformity and efficiency and building systems that reduce the likelihood of confusion for the driver.
For a better understanding of basic requirements, examples of typical formulae are shown in this document as informative elements. In addition, calculated examples of some services are given as information in the annex.
This document specifies basic requirements for systems to execute notifications such as warning and awareness messages to provide hazard information to a driver.
Requirements include principle of notifying, timing of notification, distance of notification, and information elements that should be included in messages.
NOTE 1 Methods of implementing functions such as hazardous conditions detection, communication, and presentation to drivers are not specified in this document.
24.2.11 ISO 19237:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Pedestrian detection and collision mitigation systems (PDCMS) — Performance requirements and test procedures
The fatality and severe injury rates of traffic accidents involving pedestrians are significantly high, resulting in the loss of many lives.
Pedestrian Detection and Collision Mitigation Systems (PDCMS) reduce the severity of pedestrian collisions that cannot be avoided, and may reduce the likelihood of fatality. By a collision warning (CW) and automatically activating EB, PDCMS assist in slowing a vehicle when a collision is likely.
Functional elements of PDCMS are shown in Figure 24.2.11.
Figure 24.2.11 — Pedestrian Detection and Collision Mitigation Systems (PDCMS) functional elements
System designers and other users of this document may apply it to stand-alone PDCMS or to the integration of the PDCMS functions into other driving assistance and support systems.
This document specifies the concept of operation, minimum functionality, system requirements, system interfaces, and test procedures for Pedestrian Detection and Collision Mitigation Systems (PDCMS). It specifies the behaviours that are required for PDCMS, and the system test criteria necessary to verify that a given implementation meets the requirements of this document. Implementation choices are left to system designers wherever possible.
PDCMS reduce the severity of pedestrian collisions that cannot be avoided, and may reduce the likelihood of fatality and severity of injury. PDCMS require information about range to pedestrians, motion of pedestrians, motion of the subject vehicle (SV), driver commands and driver actions. PDCMS detect pedestrians ahead of time, determine if detected pedestrians represent a hazardous condition, and warn the driver if a hazard exists. PDCMS estimate if the driver has an adequate opportunity to respond to the hazard. If there is inadequate time available for the driver to respond, and if appropriate criteria are met, PDCMS determine that a collision is imminent. Based upon this assessment, PDCMS will activate CWs and vehicle brakes to mitigate collision severity. This document, while not a collision avoidance standard, does not preclude a manufacturer from implementing collision avoidance with PDCMS.
Systems that include other countermeasures such as evasive steering are not within the scope of this document.
Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.
This document applies to light duty passenger vehicles . It does not apply to other vehicle categories such as heavy vehicles or motorcycles. PDCMS are not intended for off-road use.
24.2.12 ISO 19638:2018 Intelligent transport systems — Road boundary departure prevention systems (RBDPS) — Performance requirements and test procedures
Road boundary departure means a vehicle goes off the road unintentionally (not done intentionally by the driver). Such a departure can cause a crash by colliding with an oncoming vehicle, surrounding structures, or roll-over and the mortality rate in case of such accidents is high. To address this situation, systems which are effective in lane keeping assistance have been developed. Some representative systems are lane departure warning systems (LDWS) (presented in ISO 17361) and lane keeping assistance systems (LKAS) (presented in ISO 11270). LDWS informs the driver of danger by a warning in case of a departure but doesn’t have a function to control said departure. On the other hand, the main functionality of LKAS is to support driver operations to keep the vehicle within the lane while the vehicle is in the normal driving operation, not to avoid such accidents by actively preventing road departure. This document specifies road boundary departure prevention systems (RBDPS) which aim to prevent accidents caused by road departure.
RBDPS is a driving safety support system aimed at both the prevention of road departure accidents by causes such as driver negligence and the mitigation of damages when accidents actually occur. RBDPS detects or predicts road departure and activates the actuator(s) to prevent such a departure. The actuator(s) controls yaw moment and deceleration of a vehicle such that the vehicle is effectively controlled so as to remain within the road boundaries. By this mechanism, RBDPS effectively assists in the prevention of accidents and mitigates damages when accidents actually occur. This system allows driver operations to take priority over RBDPS when RBDPS is controlling the vehicle. Also, the driver is adequately informed of the operational state of RBDPS support.
