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8.   ITS Communications

8.0   General considerations on communications for EU-ICIP compliant systems

 

For examples of services and contexts that may need ITS communications click  here ;-ABOUT ITS

 

 

 

8.0.1   Introduction

"

Intelligent Transport Systems" (ITS) means to apply "Information and Communication Technologies" (ICT) in the domain of surface transportation; where "surface transportation" means transportation on the ground such as achieved with vehicles, motorcycles, non-motorized cycles, trams, trains and also by feed (pedestrians) that can meet each other somewhere on the ground. Typically, this term does not cover explicitly transportation on water (ships) and in the air (planes); however, the applicable communications-technologies would be identical and beneficial for many use cases.

ITS covers several operational domains (use case domains), some of which are identified by specific terms, such as C-ITS (cooperative ITS) or U-ITS (urban ITS). Whilst such distinction might be useful to point to a specific feature or target of ITS, it is not at all helpful to distinguish applicable technologies, especially communication technologies and facilities. Further on, there is overlap in ITS services provided in different ITS operational domains; e.g. public transport also needs fleet management services.

The term C-ITS was created in the context of the EC's mandate M/453 [R5] for funding of the development of standards especially suitable for road safety and traffic efficiency, whilst the term U-ITS was created in the context of a subsequent mandate M/546 [R9], where urban issues were in the focus of standard development. It is obvious, that drawing a borderline between cooperative and non-cooperative, and between urban, sub-urban and rural is not feasible in a precise manner. Similarly, the C-ITS is not equal to the EC's C-ITS delegated act, and vice versa, which is clearly expressed in the C-ITS delegated act documents (the choice of technologies there is just a start for day-1 road safety applications).

Looking on communications, it is even more obvious, that the various ITS operational domains follow the same principles and characteristics, which simplifies integration of ITS operational domains with respect of exchange data. This leads to the concept of "hybrid communications". Consequently, this clause will provide

  • an explanation of hybrid communications;

  • a generally applicable description of communications including facilities;

  • information on which communications technologies currently are used in specific ITS use cases or are recommended for ITS use cases

  • finally, suggestions on management of stations to enable reliable security, perform lifecycle management and smooth migrations towards future technologies.

 

This section also presents an overview on standards from various standard development organizations (SDOs), which includes also some standards that are only partly related to communications.

 

8.0.2   General guidelines

 

General guidelines on the usage of (communications) standards for EU-ICIP are a pre-requisite for efficient development of equipment and software, and subsequent deployment. Such guidelines partly already exist under the label of C-ITS, and are provided in a series of Technical Reports from CEN: TR 21186 Cooperative intelligent transport systems — Guidelines on the usage of standards —

 

New work items for further parts 

  • Part 4: Usage of the service announcement protocol specified in EN ISO 22418;

  • Part 5: Dynamically extendable data and protocol parameters ("Information Object Classes" and "Information Object Sets"; based on ASN.1 type CLASS);

  • Part 6: Usage of the GDTM framework specified in ISO TS 21184

are under preparation. This series of Technical Reports is accompanied by a Brochure on C-ITS that is available for download free of charge at https://www.itsstandards.eu/highlighted-projects/c-its-secure-communications/.

8.0.3   Communication profiles and station architectures

 

The major issue to standardize communications is to enable interoperability of equipment provided by different manufacturers. The observable and testable interface between a sender and a receiver is the communication link given by the communication protocol stacks in the sender and the receiver, and the communication medium. The communication medium can be a wire or a wireless medium. Examples of wireless media are radio waves, light, and acoustics. Upon usage of identical protocol stacks and equal configurations, i.e. applying the same communication profile (CEN TS 17496 ) at the receiver and the transmitter, communication is possible.

Although an agreed communication profile is a pre-requisite for communications, in no way this implies a specific station architecture. Disregard, to simplify presentation in this document, the ITS station architecture specified in ISO 21217 is used as a reference architecture describing functional blocks similar to the OSI layered communications architecture specified in ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994, i.e. the "Applications" entity, the "Management" entity, the "Security" entity, and the "Access", "Networking & Transport", and "Facilities" layers; see Figure 8.1. Basically the same architecture is applied in HARTS., and in the subsequently developed ARC-IT, (version9) which incorporates HARTS.

8.

, etc., 

Figure_01_EU-ICIP_Communications.png

Figure 8.1: Simplified ITS station reference architecture (from ISO 21217)

Thus, the functionality referred to as "ITS station" (ITS-S) in ISO 21217 can be implemented in different ways, e.g. in dedicated stations (e.g. for vehicles as demanded by vehicle manufacturers), in traffic management centres, in mobile devices such as smart phones, in navigation devices, in roadside furniture, in after-market devices,etc. This example list also indicates the various implementation contexts identified so far in ISO 21217.

8.0.4   Basic principles of communications

 

8.0.4.1  Type of medium

 

The two basic types of communication media are

  • wired (e.g., cable, fibre-optics) and

  • wireless (e.g., radio waves, light, acoustics).

 

For each of these types a variety of physical instantiations and protocol details exist.

8.0.4.2   Networking modes

 

Communications between end-nodes (stations) can be performed as

  • localized communications, i.e. communications to nearby stations without involving networking from a source station through nodes of a network to a final destination station – also referred to as "ad-hoc communications", and

  • networked communications, e.g. applying the Internet Protocol or any other protocol supporting routing of packets through nodes of a network.

 

Localized communications allow for e.g. lowest latency and direct communications with the surrounding; e.g. broadcast of Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) and Signal Phase and Timing (SPAT) message  Networked communications typically are used for communications over long distances, quasi continuous sessions, support of non-time-critical applications, and larger amount of data to be transmitted.

8.0.4.3   End-node relations

 

Disregard whether it is localized or networked communications over a wire or a wireless medium, communications between end-nodes can be for the following purposes:

a)   Information dissemination (one-to-many) from a sender SA to many receivers Rx which are not necessarily known to the sender. The following distinctions of this multicast communications are given:

  • broadcast: any receiver Rx who can physically receive a message is allowed to read it;

  • groupcast: a receiver Rx who can physically receive a message is allowed to read it only in case this receiver belongs to an identified group of receivers - this requires presence of an appropriate group identifier in the message.

 

Multicast messages are not acknowledged by a receiver.

 

To ensure full interoperability,

  • broadcast communication requires one single communication profile to be used by all nodes of the broadcast group of stations;

  • groupcast communication requires one single communication profile to be used by all nodes belonging to the same group.

 

Consequently, offering the same broadcast information dissemination service using different communication profiles by different transmitters is prohibited, as it would require implementing all communication profiles in all nodes.

b) Information exchange (one-to-one) is between an end-node NA and one other end-node NB. To exchange messages between NA and NB, these two end-nodes must know their respective communication addresses. Typically, a session initiation is a pre-requisite to start a session-based exchange of messages, and a session termination is used after finalization of the message exchange to correctly close down the link between the end-nodes and disable further communications.

 

As information exchange is peer-to-peer (with a possible master/slave relation at a functional level), the strict restrictions on communication profiles as given for information dissemination are not applicable. In other words, the communication partners NA and NB could agree on a communication profile for a specific session or in general for all of their sessions. However, for the purpose of session initiation, one commonly agreed communication profile for broadcast of a service announcement message might be necessary. As part of the session initiation using service announcement, the communication profile to be used in a subsequent session can be negotiated according to the capabilities of the two stations.

8.0.5   Communication needs of ITS applications

 

Selection of one or several appropriate communication profiles depends on the communication needs of EU-ICIP applications that are providing an EU-ICIP service by disseminating and / or exchanging  information between the application processes (see ISO 21217 ). Different applications may require quite different communication features and might also need simultaneously different links (one for each flow of data) with different communication features. That expresses the basic need for support of different communication profiles in a single station.

Whilst the communication needs of an application process can be hard coded in a station for each flow of an application process, a flexible and thus future-proof approach as specified in EN ISO 17423 is beneficial. EN ISO 17423 specifies how ITS application processes can present their communication needs for each flow to the station management, such that by cross-checking with station capabilities (identified in ISO 24102-6 ) and locally applicable regulations and policies the uppermost appropriate communication profile can be selected by the station management; see Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.2: Automatic selection of communication profiles (from ISO 21217)

 

This method of path and flow management specified in ISO 24102-6 also supports dynamic real-time hand-over between communication profiles, as specific communication services might not be available at all locations and at any time.

8.0.6  Geo-fencing

 

As communications in general can carry location- and time-dependent information, stations typically either know their fixed location, or have means to estimate their location. Location referencing is explained in CEN/TR 17297-1. How to perform transformations between different location reference systems is specified in CEN/TS 17297-2. This is the basis of geo-fencing, i.e. identifying geographical areas within which specific regulations and policies apply. Geo-fencing is specified in CEN/TS 17380. Complementary to CEN/TS 17380, air quality management is specified in CEN/TS 17378.

Geo-fencing can be applied for different issues where regulations and policies must be considered, e.g., regulations of radio matters, privacy, security, traffic rules.

The result of geo-fencing is an input to the choice of communication profiles. This usage of geo-fencing is e.g. already implemented and used in the new Volkswagen Golf 8, which disables the ITS station whilst the vehicle is outside of the area of the European Union. [b8.1]

A future important usage of geo-fencing is the application of electronic traffic regulations, which is currently under investigation in a new work item on Management for Electronic Traffic Regulations (METR) - General concept and architecture [under development] at CEN/TC 278.

Geo-fencing is related to the "Local Dynamic Map" (LDM) specified in EN ISO 18750, which is a storage for time- and location-referenced data together with suitable query mechanisms.

8.0.7  Cyber security

 

Cyber security, strictly speaking, not necessarily belongs to communications. However, the approach to identify ITS communication profiles specified in CEN/TS 17496 considers cyber security as part of communication profiles, as quite often the necessary security means are part of communication protocols (for example TLS using the Internet Protocol Suite).

As EU-ICIP use cases deal with safety of human life and properties, information that is disseminated or exchanged must be secured. Whilst basically the communication (at least the access layer, but preferably also the networking & transport layer) can be unsecure, end-to-end security between application processes is needed to ensure:

  • confidentiality (access control);

  • data integrity (encryption of data);

  • source authentication (signing of messages);

  • non-repudiation (proof of integrity and origin of data).

 

This basic principle of end-to-end security between application processes is not strictly applied, e.g.

 

An important feature of the IEEE 1609.2 certificates used for signing of messages (source authentication) and for secure sessions is to support identification of roles and access rights.

 

Example 1: Authorization to send a specific message, e.g., indicating "blue light and sirene switched on" will require the role of either "police", "fire brigade", or "emergency service". Although being a valid and acceptable ITS station unit, transmission of such a message is prohibited if the station cannot proof the respective required role.

Example 2: Access to specific data or actuators in a sensor and control network is controlled by configuration files (TS 21184 and TS 21177). If the requester cannot proof the necessary access rights, the request is denied although the request comes from a valid ITS station unit using exactly the correct message.

 

8.0.8  Facilities

 

Facilities are allocated in the facilities layer of the ITS station reference architecture, see Figure 8.1 above, corresponding with the OSI layers 5, 6 and 7. In simple words, facilities are located in between the communication protocol stack and the application processes. It is a "matter of taste" whether facilities are considered as part of communications, or as part of the applications. For the purpose of this document, facilities are considered as tools providing general functionality for communications and for applications.

Important examples of facilities are:

  • the local dynamic map specified in EN 18750, i.e. a storage for location- and time-referenced data;

  • the content subscription handler specified in CEN/TS 17429, i.e. a publish / subscribe mechanism useful to share data received from peer stations with local application processes;

  • a position - velocity - time service specified in ISO/TS 21176 and in the complementary  EN 302 890-2 providing kinematic state information of the ego-station;

  • the global transport data management (GTDM) framework specified in ISO/TS 21184, providing e.g. necessary functionality for secure access to sensor and control network data with a precise and strict share of responsibilities and control for what is inside and outside the sensor and control network, and allows to define new messages or modify existing messages by means of configuration files, i.e. without a need to compile software newly;

  • the facilities service handler specified in CEN/TS 17429, i.e. a functionality that can be ordered by application processes to use facilities for finalization of message assembly, e.g. to add a time-stamp or cyber security information.

 

8.0.9 Service initiation: pre-defined or negotiated communications

 

Service initiation is explained in detail in ISO/TR 21186-1 Clause 6.2. Beside initiation of information dissemination services by simple broadcast of messages, or by polling an a-priori known URL, an important distinction is between (push) service initiation using service announcement specified in ISO 16460 and EN ISO 22418 and service initiation by a central station for subscribed users. The latter one typically is based on cellular networks and the Internet Protocol.

NOTE:     In ITS, IPv6 is the currently preferred Internet protocol version for new developments. IPv4 may be tunnelled over IPv6. However, legacy implementations likely are using IPv4 and cannot easily be upgraded.

Services are announced by means of the globally unique "ITS Application Identifier" (ITS-AID), also referred to as "Provider Service Identifier" (PSID) in IEEE. Usage of the term "ITS-AID" is recommended for EU-ICIP. Service announcement may be used to indicate a source of information for download, or to initiate a session between the service provider and the service user. In both cases, part of the service initialisation phase is an optional change of communication profile for the service operation phase.

EXAMPLE:     Whilst the service initialisation phase uses the ITS-G5 GeoNetworking  communication profile for broadcast of the service announcement message, service operation may use e.g.ITS-G5 / IPv6 or ITS-M5 / FNTP , or US-DSRC profile of IEEE 802.11 OCB [/ WAVE or a cellular link.

EN 22418 supports the full set of service announcement features, including e.g.

  • ITS Application Classes (similar to CEN DSRC BST/VST exchange - distinction of contexts; see ISO 4426;

  • mandatory applications;

  • private communication channels for the session operation phase, e.g. using ITS-M5 RAN frequency band rather than in the C-ITS frequency band at 5,9 GHz;

  • hybrid communications.

 

 

[1] The next series of Golf 8 will include further areas, such as Switzerland or Norway, where the ITS station is activated. Applying remote station management as e.g., specified in ISO 24102-2, such updates can be done also in already deployed stations.

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Figure_02_EU-ICIP_Communications.png
 

8.0.10              Hybrid communications

 

Due to the diverging requirements from the multiplicity of already known and continuously emerging applications, multiple communication technologies with characteristics that may be fundamentally different or quite similar can be supported in a specific station. Supporting multiple access technologies and communication protocols is referred to as “hybrid communications”. Actually, this was a design principle of the ITS station architecture specified in ISO 21217 which was developed in 2008 / 2009 simultaneously with the activities of the EC-funded CVIS project . The urgent need for hybrid communications was also expressed by the German led EC CONVERGE project  2015, and in 2019 by the C-ITS deployment platform project C-Roads . This need is obvious also for EU-ICIP.

Hybrid communications can basically be defined as the composition of multiple access technologies and protocols with different characteristics combined to provide complementary or redundant communication channels. This can arise in multiple situations:

-   when localized communications, i.e. communication to nearby stations without involving support of an infrastructure network, is combined with networked communications, i.e. communications using support of an infrastructure network, for instance when the V2X communication stack from ETSI is combined with TCP/IP (a typical use-case is black-ice warning);

-   when technology-agnostic applications are developed and deployed in a communication system equipped with multiple access technologies with dynamic determination of the most appropriate communication profile;

-   when safety critical communications, e.g. for platooning, requires physically independent redundant communication channels such that at least one of these channels provides the necessary information.

 

Thus, benefits of (managed) hybrid communications are:

-   redundant communications, e.g. simultaneous usage of physically different links to increase reliability;

-   possibility of mixed communications, e.g. to support multiple flows of the same application process with different communication needs;

-   support of diverging communication needs from different application processes;

-   smooth migration from one technology to an upcoming new one ensuring backward compatibility;

-   support of different architectures for service provisioning requiring different communication technologies.

 

 

8.0.11              Station management of communications

8.0.11.1         General

 

ICT devices have at least a feature implemented that allows updating the operating systems. In addition, smart phones are connected to application stores and support download and installation of applications at almost any time and any location. This is a pre-requisite resulting from the very short lifetime of software.

Further well-known management features are e.g.:

-   power consumption management (e.g. especially in battery-powered devices, and in "green" devices);

-   interference mitigation (e.g. as available in Wi-Fi routers to select the least occupied frequency channel);

-   security management (e.g. download certificates for real-time usage);

-   selection of the best suited communication profile (e.g. in smart phone using cellular, Wi-Fi or Bluetooth);

 

The same applies for EU-ICIP stations (ITS stations).

8.0.11.2          Interference mitigation

 

Interference in wireless communications typically results from out-of- band emissions of neighbouring radio services, i.e. these out-of-band emissions of an interferer transmitter are in the receive band of the victim receiver. However, other types of interference also are possible. Radio parameters considered in frequency regulation are specified in EN 301 893 for RLAN devices operating in the 5 GHz band, and in EN 302 571 for ITS technologies (currently for ITS-G5 / ITS-M5 operating in the frequency band from 5,855 GHz to 5,925 GHz.

The impact of interference on the ITS service related to the victim radio quite often can be described by a statistical approach, identifying time parameters from the interferer radio and the victim radio, recovery mechanisms from the victim service, and power levels of both radios.

Mitigation techniques thus typically affect time parameters and power levels of the interferer radio. An example are the mitigation techniques specified in ETSI TS 102 792 . to protect the European road tolling service based on CEN DSRC from interference caused by ITS-G5 / ITS-M5  / US-DSRC profile of IEEE 802.11 OCB [/ WAVE.

 

 

 

8.0.11.3          Communication profiles

 

Whilst communication profiles could be basically considered as an off-line approach to distinguish different parameterized communication protocol stacks, actually the respective globally unique identifiers are used in real-time for general path and flow management. Details of path and flow management can be used e.g.

-   for interference mitigation;

-   for mapping of communications to application needs specified in ISO 24102-6 and EN 17423 ;

-   for service announcement specified in EN 22418 ;

-   in support of communication technology migration;

-   in support of backward compatibility;

-   in support of portability of applications.

 

 

8.0.11.4         Lifecycle management

 

The management of the lifecycle of an ITS station typically is under the control of the "owner" of the station using a "station management centre" of the owner, also referred to as the "host management centre" in the CVIS project, or the "ITS-SCU management centre" in ISO 24102-2 ISO 24102-2 specifies features of remote station management including lifecycle management, considering different communication contexts. It is a functional tool-box rather than a normative specification of technical details.

 

8.0.11.5         Security management

 

Requirements on security are partly standardized (technical tools) and partly defined by system operators or by regulation. Remote station management specified in ISO 24102-2  and local station management specified in ISO 24102-1 re tools in support of security management.

 

 

8.0.11.6          Geo-fencing

 

Geo-fencing is a feature related to local station management specified in ISO 24102-1 and  to remote station management specified in ISO 24102-2 The local part deals first of all with identifying the position of the ego-station as specified in CEN/TS 21176, and the remote part deals with downloading of information from the ITS-SCU management centre that is applicable at the given location. Usage of this information is specified in various Sections of this document; see also 8.1.6.

 

8.0.11.7         Pseudonym management

 

Pseudonyms are used to mask real identities. As pseudonyms can be used at different layers of the communication protocol stack, simultaneous switching of all of them must be ensured; see also ISO 24102-1.

8.1   Legacy communication technologies

8.1.1  General

 

Many complementary and competitive communication technologies were developed so far, some of which were adopted by the market. The technologies considered may provide part of a protocol stack, or a complete protocol stack. With respect of networking, five classes are usually distinguished:

  • No networking; i.e., localized communications;

  • "Wide area network" (WAN);

  • "Metropolitan area network" (MAN);

  • "Local area network" (LAN);

  • "Personal area network" (PAN).

 

The borderline between WAN and MAN, and between MAN and LAN is a bit ambiguous, and thus a mapping to the one or the other network class is either according to the choice of related standards, or according to a personal choice.

The following sections provide an overview and classification of such technologies that are already in operation for the EU-ICIP use cases.

 

8.1.2 IP suites of protocols

 

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

IP has the task of delivering packets from a source node to a destination node via other network nodes solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers.

Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced in 1974, which was complemented by a connection-oriented service that became the basis for the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.

The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), currently still is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Its successor is the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), which has been in increasing deployment on the public Internet since about 2006.

The Internet protocol is located in the OSI layer 3, and the related transport protocols are located in the OSI layer 4.

The IP is applicable for many different higher layer protocols, and many different lower layer protocols (wired and wireless).

 

 

8.

8.1.3 Cellular technologies (WANs)

8.1.3.1 2G

2G is an acronym identifying the second generation of cellular networks.

With the "General Packet Radio Service" (GPRS), 2G offers a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 40 kbit/s. With EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), there is a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 384 kbit/s. 2G has lost its relevance due to the subsequent cellular technology generations with better performance.

In some countries (but by no means all) allocated band is being refarmed to 4G or 5G.

2G remains the basic technology required in the EU regulation for the eCall service.

 

8.1.3.2 3G

3G is an acronym identifying the third generation of cellular networks.

3G is based on a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks that comply with the "International Mobile Telecommunications-2000" (IMT-2000) specifications published by the International Telecommunication Union.

 

3G telecommunication networks offer an information transfer rate of at least 144 kbit/s.

3G is used for e.g. wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.

 

3G has lost its relevance due to the subsequent cellular technology generations with better performance.

In some countries (but by no means all) allocated band is being refarmed to 4G or 5G

8.1.3.3   4G - LTE

4G and LTE ("Long Term Evolution") are acronyms identifying the fourth generation of cellular networks.(3GPP Release 14).

 

A 4G system formally must provide capabilities defined by ITU in the "IMT Advanced" specification. However, the first release versions of LTE (and Mobile WiMAX) support much less than the required 1 Gbit/s peak bit rate, and thus are not fully IMT-Advanced compliant, but nevertheless are often branded 4G by service providers. LTE Advanced (LTE-A) (and mobile WiMAX Release 2 - also known as WirelessMAN-

 

Advanced or IEEE 802.16m) are IMT-Advanced compliant backwards compatible versions of the above two systems.

 

IMT-Advanced specified peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users).

 

4G does not support the traditional circuit-switched telephony service, but instead relies on Internet Protocol (IP) based communication such as IP telephony.

 

Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, and 3D television.

 

 

8.1.3.4 Wi-Fi (WLAN)

Wi-Fi is a family of wireless network protocols specified in IEEE 802.11  which are commonly used for local area networking of devices, and for wireless access to the Internet. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the non-profit Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term "Wi-Fi Certified" to products that successfully complete interoperability certification testing.

 

8.1.3.5 IEEE 802.15.4 based WPANs

8.1.3.5.1General

The standard IEEE 802.15.4 provides a "Wireless Medium Access Control" and "Physical Layer" specifications for low rate "Wireless Personal Area Networks" (WPAN). Based on this standard, various WPAN specifications are in use:

  • Zigbee     - see 8.1.3.5.2;

  • 6LowPAN - see 8.1.3.5.3;

  • Bluetooth - see 8.1.3.5.4;

 

 

 

8.1.3.5.2  Zigbee

Zigbee is a specification for a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity wireless personal area (ad hoc) network (WPAN) based on the standard IEEE 802.15.4 .

Its low power consumption limits single-hop line-of-sight transmission distances to the range of 10 meters up to 100 meters, depending on power output and environmental characteristics. Zigbee devices can transmit data over long distances by passing data through a mesh network of intermediate devices to reach more distant ones.

Zigbee is typically used in low data rate applications that require long battery life and secure networking (Zigbee networks are secured by 128-bit symmetric encryption keys.) Zigbee has a defined rate of 250 kbit/s suited for intermittent data transmissions from a sensor or input device.

With a suite of high-level communication protocols, Zigbee aims on home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection with short-range low-rate wireless data transfer.

The technology defined by the Zigbee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth or more general wireless networking such as Wi-Fi.