In this document, a road boundary is defined as a boundary of vehicle driving lanes delimited by solid lane markers. Therefore, a dashed line, which a vehicle can cross in order to change lanes, is not a road boundary. Also, this document does not define the means used to detect road boundaries.
This document contains the basic control strategy, minimum functionality requirements, basic driver interface elements, minimum requirements for diagnostics and reaction to failure, and performance test procedures for road boundary departure prevention systems (RBDPS). RBDPS is a driving safety support system which acts on vehicles to prevent road departures. RBDPS is designed to reduce damage and accidents arising from road boundary departures.
This document is intended to be applied to systems that predict road boundary departures and maintain the vehicle within the road boundaries by both lateral acceleration control and longitudinal deceleration control. RBDPS is intended to operate on roads (well-developed and standardized freeways or highways) having solid lane markers. Roadwork zones or roads without visible road boundary markers are not within the scope of this document. RBDPS is intended for light duty passenger vehicles and heavy vehicles. RBDPS is not designed to operate continuously, but to operate automatically only when possible road boundary departures are detected or predicted. However, the driver’s decision and operation takes priority at all times.
24.2.13 ISO 20035:2019 Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative adaptive cruise control systems (CACC) — Performance requirements and test procedures
Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) system is an enhancement to the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system by the addition of wireless communication with preceding vehicles and/or the infrastructure to augment the ACC active sensing capability. It uses active sensing data such as ranging to forward vehicle, subject vehicle data, over the air data from other surrounding vehicles and from infrastructure, and driver input to longitudinally control the vehicle via throttle and brake controls, and to convey the appropriate CACC status information to the driver (see Figure 220.127.116.11).
Figure 18.104.22.168 — Functional CACC elements
ACC systems can be made cooperative by adding vehicle-vehicle (V2V) and/or infrastructure-vehicle (I2V) communication capabilities and adjusting the performance of the system to make use of the information received via the communication system, e.g. Dedicated Short Range Communication System (DSRC) (see Figure 22.214.171.124).
Figure 126.96.36.199 — CACC additions to ACC
The V2V communications can provide the ACC system with frequent updates about the speed, acceleration and commands (throttle and brake) of multiple vehicles driving in the surrounding area of the CACC-equipped vehicle. This enables the following performance improvements over ACC:
— higher-accuracy control of vehicle following gap, while maintaining smooth ride quality;
— significantly faster responses to speed changes by multiple forward vehicles, not only the vehicle immediately ahead of the subject vehicle;
— shorter vehicle-following gap settings, without compromising safety or driver confidence and comfort with the system.
These performance improvements produce the following benefits:
— increased driver confidence in the responsiveness of the system, leading to willingness to select shorter gap settings and use ACC under a wider range of traffic conditions;
— fewer cut-ins at the shorter gaps may make ACC acceptable to a wider range of drivers;
— significant damping of traffic flow disturbances, improving traffic flow dynamics and thereby reducing energy use and emissions;
— significant increase in the effective capacity (throughput) per lane of highway traffic.
The I2V communications can provide the ACC system with inputs from the local traffic management system, which determines the recommended values for set speed and vehicle-following gap. These can be used to enhance the effectiveness of traffic management strategies on limited access highways, where it is possible to determine the speed and gap settings that are likely to maximize the effective capacity of a bottleneck section. When the I2V CACC vehicles follow these recommended values, the overall traffic flow capacity can be optimized with a minimum of active intervention by the vehicle drivers (other than opting in to decide to follow the infrastructure-based guidance). This means that the driver of the subject vehicle gains a smoother trip, with less acceleration and braking and lower energy consumption, and the highway as a whole gains a higher effective capacity, reduced energy consumption and pollution, and reduced traffic delays.
Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) system is an expansion to existing Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) control strategy by using wireless communication with preceding vehicles (V2V) and/or the infrastructure (I2V). Both multi vehicle V2V data and I2V infrastructure data are within the scope of this document. When V2V data is used CACC can enable shorter time gaps and more accurate gap control, which can help increase traffic throughput and reduce fuel consumption. It can also receive data from the infrastructure, such as recommended speed and time gap setting, to improve traffic flow and safety.
This document addresses two types of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC): V2V, and I2V. Both types of CACC system require active sensing using for example radar, lidar, or camera systems. The combined V2V and I2V CACC is not addressed in this document. The following requirements are addressed in this document:
— classification of the types of CACC;
— definition of the performance requirements for each CACC type;
— CACC state transitions diagram;
— minimum set of wireless data requirements;
— test procedures.