 

8.1.3.5.3  6LowPAN

6LoWPAN is an acronym of "IPv6 over Low -Power Wireless Personal Area Networks", developed by a working group in the IETF. The base specification developed by the 6LoWPAN IETF group is RFC 4944 (updated by RFC 6282 with header compression, and by RFC 6775 with neighbour discovery optimizations). The problem statement document is RFC 4919. IPv6 over Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is defined in RFC 7668.

 

The 6LoWPAN concept originated from the idea that "the Internet Protocol could and should be applied even to the smallest devices," and that low-power devices with limited processing capabilities should be able to participate in the Internet of Things.

The 6LoWPAN group has defined encapsulation and header compression mechanisms that allow IPv6 packets to be sent and received over IEEE 802.15.4 based networks. IEEE 802.15.4 devices provide sensing communication ability in the wireless domain.

 

The standards ISO 19079 on 6LowPAN and ISO 19080 on the CoAP facility specify usage of 6LowPAN in the context of an ITS station.

 

8.1.3.5.4  Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances (using UHF radio waves in the industrial, scientific and medical radio bands, from 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz), and building personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth initially was specified in IEEE 802.15.1; however, this standard is no more maintained.

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is now responsible for the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device. Various patents apply to the technology, which are licensed to individual qualifying devices.

The "Bluetooth low energy" (BLE) version, also referred to as "Bluetooth smart", is independent of and incompatible with Bluetooth BR/EDR; however, BR/EDR and LE can coexist. BLE is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and cost while maintaining a similar communication range.

 

8.1.3.6 Other networking technologies

8.1.3.6.1 SigFox

SigFox points to the "low-power wide-area network" (LPWAN) wireless networks technology of a French global network operator that is designed to connect low-power objects such as electricity meters and smartwatches, which need to be continuously on and emitting small amounts of data. SigFox is operated in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical ISM radio bands at 868 MHz in the European Union, and at 902 MHz in the USA. It utilizes a wide-reaching signal that passes freely through solid objects, called "Ultra Narrowband" and requires little energy. The network is based on a one-hop star topology and requires a mobile operator to carry the generated traffic. The signal can also be used to easily cover large areas and to reach underground objects.

SigFox is not based on a standard.

 

 

8.1.3.6.2 LoRa

LoRa (Long Range) is a low-power wide-area network protocol developed by Cycleo and acquired by Semtech, the founding member of the LoRa Alliance.

The LoRa Alliance is a "501(c) association" created in 2015 to support LoRaWAN (long range wide-area network) protocol as well as ensure interoperability of all LoRaWAN products and technologies.

LoRa uses license-free sub-gigahertz radio frequency bands like 433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe), 915 MHz (Australia and North America), 865 MHz to 867 MHz (India) and 923 MHz (Asia). LoRa enables long-range transmissions (more than 10 km in rural areas) with low power consumption. The specification covers only the physical layer. Other technologies and protocols such as LoRaWAN cover the upper layers. It can achieve data rate from 27 bps to 300 bps.

LoRa devices have geolocation capabilities used for trilateration of positions of devices (via timestamps from gateways).

 

LoRa and LoRaWAN permit long-range connectivity for Internet of things (IoT) devices in different types of industries.

 

Range extenders for LoRaWAN are called LoRaX.

 

8.1.3.7 Localized communication technologies

8.1.3.7.1  CEN DSRC

 

The CEN "Dedicated Short-Range Communication" (DSRC) technology has been developed specifically to provide a reliable and effective communication means for traffic and transport applications with a very few short messages in high speed single lane and multilane free flow environments. CEN DSRC is required in the EU regulation of the "European Electronic Toll Service" (EETS). The EETS regulation also refers to the Italian DSRC (high data rate DSRC).

 

It is to be noted that the term DSRC is used in the USA to indicate a Wi-Fi mode for communications in ITS; this is referred to as US-DSRC in this document.

The CEN DSRC technology can be characterised by the following features:

  • roadside units (RSU) with active transceivers, and low-power (battery-operated) on-board units (OBU) applying back scatter technology (battery lifetime beyond 7 years);

  • small and constrained communication zones - typically 5 m to 25 m;

  • supports point-to-point and broadcast communications;

  • uses the 5,8 GHz band designated by the European Communications Office;

  • high reliability, fast connection and low latency;

  • capable of serving multiple applications;

  • suitable for use in high speed single and multilane free flow systems.

 

Below are some examples of applications that use DSRC:

  • Electronic fee collection;

  • Access control to restricted areas;

  • Electronic parking payments;

  • Compliance checking of tachograph for heavy goods vehicles;

  • Compliance checking of weights and dimensions for heavy goods vehicles;

  • Emergency warning system for vehicles;

  • Vehicle safety inspection;

  • Transit or emergency vehicle signal priority;

  • Commercial vehicle clearance and safety inspections;

  • In-vehicle signing;

  • Probe data collection;

  • Highway-rail interSection warning.

 

The CEN DSRC technology has been adopted in the following European Regulations:

 

Overview of CEN DSRC standards

 

CEN/TC 278 has produced the CEN DSRC requirements series of standards (EN 12253EN 12795EN 12834), whereas ETSI has produced the associated test specifications. ISO published the International Standard ISO 4426  containing the requirements from the CEN DSRC standards.

An overview on DSRC and EFC standards is published on the website of CEN/TC 278 .

 

 

8.1.3.7.2Technologies based on IEEE 802.11p (OCB mode at 5,9 GHz)

 

Whilst basic WiFi specified in IEEE 802.11  belongs to WLANs supporting networking, the OCB mode introduced in the edition 2016 of IEEE 802.11 (originally referred to as 802.11p) is designed for localized communications. This OCB mode is further detailed for ITS by means of profile standards of IEEE 802.11, i.e. in

 

ITS-G5 was identified in the draft C-ITS Delegated act of the European Commission as one of the key communication technologies, being the only validated technology for localized communications so far.

Various protocol stacks are identified:

  • ITS-M5 with FNTP specified in ISO 29281-1 ;

  • US-DSRC with WSMP specified in IEEE 1609.3 ;

  • ITS-G5 with GeoNetworking  specified in the series of ETSI EN 302 636-x standards  -1, -2, -3 , -4, -5

 

It is to be noted that ITS-M5 and US-DSRC are compliant with IEEE 802.11 whilst ITS-G5 is not, as it is still using LPD instead of EPD at the MAC layer to identify the applicable upper layer protocol. "Smart" implementations can automatically distinguish LPD and EPD in the receive path.

 

Major benefits of IEEE 802.11p over CEN-DSRC are:

  • much wider communication zones  (longer communication range);

  • higher data rates;

  • bigger messages;

  • supporting a large variety of higher layer protocols.

 

 

 

8.1.3.7.3  Smart cards

 

Smart cards communicate with readers either via the wired interface given by the contacts on the smart card, or via a wireless interface.

 

Both interfaces used for smart cards use "silo interface technologies", i.e. these interface technologies are used only for smart cards, and will not be used in a different context. Nevertheless, for completeness of this document, the standards specifying contactless smart cards and their wireless communications interface are given in ISO/IEC 14443-1ISO/IEC 14443-2, ISO/IEC 14443-3ISO/IEC 14443-4 .

 

 

8.1.4  Identified communication profiles

 

The concept of communication protocol stacks and communication profiles initially is specified in EN 17419 .  Related globally unique numbering schemes are specified in CEN/TS 17496 . The following communication protocol stacks and communication profiles are already identified and can be referenced by a globally unique identifier.

​ The next series of Volkswagen Golf 8 will include further areas, such as Switzerland or Norway, where the ITS station is activated. Applying remote station management as e.g. specified in ISO 24102-2 such updates can be acheived also in already deployed stations.

 

8.2   Communications for EU-ICIP use-case domains

8.2.1   Introduction

 

In respect of the architecture aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Architecture Section.

 

8.2.2   Automatic vehicle identification

 

Automatic vehicle identification (AVI) is not a use-case per se, but provides data definitions for all use-cases that deal with vehicle characteristics. Thus, AVI is not linked to any specific communication profiles. See the Architecture Section.

8.2.3   Cooperative connected and automated mobility & connected vehicles

In respect of the CCAM, C-ITS and connected vehicle aspects of communications perspectives and aspects concerning ITS communications, not covered above, see the CCAM & connected vehicles/C-ITS Section.

 

8.2.4   eSafety/ eCall

In respect of the eSafety/eCall aspects concerning ITS communications, see the eSafety/eCall Section.

8.2.5   Electronic fee collection / road tolling

 

The European Commission published the specification of the "European Electronic Toll Service" (EETS) for deployment of electronic fee collection and road tolling. In respect of aspects concerning Electronic Fee Collection/Road Tolling concerning ITS communications, see the EFC_Tolling Section.

 

8.2.6   Freight and Fleet

In respect of the Freight and Fleet aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Freight and Fleet Section.

 

8.2.7   Kerbside

In respect of the Kerbside aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Kerbside Management Section.

 

8.2.8   Parking

In respect of the Parking aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Parking Section.

8.2.9   Public Transport

In respect of the Public Transport aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Public Transport Section.

 

 

8.2.10   Railway traffic information

In respect of the Railway Traffic Information aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Railway Traffic Information Section,

 

8.2.11   Recovery of stolen vehicles

In respect of the Recovery of Stolen Vehicles aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Recovery of Stolen Vehicles Section.

8.2.12   Road Traffic Data, Spatial Data/TN-ITS

In respect of the spatial and transport network aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Spatial Section.

 

8.2.13   Traffic Control & Management

In respect of the Traffic Control & Management aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Traffic Control & Management Section.

 

8.2.14   Traffic and Traveller Information

In respect of the Traffic and Traveller Information aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Traffic and Traveller Information Section.

8.2.15   Mobility Integration

 

In respect of the Mobility Integration aspects concerning ITS communications, see the Mobility Integration Section.

8.2.16   Urban ITS

 

The term "Urban ITS" (U-ITS) is not indicating a use-case domain per se, but covers various use-case domains that are applicable also in urban areas. Any generic Urban ITS aspects not assignable to a specific sector are accommodated by  "Mobility Integration. see the Mobility Integration Section.

8.3   Communications Standards used in ITS

8.3.1     ISO Standards

 
 
 

8.3.1.1   ISO 4426, Intelligent transport systems — Lower layer protocols for usage in the European digital tachograph

 

This document specifies communication requirements in support of the "Smart Digital Tachograph" (SDT) as identified by Regulation[23] of the European Union.

The specifications cover:

• the "Physical Layer" at 5,8 GHz for "SDT Communications" (SDTC);

• the "Data Link Layer" (DLL) of SDTC;

• the "Application Layer" of SDTC;

• SDTC profiles which provide coherent sets of communication tools for applications based on SDTC.

This document provides further information beneficial for the design and development of SDTC equipment.

 

 

8.3.1.2   ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994, Information technology — Open Systems Interconnection — Basic Reference Model: The Basic Model

 

The purpose of this Reference Model of Open Systems Interconnection is to provide a common basis for the coordination of standards development for the purpose of systems interconnection, while allowing existing standards to be placed into perspective within the overall Reference Model.

The term Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) qualifies standards for the exchange of information among systems that are “open” to one another for this purpose by virtue of their mutual use of the applicable standards.

The fact that a system is open does not imply any particular systems implementation, technology or means of interconnection, but refers to the mutual recognition and support of the applicable standards.

 

It is also the purpose of this Reference Model to identify areas for developing or improving standards, and to provide a common reference for maintaining consistency of all related standards. It is not the intent of this Reference Model either to serve as an implementation specification, or to be a basis for appraising the conformance of actual implementations, or to provide a sufficient level of detail to define precisely the services and protocols of the interconnection architecture. Rather, this Reference Model provides a conceptual and functional framework which allows international teams of experts to work productively and independently on the development of standards for each layer of the Reference Model for OSI.

The Reference Model has sufficient flexibility to accommodate advances in technology and expansion in user demands. This flexibility is also intended to allow the phased transition from existing implementations to OSI standards.

While the scope of the general architectural principles required for OSI is very broad, this Reference Model is primarily concerned with systems comprising terminals, computers, and associated devices and the means for transferring information between such systems. Other aspects of OSI requiring attention are described briefly

The description of the Basic Reference Model of OSI is developed in stages:

Clause 4 establishes the reasons for Open Systems Interconnection, defines what is being connected, the scope of the interconnection, and describes the modelling principles used in OSI.

 

Clause 5 describes the general nature of the architecture of the Reference Model; namely that it is layered, what layering means, and the principles used to describe layers.

Clause 6 names, and introduces the specific layers of the architecture.

Clause 7 provides the description of the specific layers.

Clause 8 provides the description of Management Aspects of OSI.

Clause 9 specifies compliance and consistency with the OSI Reference Model.

An indication of how the layers were chosen is given in Annex A to this Basic Reference Model.

Additional aspects of this Reference Model beyond the basic aspects are described in several parts. The first part describes the Basic Reference Model. The second part describes the architecture for OSI Security. The third part describes OSI Naming and Addressing. The fourth describes OSI System Management.

The Basic Reference Model serves as a framework for the definition of services and protocols which fit within the boundaries established by the Reference Model.

In those few cases where a feature is explicitly marked (optional) in the Basic Reference Model it should remain optional in the corresponding service or protocol (even if at a given instant the two cases of the option are not yet documented).

This Reference Model does not specify services and protocols for OSI. It is neither an implementation specification for systems, nor a basis for appraising the conformance of implementations.

For standards which meet the OSI requirements, a small number of practical subsets are defined from optional functions, to facilitate implementation and compatibility.

 

 

 

8.3.1.3   ISO/IEC 14443-1:2018, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity objects — Part 1: Physical characteristics

 

ISO/IEC 14443-1:2018 defines the physical characteristics of proximity cards (PICCs).

 

ISO/IEC 14443-1:2018 is intended to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO/IEC 14443.

 

8.3.1.4   ISO/IEC 14443-2:2020, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity objects — Part 2: Radio frequency power and signal interface

 

This document specifies the characteristics of the fields to be provided for power and bi-directional communication between proximity coupling devices (PCDs) and proximity cards or objects (PICCs).

 

This document does not specify the means of generating coupling fields, nor the means of compliance with electromagnetic radiation and human exposure regulations, which can vary depending on the country.

 

 

8.3.1.5   ISO/IEC 14443-3:2018, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity objects — Part 3: Initialization and anticollision

 

his part of ISO/IEC 14443 describes the following:

 

- polling for proximity cards or objects (PICCs) entering the field of a proximity coupling device (PCD);

 

- the byte format, the frames and timing used during the initial phase of communication between PCDs and PICCs;

 

- the initial Request and Answer to Request command content;

 

- methods to detect and communicate with one PICC among several PICCs (anticollision);

 

- other parameters required to initialize communications between a PICC and PCD;

 

- optional means to ease and speed up the selection of one PICC among several PICCs based on application criteria;

 

- optional capability to allow a device to alternate between the functions of a PICC and a PCD to communicate with a PCD or a PICC, respectively. A device which implements this capability is called a PXD.

 

Protocol and commands used by higher layers and by applications and which are used after the initial phase are described in ISO/IEC 14443‑4.

 

This part of ISO/IEC 14443 is applicable to PICCs of Type A and of Type B (as described in ISO/IEC 14443‑2) and PCDs (as described in ISO/IEC 14443‑2) and to PXDs.

 

NOTE 1 Part of the timing of data communication is defined in ISO/IEC 14443‑2.

 

NOTE 2 Test methods for this part of ISO/IEC 14443 are defined in ISO/IEC 10373‑6.

 

 

ISO/IEC 14443-3:2018/Amd 2:2020, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity objects — Part 3: Initialization and anticollision — Amendment 2: Enhancements for harmonization

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:14443:-3:ed-4:v1:amd:2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.6   ISO/IEC 14443-4:2018, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity objects — Part 4: Transmission protocol

 

This document specifies a half-duplex block transmission protocol featuring the special needs of a contactless environment and defines the activation and deactivation sequence of the protocol.

 

This document is intended to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO/IEC 14443 and is applicable to proximity cards or objects of Type A and Type B.

 

 

ISO/IEC 14443-4:2018/DAmd 1, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity objects — Part 4: Transmission protocol — Amendment 1: Dynamic power level management

https://www.iso.org/standard/73599.html

 

ISO/IEC 14443-4:2018/Amd 2:2020, Cards and security devices for personal identification — Contactless proximity objects — Part 4: Transmission protocol — Amendment 2: Enhancements for harmonization

 

https://www.iso.org/standard/76927.html

 

 

8.3.1.7   ISO 14812, Intelligent transport systems — Vocabulary

 

Approved. Awaiting publication.

 

 

8.3.1.8    ISO 14813-1:2015, Intelligent transport systems — Reference model architecture(s) for the ITS sector — Part 1: ITS service domains, service groups and services

 

This part of ISO 14813 provides a description of the primary services that an ITS implementation can provide to ITS users. Those services with a common purpose can be collected together in “'ITS service domains'” and within these there can be a number of “'ITS service groups'” for particular parts of the domain. This part of ISO 14813 identifies thirteen service domains, within which numerous groups are then defined.

In this version of this part of ISO 14813 an indication has been provided to show the relationship of each service to Cooperative-ITS.

Cooperative-ITS provides services that have previously been unavailable, notably those for ITS users who are on the move. For many other services, Cooperative-ITS can actually be seen as a "delivery mechanism" that can be used to enhance their use and availability. Thus for some services, Cooperative-ITS is essential, whilst for others it adds value. However for a small number of services it is not relevant.

This part of ISO 14813 is intended for use by at least two groups of people involved in the ITS sector. The first group is those looking for ideas about the services that ITS implementations can provide and the second is for those who are developing standards.

For the first group, this part of ISO 14813 provides service descriptions that can act as the catalyst for more detailed descriptions. It is possible for the level of detail to differ from one ITS implementation to another, depending on whether or not a national ITS architecture is involved, and whether this architecture is based directly on services, or on groups of functions.

For standards developers, this part of ISO 14813 is applicable to the working groups of ISO TC 204 and other Technical Committees who are developing standards for the ITS sector and associated sectors whose boundaries cross into the ITS sector (such as some aspects of public transport (transit), plus inter-modal freight and fleet management). This part of ISO 14813 is designed to provide information and explanation of services that can form the basis and reason for developing standards.

This part of ISO 14813 is, in itself, by its nature, advisory and informative. It is designed to assist the integration of services into a cohesive reference architecture, plus interoperability and the use of common data definitions. Specifically, services defined within the service groups shall be the basis for definition of 'use cases', 'user needs' or "user service requirements' depending on the methodology being used to develop the resultant ITS architecture functionality, along with definition of applicable data within data dictionaries, as well as applicable communications and data exchange standards.

 

8.3.1.9   ISO 14816:2005, Road transport and traffic telematics — Automatic vehicle and equipment identification — Numbering and data structure

 

 

Overall numbering scheme

This International Standard establishes a common framework data structure for unambiguous identification in RTTT/ITS systems. It excludes any physical aspects such as interfaces. It is neither frequency- nor air interface protocol-specific.

Data elements that form part of transmission or storage protocols such as headers, frame markers and checksums are thus excluded.

 

The specifications for protecting against changes, classifying and qualifying security aspects of the data structure elements are not included within this International Standard.

The principles of data element structure and description determined in ISO/IEC 8824, ISO/IEC 8825-1 and ISO/IEC 8825-2 have been adopted to provide an interoperable architecture within a standard framework according to guidelines from ISO/TC 204 and CEN/TC 278.

 

This International Standard defines data structures based on the ISO/IEC 8824-1 ASN.1 UNIVERSAL CLASS types that may be directly IMPORTED to other application standards that would need only subsets of the full APPLICATION CLASS types. These UNIVERSAL CLASS and APPLICATION CLASS types are uniquely defined as an ASN.1 module in Annex B. This module may be directly linked into an application data definition.

This International Standard defines default encoding for simple AVI/AEI applications where no other relevant application standard exists. This definition forms Clause 4.

AVI/AEI numbering scheme

The principal registered schemes for AVI/AEI are determined in 4.7 and 4.8 of this International Standard. Other relevant and interoperable schemes are detailed in subsequent clauses and subclauses.

The structures defined in this International Standard provide interoperability, not only between simple AVI/AEI and more complex RTTT/ITS functions, but also with pre-existing International Standards (e.g. ISO 10374).

There is one Central Registration Authority that administers the AVI numbering scheme according to the rules of CEN and ISO (see Annex A).

The choices available to the issuer to operate its structure include, amongst others:

— simple identification, in which case the separate identities may be openly available, at the discretion of the issuer or nation state;

— an alias basis, in which case the “identities” are known, but secured under provisions of data protection to maintain privacy and therefore not available; and

— dynamically encrypted identities in an anonymous system.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:14816:ed-1:v1:en

 

 

8.3.1.10   ISO 14823:2017, Intelligent transport systems — Graphic data dictionary

 

 

This document specifies a graphic data dictionary, a system of standardised codes for existing road traffic signs and pictograms used to deliver Traffic and Traveller Information (TTI). The coding system can be used in the formation of messages within intelligent transport systems.


 

8.3.1.11   ISO 14906:2018 with FDAmd 1, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for dedicated short-range communication

 

This document specifies the application interface in the context of electronic fee collection (EFC) systems using the dedicated short-range communication (DSRC).

The EFC application interface is the EFC application process interface to the DSRC application layer.

 

This document comprises specifications of:

— EFC attributes (i.e. EFC application information) that can also be used for other applications and/or interfaces,

— the addressing procedures of EFC attributes and (hardware) components (e.g. ICC and MMI),

— EFC application functions, i.e. further qualification of actions by definitions of the concerned services, assignment of associated

  • ActionType values and content and meaning of action parameters,— the EFC transaction model, which defines the common elements and steps of any EFC transaction,

  •  the behaviour of the interface so as to ensure interoperability on an EFC-DSRC application interface level.

 

This is an interface standard, adhering to the open systems interconnection (OSI) philosophy (see ISO/IEC 7498-1), and it is as such not primarily concerned with the implementation choices to be realised at either side of the interface.

This document provides security-specific functionality as place holders (data and functions) to enable the implementation of secure EFC transactions. Yet the specification of the security policy (including specific security algorithms and key management) remains at the discretion and under the control of the EFC operator, and hence is outside the scope of this document.

 

8.3.1.12   ISO 15628:2013, Road transport and traffic telematics — Dedicated short range communication (DSRC) — DSRC application layer

 

Note: A technically equivalent standard exists in CEN: EN 12834  

 

This International Standard specifies the application layer core which provides communication tools for applications based on DSRC. These tools consist of kernels that can be used by application processes via service primitives. The application processes, including application data and application-specific functions, are outside the scope of this International Standard.

This International Standard is named “application layer”, although it does not cover all functionality of OSI Layer 7 and it includes functionality from lower layers.

It uses services provided by DSRC data link layer, and covers functionality of intermediate layers of the “OSI Basic Reference Model” (ISO/IEC 7498-1).

The following subjects are covered by this International Standard:

  • application layer structure and framework;

  • services to enable data transfer and remote operations;

  • application multiplexing procedure;

  • fragmentation procedure;

  • concatenation and chaining procedures;

  • common encoding rules to translate data from abstract syntax ASN.1 (ISO/IEC 8824-1) into transfer syntax (ISO/IEC 8825-2:2008) and vice versa;

  • communication initialisation and release procedures;

  • broadcast service support;

  • DSRC management support including communication profile handling; and

  • extensibility for different lower layer services and application interfaces.

 

It is outside the scope of this International Standard to define a security policy. Some transport mechanisms for security-related data are provided.

 

NOTE No implementation of the “broadcast pool” functionality has become known. “Broadcast pool” functionality is therefore considered untested.

 

Heading 6

8.3.1.13    ISO 16460, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — Communication protocol messages for global usage

 

Note: Specifies messages harmonized with IEEE 1609.3.

 

This document specifies the following:

— the Localized Message (LM) format: an NPDU of a networking and transport layer protocol that does not support routing of a packet through a network;

— the Service Advertisement Message (SAM): an APDU to be transported in for example, an LM;

— the Service Response Message (SRM): an APDU acknowledging a SAM that offered a service based on an ITS application class[8] to be transported in for example, an LM;

— the related basic requirements for procedures.