— does only longitudinal vehicle speed control;
— uses time gap control strategy similar to ACC;
— has similar engagement criteria as ACC.
Coordinated strategies to control groups of vehicles, such as platooning, in which vehicle controllers base their control actions on how they affect other vehicles, and may have a very short following clearance gap are not within the scope of this document. CACC system operates under driver responsibility and supervision.
This document is applicable to motor vehicles including light vehicles and heavy vehicles.
24.2.14 ISO 22839:2013 Intelligent transport systems — Forward vehicle collision mitigation systems — Operation, performance, and verification requirements
ISO 22839:2013 specifies the concept of operation, minimum functionality, system requirements, system interfaces, and test methods for Forward Vehicle Collision Mitigation Systems (FVCMS). It specifies the behaviors that are required for FVCMS, and the system test criteria necessary to verify that a given implementation meets the requirements of ISO 22839:2013. Implementation choices are left to system designers, wherever possible.
24.2.15 ISO 22840:2010 Intelligent transport systems — Devices to aid reverse manoeuvres — Extended-range backing aid systems (ERBA)
Extended-range backing aids (ERBA) are detection devices with non-contact sensors that assist the driver during low- to mid-speed backing manoeuvring. These systems detect and warn the driver of objects in the pathway of the vehicle. In comparison to low-speed-only devices whose main purpose is assisting in parking manoeuvres (e.g. ISO 17386), the purpose of the ERBA is to assist in higher-speed backing manoeuvres associated with traversing longer distances.
This International Standard for extended-range backing aids (ERBA) addresses light-duty vehicles [e.g. passenger cars, pick-up trucks, light vans and sport utility vehicles (motorcycles excluded)] equipped with such ERBA systems. This International Standard establishes minimum functionality requirements that the driver can expect of the system, such as the detection of and information on the presence of relevant obstacles within a defined detection range. This International Standard also sets minimum requirements for failure indication as well as performance test procedures. This International Standard includes rules for the general information strategy but does not restrict the kind of information or display system.
ERBA systems are intended to provide backing aid functionality over an extended area located aft of the subject vehicle. ERBA systems are not intended for short-range detection of obstacles located immediately behind the vehicle. If a short-range detection system is needed, either in lieu of or in addition to an ERBA system, reference can be made to ISO 17386.
This International Standard does not include reversing aids and obstacle-detection devices for use on heavy commercial vehicles. Requirements for those systems are defined in ISO TR 12155. This International Standard does not include visibility-enhancement systems, such as video-camera aids that do not have distance ranging and warning capabilities.
ERBA systems use object-detection devices (sensors) for detection and ranging in order to provide the driver with information based on the distance to obstacles. The sensing technology is not addressed; however, technology does affect the performance test procedures defined in this International Standard. The test objects are defined based on systems using ultrasonic and radar sensors, which are the most commonly used detection technology for long-range applications at the time of publication of this International Standard.
ERBA systems are intended to supplement the interior and exterior rear view mirrors, not eliminate the requirement for such mirrors. Automatic actions (e.g. applying brakes to prevent a collision between the subject vehicle and the obstacle) are not addressed in this International Standard. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.
ERBA systems calculate a dynamic estimate of collision danger [e.g. perhaps using a time-to-collision, (TTC) algorithm] and warn the driver that immediate attention is required in order to avoid colliding with the detected obstacle. A dynamic warning is necessary for the higher vehicle speeds that occur in backing events where the relative closing velocities between the vehicle and the obstacle are greater as compared to low-speed situations, such as parking. The purpose of this dynamic warning is to deliver a more urgent warning to the driver in order for the driver to take timely action. Distance indications are optional, but if so included, it is recommended that reference be made to ISO 15008 for requirements.
24.2.16 ISO 26684:2015 Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Cooperative intersection signal information and violation warning systems (CIWS) — Performance requirements and test procedures
The main system function of cooperative intersection signal information and violation warning systems (CIWS) is to warn drivers who are about to violate an intersection’s traffic signal to stop at the prescribed location. The CIWS is intended to provide a cooperative vehicle and infrastructure system that reduces the likelihood and severity of crashes at signalized intersections by providing the signal phase information and/or by warning the driver that an intersection signal violation is about to occur. The system uses information communicated from the roadside infrastructure to determine if a warning should be given to a driver.