 

Specifications are partly achieved by normative references to IEEE 1609.3TM-2016.

 

NOTE These message format specifications and basic procedures need to be complemented by complete procedures and SAP specifications according to the context of usage, i.e. an ITS station specified in ISO 21217,[2] or a WAVE device specified in IEEE 1609.0TM[11] or any other context.

 

 

 

8.3.1.14   ISO 16461:2018, Criteria for privacy and integrity protection in probe vehicle information systems

 

This document specifies the basic rules to be considered by service providers handling privacy in probe vehicle information services.

This document is aimed at protecting the privacy as well as the intrinsic rights and interests of the probe data subjects specified in ISO 24100:2010.

This document specifies the following items related to probe vehicle systems (PVS), i.e. systems collecting probe data from private vehicles and processing these probe data statistically towards useful information that can be provided to various end users:

— architecture of the PVS in support of appropriate protection of data integrity and anonymity in the PVS;

— security criteria and requirements for the PVS, specifically requirements for data integrity protection and privacy;

— requirements for correct and anonymous generation and handling of probe data.

 

 

8.3.1.15   ISO 17419:2018, Intelligent Transport Systems — Cooperative Systems — Globally unique identification

 

Note:  Under Vienna Agreement: EN 17419:2018

 

This document

— describes and specifies globally unique addresses and identifiers (ITS-S object identifiers) which are both internal and external to ITS stations and are used for ITS station management,

— describes how ITS-S object identifiers and related technical parameters are used for classification, registration and management of ITS applications and ITS application classes,

— describes how ITS-S object identifiers are used in the ITS communication protocol stack,

— introduces an organizational framework for registration and management of ITS-S objects,

— defines and specifies management procedures at a high functional level,

— is based on the architecture of an ITS station specified in ISO 21217:2014 as a Bounded Secured Managed Domain (BSMD),

— specifies an ASN.1 module for the identifiers, addresses, and registry records identified in this document, and

— specifies an ASN.1 module for a C-ITS Data Dictionary containing ASN.1 type definitions of general interest.

 

 

8.3.1.16   ISO 17423:2018, Intelligent Transport Systems — Cooperative Systems — Application requirements and objectives

 

This document

— specifies communication service parameters presented by ITS station (ITS-S) application processes to the ITS-S management in support of automatic selection of ITS-S communication profiles in an ITS station unit (ITS-SU),

— specifies related procedures for the static and dynamic ITS-S communication profile selection processes at a high functional level,

— provides an illustration of objectives used to estimate an optimum ITS-S communication profile.

 

 

8.3.1.17   ISO/TS 17425:2016, Intelligent transport systems — Co-operative systems — Data exchange specification for in-vehicle presentation of external road and traffic related data

 

Note:  Under Vienna Agreement: CEN TS 17425:2016

 

This Technical Specification specifies the In-Vehicle Signage service and application that delivers In-Vehicle Signage information to ITS stations (vehicle ITS stations or personal ITS stations devices) concerning road and traffic conditions, qualified by road authorities/operators, in a consistent way with road authority’s/operator’s requirements, in the manner that is coherent with the information that would be displayed on a road sign or variable message sign (VMS).

NOTE A Variable Message Sign is also named dynamic message sign. Both terms are considered as synonyms and can be used interchangeably. In the text below, only variable message sign and its abbreviated term VMS are used.

 

This Technical Specification defines the following:

— the In-Vehicle Signage service and the In-Vehicle Signage application that instantiates this ITS service;

— the requirements to be fulfilled by the In-Vehicle Signage service;

— the requirements for using functions provided by the ITS station facilities layer supporting the use of the In-Vehicle Signage service;

— the ITS-S application processes in the different ITS station, that instantiate the In-Vehicle Signage ITS service.

This Technical Specification also specifies: the sets of communication requirements and objectives (profiles) using the methods defined in ISO/TS 17423 to select the level of performance (best effort or real-time, etc.), confidence and security (authentication, encryption, etc.) for each communication flow between ITS stations in the scope of the In-Vehicle Signage service.

This Technical Specification defines the selection of relevant functions and procedures provided by the ITS station facilities layer (ISO/TS 17429) and defines the message structure, content, syntax, atomic elements to be used by the In-Vehicle Signage application.

NOTE This application is colloquially called “In-Vehicle Signage”.

The In-Vehicle Signage service includes the on-board information management. This management ensures contextual coherence of the end-user ITS service (e.g. vehicle characteristics, message priority, etc. avoiding amongst others things the presentation of conflicting information to end-users).

The production of information supporting the In-Vehicle Signage application, its qualification, and its relevance are out of the scope of this Technical Specification.

This Technical Specification does not specify the design of in-vehicle Human Machine Interfaces (HMI), but it does specify requirements that such interfaces shall be capable of supporting in order to permit the correct dissemination and use of information provided by the In-Vehicle Signage service.

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:17425:ed-1:v1:en

8.3.1.18   ISO/TS 17426:2016, Intelligent Transport Systems — Cooperative Systems — Contextual speeds

Note:  Under Vienna Agreement: CEN TS 17426

This Technical Specification

— specifies the Contextual Speed Information Service, namely the general requirements regarding the provision of the Contextual Speed Information Service, the data flow supporting the service, and the presentation of the service result,

— specifies the requirements to be fulfilled by the Contextual Speed Information Service,

— specifies the ITS Station (ITS-S) application processes of the vehicle ITS station, roadside ITS station, central ITS station, and personal ITS station that are required to instantiate the Contextual Speed Information Service,

— specifies sets of communication requirements and objectives (profiles) using the methods defined in ISO 17423 to select the level of performance (best effort or real-time, etc.), confidence and security (authentication, encryption, etc.) for each Contextual Speed Information Service communication flow between ITS stations,

— selects relevant functions and procedures provided by the ITS station facilities layer (see ISO 17429), and

— specifies messages, messages sets structure, content, and syntax to be used by the Contextual Speed Information Service.

This Technical Specification considers the scenario for the transmission of Contextual Speed information from the infrastructure/roadside to the vehicle, for onward presentation to the vehicle’s driver. This scenario foresees that the calculation of Contextual Speed information is performed on the Infrastructure side, not within the vehicle.

Mandatory speed limits or advisory speed recommendations are output of the Contextual Speed Information Service which (in the scenario considered in this Technical Specification) is run by the Road Operator in its Traffic Control Centre or comparable infrastructure (e.g. Roadside ITS Station). To transfer this information to the vehicle (and therefore the driver) over the air (wireless communication), defined messages are required. These messages are specified in this Technical Specification.

When Contextual Speed information arrives in the vehicle, further pre-processing might be necessary before the Contextual Speed information, and, if available, additional explanations on speed limits or recommendations, can be presented to the driver. This Technical Specification specifies the requirements that need to be fulfilled when processing the messages. It does not specify how the vehicle handles the incoming messages.

The production of information supporting this application, its qualification and its relevance are out of the scope of this Technical Specification.

This Technical Specification addresses Use Case 1 “Provision of mandatory speed limit information into vehicle – for driver awareness purposes” and Use Case 2 “Provision of advisory speed information into vehicle – for driver awareness purposes”.

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:17426:ed-1:v1:en

8.3.1.19   ISO 17427-1:2018, Intelligent Transport Systems — Cooperative Systems — Roles and responsibilities in the context of co-operative ITS based on architecture(s) for co-operative systems

Note:  Under Vienna Agreement: EN 17427-1

This International Standard contains a detailed description of the (actor invariant) ‘Roles and Responsibilities’ required to deploy and operate Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS). The organization / organization of actors / roles described in this document are designed to be appropriate for any fully operational system that uses the C-ITS concepts and techniques in order to achieve its service provision. This International Standard is presented in terms of an ‘Organizational’ or ‘Enterprise’ Viewpoint as defined in ISO/IEC 10746 Open Distributed Processing.

This International Standard, "Roles and Responsibilities in the context of Cooperative-ITS based on architecture(s) for cooperative systems” is for all types of road traffic of all classes, and for any other actors involved in the provision of applications and services which use C-ITS  techniques to achieve service provision. The description of roles is technology agnostic and, in terms of Cooperative-ITS, agnostic in respect of communication modes and embraces vehicle-vehicle communications, vehicle-infrastructure communications and infrastructure-infrastructure communications.

This International Standard provides a methodology for the identification of service specific roles and their corresponding responsibilities based on a process oriented approach. Additionally, the methodology is used to identify the roles and responsibilities for Cooperative-ITS  in general. Both the methodology as well as the roles and responsibilities for Cooperative-ITS are deduced from ISO/IEC 10746, the reference model of ‘Open Distributed Processing'. Open Distributed Processing offers five viewpoints of which the Enterprise Viewpoint corresponds with the ‘Organizational Architecture’ – and its roles and responsibilities.

To limit the scope of the document to the core of Cooperative-ITS, the roles are separated into ‘external’ and ‘internal’. Considered to be internal are all roles that are highly relevant for the purpose of achieving service provision by means of Cooperative-ITS. Considered to be external are all roles involved in Cooperative-ITS, but not set up only for the purpose of Cooperative-ITS.

This International Standard provides a description of a high-level architectural viewpoint on Cooperative-ITS. It is designed to be used as a blueprint when implementing service provision systems that use Cooperative-ITS, and the corresponding organizational structures. The characteristics of Cooperative-ITS entail a huge number of data / information exchanges – therefore the implementation stringently needs to respect privacy and data protection as it is defined in ISO/TR 12859 and in national laws and regulations (where instantiated). Privacy and data protection affects all roles defined in this International Standard due to these characteristics and all actors occupying roles in Cooperative-ITS need to respect the corresponding standards and regulations.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:17427:-1:dis:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.20   ISO/TS 17429:2017, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — ITS station facilities for the transfer of information between ITS stations

 

 

This Technical Specification specifies generic mechanisms enabling the exchange of information between ITS stations for applications related to Intelligent Transport Systems. It complies with the ITS station reference architecture (ISO 21217) and defines the following ITS station facilities layer functionalities:

— Communication Profile Handler (CPH);

— Content Subscription Handler (CSH);

— Facilities Services Handler (FSH).

 

These functionalities are used by ITS-S application processes (ITS-S-AP) to communicate with other ITS-S application processes and share information. These functionalities describe:

— how lower-layer communication services assigned to a given data flow are applied to the service data units at the various layers in the communication protocol stack (CPH):

— how content from data dictionaries can be published and subscribed to by ITS-S application processes (CSH),

— how well-known ITS station facilities layer and management services can be applied to application process data units (FSH), relieving (ITS-S) application processes from having to implement these services on their own,

— how service access points (SAP) primitives specified in ISO 24102-3 are used,

— service primitives for the exchange of information between ITS-S application processes and the ITS station facilities layer (FA-SAP), and

— a set of communication requirements and objectives (profiles) using the methods defined in ISO/TS 17423 to select the level of performance (best effort or real-time, etc.), confidence and security (authentication, encryption, etc.) for information exchange between ITS stations, such as data provision, event notification, roadside configuration, map update.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:17429:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.21   ISO 17465-3:2015, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Part 3: Release procedures for standards documents

 

The scope of this Technical Report is to provide a description of the release procedures for standards that is to be used within ISO TC 204. In the main, these will be International Standards produced by ISO TC204; however, it is likely that some standards produced by other Standards Development Organizations will have to be included in some releases. Initially, this release procedure will be applied to the deployment of standards for cooperative-ITS, however, in principle at least, it should be possible to apply it to standards for other ITS domains. It also has to be possible for this release procedure to be used by other Standards Development Organizations that do not already have their own procedures and with suitable changes to the identities of the people and groups involved, by any other organization that needs to produce a consistent set of documents.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:tr:17465:-3:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.22    ISO 17515-1:2015, Intelligent transport systems — Evolved-universal terrestrial radio access network — Part 1: General usage

 

This part of ISO 17515 enables usage of the E-UTRAN cellular network technology as an ITS access technology in an ITS station by specifying details of the “Communication Adaptation Layer” (CAL) and the “Management Adaptation Entity” (MAE) of communication interfaces specified in ISO 21218, and session management by reference to ISO 25111.

Wherever practicable, this part of ISO 17515 has been developed by reference to suitable extant standards, adopted by selection.

This part of ISO 17515 enables usage of the E-UTRAN cellular network technology as an ITS access technology in an ITS station by specifying details of the “Communication Adaptation Layer” (CAL) and the “Management Adaptation Entity” (MAE) of communication interfaces specified in ISO 21218, and session management by reference to ISO 25111.

Wherever practicable, this part of ISO 17515 has been developed by reference to suitable extant standards, adopted by selection.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:17515:-1:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.23   ISO 17515-3:2019, Intelligent transport systems — Evolved-universal terrestrial radio access network — Part 3: LTE-V2X

 

This document provides specifications related to the ITS-S access layer for a communication interface (CI) named "ITS-LTE-V2X".

ITS-LTE-V2X CIs are based on the evolved-universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA) vehicle-to- everything (LTE-V2X) technology standardized at 3GPP.

This document enables usage of the LTE-V2X technology as an ITS access technology in an ITS station by reference to respective specifications from 3GPP, and by specifying details of the “Communication Adaptation Layer” (CAL) and the “Management Adaptation Entity” (MAE) of communication interfaces specified in ISO 21218.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:17515:-3:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.24   ISO 18750:2018, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Local dynamic map

 

This document:

— describes the functionality of a "Local Dynamic Map" (LDM) in the context of the "Bounded Secured Managed Domain" (BSMD);

— specifies:

— general characteristics of LDM Data Objects (LDM-DOs) that may be stored in an LDM, i.e. information on real objects such as vehicles, road works sections, slow traffic sections, special weather condition sections, etc. which are as a minimum requirement location-referenced and time-referenced;

— service access point functions providing interfaces in an ITS station (ITS-S) to access an LDM for:

— secure add, update and delete access for ITS-S application processes;

— secure read access (query) for ITS-S application processes;

— secure notifications (upon subscription) to ITS-S application processes;

— management access:

— secure registration, de-registration and revocation of ITS-S application processes at LDM;

— secure subscription and cancellation of subscriptions of ITS-S application processes;

— procedures in an LDM considering:

— means to maintain the content and integrity of the data store;

— mechanisms supporting several LDMs in a single ITS station unit.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:18750:ed-1:v1:en

 


8.3.1.25   ISO 19414:2019, Intelligent transport systems — Service architecture of probe vehicle systems

 

This document specifies a service architecture that defines the framework and domain for classification of probe vehicle systems (PVS), which are systems that collect probe data from private vehicles and that process the probe data statistically towards useful information that finally can be provided to end users.

This document focuses on services that can be developed using public sector probe data that are generated by vehicles. It specifies the following items related to PVS:

— service framework of probe vehicle systems;

— definition of service domain of PVS.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:19414:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.26   ISO/TS 19091:2019, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Using V2I and I2V communications for applications related to signalized intersections

ISO/TS 19091:2019 defines the message, data structures, and data elements to support exchanges between the roadside equipment and vehicles to address applications to improve safety, mobility and environmental efficiency. In order to verify that the defined messages will satisfy these applications, a systems engineering process has been employed that traces use cases to requirements and requirements to messages and data concepts.

 

This document consists of a single document that contains the base specification and a series of annexes. The base specification lists the derived information requirements (labelled informative) and references to other standards for message definitions where available. Annex A contains descriptions of the use cases addressed by this document. Annex B and Annex C contain traceability matrices that relate use cases to requirements and requirements to the message definitions (i.e. data frames and data elements). The next annexes list the base message requirements and application-oriented specific requirements (requirements traceability matrix) that map to the message and data concepts to be implemented. As such, an implementation consists of the base plus an additional group of extensions within this document.

 

Details on information requirements, for other than SPaT, MAP, SSM, and SRM messages are provided in other International Standards. The focus of this document is to specify the details of the SPaT, MAP, SSM, and SRM supporting the use cases defined in this document. Adoption of these messages varies by region and their adoption may occur over a significant time period.

 

ISO/TS 19091:2017 covers the interface between roadside equipment and vehicles. Applications, their internal algorithms, and the logical distribution of application functionality over any specific system architecture are outside the scope of this document.

 

 

 

https://www.iso.org/standard/69897.html

 

8.3.1.27   ISO 19079:2016, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — 6LoWPAN networking

 

This document describes the networking protocol functionality related to 6LoWPAN networking between two or more ITS stations communicating over the global Internet communication network.

It is assumed that the reader is familiar with IETF specifications found in "Request for Comments" (RFCs) 4944, 6282 and 2460 for 6LoWPAN and IPv6 protocols respective blocks used within this document. This document does not define a new protocol, neither does it define new abstraction for exchange of messages at the 6LoWPAN layer nor does it define new data structures. It, however, illustrates how the IETF protocols are combined to allow seamless communication among both heterogeneous and homogeneous ITS stations using 6LoWPAN. The 6LoWPAN family of protocols defined in this document as the Internet of Things Management Service Entity (IoT MSE) is integrated within the ITS station reference architecture as a new protocol block of the ITS station Networking and Transport layer. The procedures defined to share information between the IoT MSE block of the ITS station networking and transport protocols and other components of the ITS station architecture will be defined in the ISO 24102 series. ISO 24102 series includes the specifications for ITS station management, which are standardized to be compliant with the ITS station reference architecture and related standards.

In addition to the requirements described within this document, a number of notes and examples are provided to illustrate the IoT MSE block and its configuration.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:19079:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.28   ISO 19080:2016, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — CoAP facility

 

This document describes the CoAP facilities between two or more ITS stations communicating over the global internet communication network.

It is assumed that the reader is familiar with IETF specifications found in request for comments (RFCs) of individual CoAP and 6LoWPAN protocol blocks used within this document. This document does not define a new protocol, a new exchange of messages at the CoAP layer, or new data structures. It defines how protocols standardized by IETF are combined so that ITS stations can communicate with one another using CoAP. Procedures defined to share information between the CoAP layer and other components of the ITS station architecture are defined in ISO 24102 series (Management). In addition to the requirements specified within this document, a number of notes and examples are provided to illustrate CoAP main facilities.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:19080:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.29   ISO/TS 19321:2020, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Dictionary of in-vehicle information (IVI) data structures

 

This document specifies the in-vehicle information (IVI) data structures that are required by different intelligent transport system (ITS) services for exchanging information between ITS Stations (ITS-S). A general, extensible data structure is specified, which is split into structures called containers to accommodate current-day information. Transmitted information includes IVI such as contextual speed, road works warnings, vehicle restrictions, lane restrictions, road hazard warnings, location-based services, re-routing. The information in the containers is organized in sub-structures called data frames and data elements, which are described in terms of its content and its syntax.

The data structures are specified as communications agnostic. This document does not provide the communication protocols. This document provides scenarios for usage of the data structure, e.g. in case of real time, short-range communications.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:19321:ed-2:v1:en

Note:             Under Vienna Agreement: CEN TS 19321

 

 

8.3.1.30 ISO/TS 20026:2017, Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Test architecture

 

This document specifies an extension of the ETSI C-ITS test architecture for conformance testing of protocols and applications in ITS station units. It specifies usage of the ITS station-internal management communication protocol (IICP) for the purpose of connecting an ITS test system to an implementation under test (IUT) residing in a system under test (SUT).

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:20026:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.31   ISO 20922:2016, Information technology — Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

 

Organization of MQTT

This specification is split into seven chapters:

— Chapter 1 - Introduction

— Chapter 2 - MQTT Control Packet format

— Chapter 3 - MQTT Control Packets

— Chapter 4 - Operational behavior

— Chapter 5 - Security

— Chapter 6 - Using WebSocket as a network transport

— Chapter 7 - Conformance Targets

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:20922:ed-1:v1:en

 

 

8.3.1.32   CEN/TS 21176:2020, Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) — Position, velocity and time functionality in the ITS station

 

This document specifies a generic position, velocity and time (PVT) service. It further specifies the PVT service within the ITS station (ITS-S) facilities layer (ISO 21217) and its interface to other functionalities in an ITS-S such as:

— ITS-S application processes (ITS-S-APs), defined in ISO 21217;

— the generic facilities service handler (FSH) functionality of the ITS station facilities layer, defined in ISO/TS 17429.

This document specifies:

— a PVT service which, dependent on a specific implementation, uses a variety of positioning-related sources such as global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs, e.g. GALILEO, GLONASS and GPS), roadside infrastructure, cellular infrastructure, kinematic state sensors, vision sensors;

— a PVT service which merges data from the above-mentioned positioning-related sources and provides the PVT output parameters (carrying the PVT information) including the associated quality (e.g. accuracy);

— how the PVT service is integrated as an ITS-S capability of the ITS station facilities layer;

— the interface function calls and responses (Service Access Point – service primitives) between the PVT ITS-S capability and other functionalities of the ITS station architecture;

— optionally, the PVT service as a capability of the ITS-S facilities layer; see ISO 24102-6;

— an ASN.1 module C-itsPvt, providing ASN.1 type and value definitions (in Annex A);

— an implementation conformance statement proforma (in Annex B), as a basis for assessment of conformity to this document.

 

NOTE: It is outside the scope of this document to define the associated conformance evaluation test procedures.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:21176:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.33   ISO/TS 21177:2019, Intelligent transport systems — ITS-station security services for secure session establishment and authentication between trusted devices

 

This document contains specifications for a set of ITS station security services required to ensure the authenticity of the source and integrity of information exchanged between trusted entities:

— devices operated as bounded secured managed entities, i.e. "ITS Station Communication Units" (ITS-SCU) and "ITS station units" (ITS-SU) specified in ISO 21217, and

— between ITS-SUs (composed of one or several ITS-SCUs) and external trusted entities such as sensor and control networks.

 

These services include authentication and secure session establishment which are required to exchange information in a trusted and secure manner.

 

These services are essential for many ITS applications and services including time-critical safety applications, automated driving, remote management of ITS stations (ISO 24102-2[5]), and roadside/infrastructure related services

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#iso:std:iso:ts:21177:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.34   ISO/TS 21184:2021, Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) — Global transport data management (GTDM) framework

 

 

This document is part of a family of deliverables from Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) for Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which is a subset of standards for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).

ITS aims to improve surface transportation in terms of:

  • safety

    e.g. crash avoidance, obstacle detection, emergency calls, dangerous goods;

  • efficiency

    e.g. navigation, green wave, priority, lane access control, contextual speed limits, car sharing;

  • comfort

    e.g. telematics, parking, electric vehicle charging, infotainment; and

  • sustainability,

 

by applying information and communication technologies (ICT).

 

The whole set of standards for deployment of C-ITS is difficult to understand for developers of equipment and software, especially ITS application software, and thus guidelines explaining a beneficial choice of standards (C-ITS release), the purpose and interaction of standardized features, beneficial implementation approaches, and guidance in developing ITS applications are a prerequisite for a fair and open market allowing early deployment of interoperable and future-proof solutions; see ISO/TR 21186-1.

 

Referencing other SDOs and their respective deliverables is in no way to be understood as an endorsement, but rather as an informative piece of information.

 

At the time of writing this document, no applicable Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues were known related to this document. However, this document references standards for which IPRs are known. Information on such IPRs is expected to be provided in those respective standards, which might be from any one of the SDOs working on ITS or C-ITS.

This document specifies a global transport data management (GTDM) framework composed of

  • global transport basic data model,

  • global transport access control data model,

  • global transport function monitor data model, and

  • sensor and control network data model

 

to support data exchange between applications.

 

This document defines standardized data classes in a Global Transport Data Format (GTDF), and the means to manage them.

 

Application and role-based access control to resources in GTDF are specified in accordance with IEEE 1609.2 certificates.

 

This document specifies GTDM as an ITS-S capability which is an optional feature (ITS-capabilities are specified in ISO 24102-6).

 

The GT access control (GTAC) data model specifies access permissions to data and function control by defining role-based mechanisms.