The purpose of implementing CIWS is to reduce violations of traffic signals at signalized intersections to: (a) reduce fatalities, (b) reduce the number and/or severity of injuries, and (c) reduce property damage associated with collisions.
This International Standard addresses CIWS for use in road vehicles approaching signalized intersections.
This International Standard may be used as a system level standard by other standards, which extend the CIWS to a more detailed standard utilizing wireless communication technologies. Issues such as the specific requirements for the function and performance of communication technology or traffic control facilities (including traffic signal controllers) will not be considered in this International Standard.
This International Standard specifies the concept of operation, system requirements, and test methods for cooperative intersection signal information and violation warning systems (CIWS) at signalized intersections. CIWS are intended to reduce the likelihood of crash injury, damage, and fatality by enhancing the capability of drivers to avoid crash situations at signalized intersections.
The scope of CIWS standardization includes basic functions, functional requirements, performance requirements, information contents, and test methods.
The characteristics of the technologies used to communicate between the signal controller and the vehicles are not addressed by this International Standard nor are the behavioural responses by drivers, the various capabilities of vehicles on the road, or the multitude of combinations of these two characteristics.
This document describes [motor] vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis. It provides a taxonomy with detailed definitions for six levels of driving automation, ranging from no driving automation (Level 0) to full driving automation (Level 5), in the context of [motor] vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways:
Level 0: No Driving Automation
Level 1: Driver Assistance
Level 2: Partial Driving Automation
Level 3: Conditional Driving Automation
Level 4: High Driving Automation
Level 5: Full Driving Automation
These level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on [motor] vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner. “On‑road” refers to publicly accessible roadways (including parking areas and private campuses that permit public access) that collectively serve all road users, including cyclists, pedestrians, and users of vehicles with and without driving automation features.
The levels apply to the driving automation feature(s) that are engaged in any given instance of on-road operation of an equipped vehicle. As such, although a given vehicle may be equipped with a driving automation system that is capable of delivering multiple driving automation features that perform at different levels, the level of driving automation exhibited in any given instance is determined by the feature(s) that are engaged.
This document also refers to three primary actors in driving: the (human) user, the driving automation system, and other vehicle systems and components. These other vehicle systems and components (or the vehicle in general terms) do not include the driving automation system in this model, even though as a practical matter a driving automation system may actually share hardware and software components with other vehicle systems, such as a processing module(s) or operating code.
The levels of driving automation are defined by reference to the specific role played by each of the three primary actors in performance of the DDT and/or DDT fallback. “Role” in this context refers to the expected role of a given primary actor, based on the design of the driving automation system in question and not necessarily to the actual performance of a given primary actor. For example, a driver who fails to monitor the roadway during engagement of a Level 1 adaptive cruise control (ACC) system still has the role of driver, even while s/he is neglecting it.
Active safety systems, such as electronic stability control (ESC) and automatic emergency braking (AEB), and certain types of driver assistance systems, such as lane keeping assistance (LKA), are excluded from the scope of this driving automation taxonomy because they do not perform part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis, but rather provide momentary intervention during potentially hazardous situations. Due to the momentary nature of the actions of active safety systems, their intervention does not change or eliminate the role of the driver in performing part or all of the DDT, and thus are not considered to be driving automation, even though they perform automated functions. In addition, systems that inform, alert, or warn the driver about hazards in the driving environment are also outside the scope of this driving automation taxonomy, as they neither automate part or all of the DDT, nor change the driver’s role in performance of the DDT (see 8.13).
It should be noted, however, that crash avoidance features, including intervention-type active safety systems, may be included in vehicles equipped with driving automation systems at any level. For automated driving system (ADS) features (i.e., Levels 3 to 5) that perform the complete DDT, crash mitigation and avoidance capability is part of ADS functionality.
This document specifies:
— requirements for the operational design domain,
— system requirements,
— minimum performance requirements, and
— performance test procedures
for the safe operation of low-speed automated driving (LSAD) systems for operation on predefined routes. LSAD systems are designed to operate at Level 4 automation (see ISO/SAE PAS 22736), within specific operational design domains (ODD).