 

The GT function monitor (GTFM) data model specifies a configuration method to generate a flow logic for monitoring purposes, e.g. observing data parameters with respect of a defined limit.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/standard/70057.html

 

8.3.1.35   ISO/TS 21185:2019, Intelligent transport systems — Communication profiles for secure connections between trusted devices

 

This document specifies a methodology to define ITS-S communication profiles (ITS-SCPs) based on standardized communication protocols to interconnect trusted devices. These profiles enable secure information exchange between such trusted devices, including secure low-latency information exchange, in different configurations. The present document also normatively specifies some ITS-SCPs based on the methodology, yet without the intent of covering all possible cases, in order to exemplify the methodology.

Configurations of trusted devices for which this document defines ITS-SCPs include:

a) ITS station communication units (ITS-SCU) of the same ITS station unit (ITS-SU), i.e. station-internal communications;

b) an ITS-SU and an external entity such as a sensor and control network (SCN), or a service in the Internet;

c) ITS-SUs.

 

Other ITS-SCPs can be specified at a later stage.

 

The specifications given in this document can also be applied to unsecured communications and can be applied to groupcast communications as well.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:21185:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.36   ISO 21186-1:2020, Cooperative intelligent transport systems — Guidelines on the usage of standards — Part 1: Standardization landscape and releases

 

This document

— describes standardization activities related to C-ITS on a global level by major standard development organizations (SDOs);

— explains the various purposes of deliverables from SDOs and introduces a classification scheme of such documents;

— describes methods on how C-ITS services are presented and performed;

— identifies an approach for C-ITS releases and exemplifies this approach;

— presents a list of standards (Bibliography) with special relevance for C-ITS.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui#iso:std:iso:tr:21186:-1:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.37   ISO 21186-2:2021, Cooperative intelligent transport systems — Guidelines on the usage of standards — Part 2: Hybrid communications

 

 

This document is part of a family of deliverables from Standard Development Organizations (SDOs) for Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which is a subset of standards for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).

 

ITS aims to improve surface transportation in terms of:

  • safety

    e.g. crash avoidance, obstacle detection, emergency calls, dangerous goods;

  • efficiency

    e.g. navigation, green wave, priority, lane access control, contextual speed limits, car sharing;

  • comfort

    e.g. telematics, parking, electric vehicle charging, infotainment;

  • sustainability

 

by applying information and communication technologies (ICT).

 

In the European Union, the legal framework is given by the European Commissions Mandate M/453 on C-ITS, the European Commission Directive 2010/40, and the European Commission Mandate M/546.

 

The whole set of standards for deployment of C-ITS is difficult to understand by developers of equipment and software, especially ITS application software, and thus guidelines explaining a beneficial choice of standards (C-ITS Release), the purpose and interaction of standardized features, beneficial implementation approaches and guidance in developing ITS applications are a prerequisite for a fair and open market allowing early deployment of interoperable and future-proof solutions.

 

The ISO 21186 series provides necessary guidelines in multiple parts, each dedicated to a specific purpose:

  • Part 1: Standardization landscape and releases;

  • Part 2: Hybrid communications (this document);

  • Part 3: Security.

 

This document can be complemented by further parts as required, for example:

  • Usage of the service announcement protocol specified, for example, in ISO 22418;

  • Dynamically extendable data and protocol parameters ("Information Object Classes" and "Information Object Sets"; based on ASN.1 type CLASS);

  • Usage of the GTDM framework specified in ISO/TS 211841.

 

The purpose of this document is thus to inform about relevant standards and to describe the functionalities of the ITS station architecture defined in support for hybrid communication technologies. It is intended to serve as a guideline to structure the development of new C-ITS standards and to harmonize the deployment of C-ITS services relying on the use of hybrid communication technologies. It also intends to give support to the developers of standards defining C-ITS services and to the developers of C-ITS solutions and ITS applications complying with the ITS station architecture and its set of functionalities supporting hybrid communications.

 

At time of writing this document, no applicable Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues were known related to this document. However, this document references standards, for which IPRs are known. Information on such IPRs is expected to be provided in those respective standards, which might be from any one of the Standards Development Organisations working on ITS or C-ITS.

Referencing other SDOs and their respective deliverables in no way is to be understood as an endorsement, but rather as an informative piece of information.

More details on the C-ITS domain can be found in the Brochure cited in Reference.

 

This document serves as a guideline explaining the concept of hybrid communications and support functionalities for Cooperative ITS services deployed in conformance with the ITS station architecture and related Cooperative ITS standards.

 

https://www.iso.org/standard/79948.html

 

 

 

 

8.4.1.38   ISO 21186-3:2021, Cooperative intelligent transport systems — Guidelines on the usage of standards — Part 3: Security

 

This document provides informative material of interest to implementers deploying secure systems to carry out ITS applications. ITS stations are rapidly maturing with regards to specification, use and security conformance standards. In support of the ITS station ecosystem new standards have been developed, such as ISO/TS 21177, which provide a framework for device-to-device secure sessions and resource access authorization. Common criteria protection profiles have been developed and adopted for use in distinctive European ITS service domains, such as automotive V2X safety services, as well as a narrow set of infrastructure messaging based services.

 

NOTE: ITS services are provided by means of ITS applications.

 

Given the diversity of anticipated ITS services and potential data sensitivities, this document was constructed to provide ITS stakeholders with a holistic analysis and indication of possible extensions to the ITS station security ecosystem.

 

This document includes the following sections:

1) An overview of security considerations for application specification and deployment in ITS. This overview also provides a detailed rationale for the following sections.

2) A use-case driven threat model based roughly on common criteria processes in establishment of threats, security objectives and SFR relative to three genericized ITS station data sensitivity and access control scenarios. Each scenario can be used by security practitioners as a starting point to baseline ITS station platform protection profiles of varying application types and data sensitivities. The genericized protection profile security requirements are then compared to several existing (or under development) protection profiles established for automotive use cases to determine possible gaps in security controls that should be addressed when tailoring subsequent security targets or related protection profiles.

3) An implementation example of the development of an access control policy implementation for an ISO/TS 21177 conformant ITS station unit. The example access control policy is application-specific and depends on many factors, including the type of ITS station unit on which the access control policy is used. Consequently, this access control policy implementation example is not suitable for being copy-pasted to the context of other ITS applications. Rather, the process described in this example can be considered as a suitable template for a process aimed at creating an access control policy for any ITS application running in an ISO/TS 21177 conformant unit.

4) Inputs for the development of a CP governing the issuance of certificates for ITS station units. A CP is necessary for the deployment of a system to ensure consistent behaviour of different CAs (or, more generally, credential issuance actors) within the system. This consistent behaviour enables receiving devices to trust all received messages to the appropriate level, knowing that those devices have been through the same certificate-issuing process no matter where the certificates were obtained. In early 2019, the European Commission published a CP for use for "Day 1" ITS applications, to be enforced by a top-level root of trust implemented in an entity called the TLM. This document concludes with a set of high-level gaps and potential mitigations for ITS PKI participants and implementers.

5) A description of additional functionality that extends the functionality of ISO/TS 21177. This material is written in a manner which will enable it to be inserted into a future revision of ISO/TS 21177.

These five areas of content significantly ease the process of deploying new ITS applications securely.

This document is forms part of the ISO 21186 series on "Guidelines on the usage of standards," which is comprised of the following Parts:

1) Standardization landscape and releases;

2) Hybrid communications;

3) Security (this document).

 

This document provides guidelines on security applicable in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) related to communications and data access.

In particular, this document provides analyses and best practice content for secure ITS connectivity using ISO/TS 21177.

 

This document analyses and identifies issues related to application security, access control, device security and PKI for a secure ITS ecosystem.

 

https://www.iso.org/standard/79949.html

 

8.3.1.39   ISO 21210:2012 with Amd 1:2017, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — IPv6 Networking

 

This International Standard specifies networking protocol functionalities related to IPv6 networking between two or more ITS stations communicating over the global Internet communication network.

The International Standard assumes that the reader is familiar with IETF specifications found in "Request for Comments" (RFCs) of individual IPv6 protocol blocks used within this International Standard. This International Standard does not define a new protocol, a new exchange of messages at the IPv6 layer, or new data structures. It defines how standard IETF protocols are combined so that ITS stations can communicate with one another using the IPv6 family of protocols.

 

Procedures defined to share information between the IPv6 layer and other components of the ITS station architecture are defined in ISO 24102. In addition to the requirements specified within this International Standard, a number of notes and examples are provided to illustrate IPv6 addressing configuration and IPv6 mobility management.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21210:ed-1:v1:en

 

 

 

8.3.1.40   ISO 21212:2008, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — 2G Cellular systems

 

This International Standard determines the air interface for second generation (2G) cellular networks and 2G systems (e.g. using WAP and I-Mode type protocols) to be compliant to CALM, i.e., requirements that must be met before a 2G system can be incorporated into a CALM system. In particular, this International Standard specifies protocols and parameters that 2G systems shall include to support prolonged, long-range, high data rate wireless communication links in ITS environments where heterogeneous handovers or media independent handovers (MIH) are either necessary to maintain the link, or desirable as determined by media selection policies.

 

This International Standard provides protocols and parameters for long range, medium speed wireless communications in the ITS sector using second generation cellular communications.

Wherever practicable, this International Standard has been developed by reference to suitable extant standards, adopted by selection. Required regional variations are provided.

Specifically, for this International Standard, extant 2G systems, as defined by various international and national standards, are adopted by reference.

Application-specific upper layers are not included in this International Standard, but will be driven by application standards (which may not be technology specific).

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21212:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.41   ISO 21213:2008, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — 3G Cellular systems

 

This International Standard determines the air interface options applicable to CALM using third generation (3G) cellular networks. In particular, this International Standard specifies protocols and parameters that 3G systems shall include to support prolonged, long-range, high data rate wireless communication links in ITS environments where heterogeneous handovers or media independent handovers (MIH) are either necessary to maintain the link, or desirable, as determined by media selection policies.

This International Standard provides protocols and parameters for long range, medium speed wireless communications in the ITS sector using third generation cellular communications.

Wherever practicable, this International Standard has been developed by reference to suitable extant Standards, adopted by selection. Required regional variations are provided.

Specifically, for this International Standard, extant 3G systems, as defined by various international and national Standards, are adopted by reference.

Application specific upper layers are not included in this Standard, but will be driven by application standards (which may not be technology specific).

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21213:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.42   ISO 21214:2015, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — Infra-red systems

 

This International Standard determines the air interface using infrared systems at 820 nm to 1 010 nm.

 

The International Standard provides protocols and parameters for medium range and medium to high speed wireless communications in the ITS sector using infrared systems.

Such links are required for quasi-continuous, prolonged, or short communications between the following:

— vehicles and the roadside;

— between vehicles;

— between mobile equipment and fixed infrastructure points;

— over medium and long ranges.

 

Vehicles may be moving or stationary.

 

Wherever practicable, this International Standard has been developed by reference to suitable extant International Standards, adopted by selection. Required regional variations are provided.

 

Due account is given to, and made use of, any relevant parts of appropriate communications systems such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Radio Local Area Networks (RLANs), Digital Data Broadcasting (DDB), TETRA, FM subcarrier, Mobile Broadband Systems (MBS, W-ATM), Internet Protocols, and DSRC.

 

This International Standard

— supports data rates of 1 Mbit/s up to 128 Mbit/s (it may also support higher data rates),

— supports vehicle speeds to a minimum of 200 km/h (closing speeds could be double this value),

— defines or reference environmental parameters relevant to link operation,

— supports communication distances to 100 m (it may also support longer communication distances of 300 m to 1 000 m),

— supports latencies and communication delays in the order of milliseconds,

— is compliant to regional/national regulatory parameters, and

— may support other regional/national parameters, as applicable.

 

Application specific requirements are outside the scope of this International Standard. These requirements will be defined in the CALM management and upper layer standards and in application standards.

Application specific upper layers are not included in this International Standard but will be driven by application standards (which may not be technology specific).

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21214:ed-2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.43   ISO 21215:2018, Intelligent transport systems — Localized communications — ITS-M5

 

This document provides specifications of a communication interface (CI) named "ITS-M5". The name "ITS-M5" indicates microwave frequency bands in the range of 5 GHz.