This document applies to automated driving system-dedicated vehicles (ADS-DVs) and can also be utilized by dual-mode vehicles (see ISO/SAE PAS 22736). This document does not specify sensor technology present in vehicles driven by LSAD systems.
The move towards automated driving systems is leading to a shift in the way people, goods and services are transported. One such new mode of transport is low-speed automated driving (LSAD) systems, which operate on predefined routes. LSAD systems will be used for applications like last-mile transportation, transport in commercial areas, business or university campus areas and other low-speed environments.
A vehicle that is driven by the LSAD system (which can include interaction with infrastructure) can potentially have many benefits, like providing safe, convenient and affordable mobility and reducing urban congestion. It can also provide increased mobility for people who are not able to drive. However, with different applications of LSAD systems in the industry worldwide, there is a need to provide guidance for manufacturers, operators, end users and regulators to ensure their safe deployment.
The LSAD system requirements and procedures specified herein are intended to assist manufacturers of the LSAD systems in incorporating minimum safety requirements into their designs and to allow end users, operators and regulators to reference a minimum set of performance requirements in their procurements.
This document specifies performance requirements and test procedures for systems capable of Scope This document specifies performance requirements and test procedures for systems capable of warning the subject vehicle driver of a potential crossing-path collision with other vehicles at intersecting road segments. Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) rely on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications and relative positioning between the subject vehicle and crossing-path vehicles (remote vehicles). V2V data, such as position, speed and heading are used to evaluate if an intersection collision is imminent between the subject and remote vehicles.
The performance requirements laid out in this document specify the warning criteria for these systems. In addition, VVICW operate in specified subject and remote vehicle speed ranges, road intersection geometries and target vehicle types. Moreover, the requirements for the V2V data are specified.
The scope of this document includes operations on intersecting road segments (physically intersecting roads), and motor vehicles including cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver
Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) warn the driver to avoid potential collisions at intersections. The VVICW warns the driver of imminent crashes with other vehicles crossing at a road junction. The system relies on relative positioning, speed and heading between vehicles determined using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, such as dedicated short-range communication (DSRC). It is intended to be used to avoid intersection crossing crashes, the most severe crashes based on fatality counts. Due to limited field of view sensing, on-board sensor systems such as camera, lidar and radar systems cannot be used efficiently for such systems.
The VVICW is a road level system that deals with conflict scenarios between vehicles driving on two connected road segments sharing a common intersection. VVICW positioning requirements are not demanding compared to those of red light violation warning systems.
24.3 Deliverables under development
24.3.1 ISO AWI 4272 Intelligent transport systems — Truck platooning systems (TPS) — Function and operational requirements
2021-10-30 2022-10-07 2023-04-07 - 2020-10-07 6 months 20.00
24.3.2 ISO AWI 4273 Intelligent transport systems — Automated braking during low speed manoeuvring (ABLS) — Requirements and test procedures
2021-06-01 2022-02-09 2022-08-09 - 2021-02-09 2 months 20.00
24.3.3 ISO AWI 23374-1 Intelligent transport systems — Automated valet parking systems (AVPS) — Part 1: System framework, requirements for automated driving, and communication interface
2021-05-01 2021-07-12 2022-01-12 - 2019-07-12 21 months 20.00
24.3.4 ISO AWI 23375 Intelligent transport systems — Collision evasive lateral manoeuvre systems (CELM) — Performance requirements and test procedures
2021-04-01 2022-01-01 2022-07-01 - 2019-04-01 24 months 20.00
24.3.5 ISO WD 23792-1 Intelligent transport systems — Motorway chauffeur systems (MCS) — Part 1: Framework and general requirements
2022-02-01 2022-02-11 2022-08-11 - 2020-02-11 14 months 20.00
24.3.6 ISO PWI 23792-2 Intelligent transport systems — Motorway chauffeur systems (MCS) — Part 2: Requirements and test procedures for in-lane driving
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24.3.7 ISO AWI 23793-1 Intelligent transport systems — Minimal Risk Maneuver (MRM) for automated driving — Part 1: Framework, straight-stop and in-lane stop
2021-04-19 2022-12-23 2023-06-23 - 2020-12-23 3 months 20.00
24.3.8 ISO PWI 23793-2 Intelligent transport systems — Minimal Risk Maneuver (MRM) for automated driving — Part 2: Requirements and test procedures for stopping without lane change control
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