ITS-M5 CIs are based on the wireless LAN technology standardized at IEEE. This document specifies the additions to and deviations from IEEE Std 802.11™-2016 required to make ITS-M5 CIs compatible with the ITS station and communication architecture specified in ISO 21217.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21215:ed-2:v1:en

8.3.1.44   ISO 21217:2014, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — Architecture

 

This International Standard describes the communications reference architecture of nodes called “ITS station units” designed for deployment in intelligent transport systems (ITS) communication networks. The ITS station reference architecture is described in an abstract way. While this International Standard describes a number of ITS station elements, whether or not a particular element is implemented in an ITS station unit depends on the specific communication requirements of the implementation.

 

This International Standard also describes the various communication modes for peer-to-peer communications over various networks between ITS communication nodes. These nodes may be ITS station units as described in this International Standard or any other reachable nodes.

 

This International standard specifies the minimum set of normative requirements for a physical instantiation of the ITS station based on the principles of a bounded secured managed domain.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21217:ed-2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.45   ISO 21217:2020 Intelligent transport systems — Station and communication architecture

 

This document describes the communications reference architecture of nodes called “ITS station units” designed for deployment in intelligent transport systems (ITS) communication networks. The ITS station reference architecture is described in an abstract manner.

 

While this document describes a number of ITS station elements, whether or not a particular element is implemented in an ITS station unit depends on the specific communication requirements of the implementation.

This document also describes the various communication modes for peer-to-peer communications over various networks between ITS communication nodes. These nodes can be ITS station units as described in this document or any other reachable nodes.

 

This document specifies the minimum set of normative requirements for a physical instantiation of the ITS station based on the principles of a bounded secured managed domain.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21217:ed-3:v1:en

 

8.3.1.46   ISO 21218:2018, Intelligent transport systems — Hybrid communications — Access technology support

 

This document specifies general technical details related to the access layer of the ITS station reference architecture specified in ISO 21217 including:

— the service access point (SAP) of a communication interface (CI) as provided by the communication adaptation layer (CAL) for communication, named IN-SAP, and related service primitives and service primitive functions;

— the SAP provided by the CI management adaptation entity (MAE) for management of the communication interface, named MI-SAP, and related service primitives by reference to ISO 24102-3, and service primitive functions.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:21218:ed-3:v1:en

 

8.3.1.47   ISO 22418:2020, Intelligent transport systems — Fast service advertisement protocol (FSAP) for general purposes in ITS

 

This document specifies the fast service announcement protocol (FSAP) for general purposes in ITS. It references and supports all features of ISO/TS 16460, especially supporting the service response message (SRM) and related features in addition to the service announcement message (SAM), which enables only very basic features.

FSAP supports locally advertised ITS services uniquely identified by an ITS application identifier (ITS-AID).

This document specifies message formats and related basic protocol procedures by reference to ISO/TS 16460, and further related protocol requirements for operation of FSAP in the context of an ITS station specified in ISO 21217.

This document illustrates its relations to service announcement protocols specified by ETSI TC ITS and IEEE.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:22418:ed-2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.48  ISO 22837:2009, Vehicle Probe Data for Wide Area Communication

 

This International Standard specifies the following.

• Reference architecture for probe vehicle systems and probe data. This reference architecture provides a general structure for probe vehicle systems within which a wide range of actual probe vehicle systems can be built whose physical characteristics may differ (e.g., in their choice of communications medium).   The reference architecture is used to:

— clarify the major building blocks and logical interconnections of probe vehicle systems for which this standard will be used;

— categorize probe data in accordance with the information model described below.

• Basic data framework for probe data elements and probe data. This framework specifies how to define probe data elements and probe messages. Specifically it provides the following.

— Rules for mapping information models (as defined in ISO 14817) of probe data to probe data elements/messages. The information models show the logical structure of entities and concepts involved in probe data.

— Required characteristics of probe data elements and probe data messages.

— The notation for probe data elements/messages (in XML).

— Rules for using core data elements and basic data elements (see below), and extensions of data elements in each application domain.

• Core data element definitions. Core data elements are basic descriptive elements intended to appear in every probe message. These are the location and the time at which the probe data was sensed.

• Initial set of probe data elements. These elements will be commonly used in typical probe data enabled application domains, such as traffic, weather, and safety. Standardizing these probe data elements facilitates the development of probe vehicle systems and the distribution of probe data. This is not intended to be an exhaustive listing of probe data elements.

• Example probe messages. These messages define how probe data elements are combined to convey information to probe processing centres. This is not intended to be an exhaustive listing of probe messages.

 

To completely define probe processing, the standardization of probe data elements and probe messages is not sufficient. Standards are also required for processed probe data (the output of probe processing) and downlink elements and messages (to convey these results to vehicles and other users). This International Standard prescribes an initial set of probe data elements that are important for transmission from vehicles to land-side processing centres. The standardization of other probe data issues will be addressed in future work.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:22837:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.49   ISO 24100:2010, Intelligent transport systems — Basic Principles for Personal Data Protection in Probe Vehicle Information Services

 

This International Standard states the basic rules to be observed by service providers who handle personal data in probe vehicle information services. This International Standard is aimed at protecting the personal data as well as the intrinsic rights and interests of probe data senders, i.e., owners and drivers of vehicles fitted with in-vehicle probe systems

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24100:ed-1:v1:en

 

 

 

 

 

8.3.1.50   ISO 24102-1:2018, Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management — Part 1: Local management

 

This document provides specifications for intelligent transport systems (ITS) station management to be in conformance with the ITS station reference architecture.

Local ITS station management protocols are specified by means of management processes, and data that are exchanged between the station management entity and

— the ITS Applications entity above the API,

— the Security entity, and

— the various communication protocol layers:

— access;

— networking & transport;

— facilities.

 

of the ITS station architecture specified in ISO 21217:2014 and illustrated in its Figure 1.

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24102:-1:ed-2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.51   ISO 24102-2:2018, Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management — Part 2: Remote management of ITS-SCUs

 

This document provides specifications for intelligent transport systems (ITS) station management to conform with the ITS station reference architecture.

Remote ITS station management is specified by means of protocol data units (PDUs) and procedures of the "Remote ITS Station Management Protocol" (RSMP) related to managed objects in an ITS station communication unit. Distinction is made between managed entities (management clients) and managing entities (management servers).

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24102:-2:ed-2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.52   ISO 24102-3:2018, Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management — Part 3: Service access points

 

This document provides specifications for secure ITS station-internal management communications.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24102:-4:ed-2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.53   ISO 24102-4:2018, Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management — Part 4: Station-internal management communications

 

This document provides specifications for secure ITS station-internal management communications.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24102:-4:en

 

8.3.1.54   ISO 24102-6:2018, Intelligent Transport Systems — ITS station management — Part 6: Path and flow management

 

This document specifies parameters and procedures for the ITS station management entity to manage data flows and routing paths associated with available communication resources in an ITS station, and to map data flows to routing paths.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24102:-6:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.55   ISO 24102-7, Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management — Part 7: ITS-S capabilities

 

Under development

 

 

 

8.3.1.56   ISO 24102-8, Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management — Part 8: ITS-S application processes

 

Under development

 

 

 

8.3.1.57   ISO 24102-9, Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management — Part 9: ITS-S managed entities

 

Under development

 

 

 

8.3.1.58   ISO 24103:2009, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — Media adapted interface layer (MAIL)

 

This International Standard determines the logical structure of using dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) with an OSI (open systems interconnection) application layer as a CALM medium for IP communications. DSRC to which MAIL is applicable are those with an application layer compliant with ISO 15628, and the standards of such DSRC include the following:

ARIB STD-T75 DSRC (Japan);

TTAS.KO-06.0025 DSRC in the 5,8 GHz band (Korea);

EN 12253 DSRC physical layer using microwave in the 5,8 GHz band, EN 12795 DSRC data link layer and EN 12834 DSRC application layer (Europe).

 

NOTE In furnishing additional information on CALM MAIL, reference can be made to ARIB STD-T88 (DSRC application sub layer).

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24103:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.59   ISO 24978:2009, Intelligent transport systems — ITS Safety and emergency messages using any available wireless media — Data registry procedures

 

This International Standard deals with intelligent transport systems.

This International Standard provides a standardized set of protocols, parameters, and a method of management of an updateable "Data Registry" to provide application layers for "ITS Safety messages" using any available wireless media.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:24978:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.60   ISO 25111:2009, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — General requirements for using public networks

 

This International Standard specifies general requirements for the provision of ITS services, using the CALM architecture and protocols, via the use of public wireless networks [including cellular telephony and mobile wireless broadband (MWB) systems].

In particular, this International Standard specifies protocols and parameters that public wireless networks shall include to support prolonged communication links in ITS environments where heterogeneous handovers or media independent handovers (MIH) are either necessary to maintain the link, or desirable as determined by media selection policies, and such handover is provided by the public wireless network.

The requirements for the use of CALM via public wireless networks where there is no provision for heterogeneous cell/cell handover (i.e. so-called nomadic services) is not the central focus of this International Standard, but general requirements to enable the use of such systems, within the limits of the range of a single cell, are also provided.

Wherever practicable, this International Standard has been developed by reference to suitable extant standards, adopted by selection. Required regional variations are provided.

Specifically, for this International Standard, extant national and International Standards for public wireless networks are adopted by reference and are not redefined herein.

Application-specific upper layers are not included in this International Standard, but will be driven by application standards (which might not be technology specific).

 

 

8.3.1.61   ISO 25114:2010, Intelligent transport systems — Probe data reporting management (PDRM)

 

This Technical Specification provides a common framework for defining probe data reporting management (PDRM) messages to facilitate the specification and design of probe vehicle systems and gives concrete definitions of PDRM messages.

This Technical Specification specifies

a) reference architecture for probe vehicle systems and probe data which incorporates PDRM based on the reference architecture for ISO 22837, and

b) basic data framework for PDRM instructions, which defines specifically

     1) necessary conditions for PDRM instructions, and

     2) notations of these instructions (in XML).

 

This Technical Specification also provides the rules for using PDRM instructions.

Different types of PDRM messages are also identified and defined, such as

a) PDRM messages consisting of individual instructions which define reporting aspects or requirements for probe vehicle systems,

b) start/stop all probe data reporting,

c) start/stop probe data reporting of specific probe data elements, and

d) generic scheme for conveying criteria for reporting specific probe data elements.

PDRM instructions may be structured in terms of a time period in which they are valid (duration), geographic region, and roadway heading to which the instruction applies.

 

 

8.3.1.62   ISO 29281-1:2018, Intelligent transport systems — Localized communications — Part 1: Fast networking & transport layer protocol (FNTP)

 

This document specifies the "Fast Networking & Transport Protocol" (FNTP) of the ITS-S networking & transport layer.

FNTP is in support of efficient localized communications distinguishing networking related features and transport related features. FNTP is extendible in the future without breaking binary backward compatibility.

This document specifies

— message formats and related basic protocol procedures by reference to ISO TS 16460, and

— further requirements for operation of FNTP in the context of an ITS station specified in ISO 21217.

 

 

 

8.3.1.63   ISO 29281-2:2019, Intelligent transport systems — Localized communications — Part 2: Legacy system support

 

This document specifies elements of communications for localized communications in ITS.

In particular, the following architectures, procedures and protocols are specified:

— support of communication interfaces (DSRC-CI) using the DSRC application layer specified in ISO 15628;

— support of ISO 15628 DSRC applications via an ITS access technology suited for localized communications.

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:29281:-2:ed-2:v1:en

 

8.3.1.64   ISO 29282:2011, Intelligent transport systems — Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) — Satellite networks

 

This International Standard provides definitions and procedures for the establishment, maintenance and termination of an ITS (intelligent transport systems) communications session within a CALM (communication access for land mobiles) system environment using bi-directional satellite communications.

It defines the operation of the medium management adaptation entity (MMAE), which provides the management interface between a proprietary satellite communications medium and the “ITS station management”. This enables the “ITS station management” to know the status of the communications medium and control the interface without the need for applications at the ITS station to have any knowledge of the satellite communications interface. The procedures that the “ITS station management” expects to use are also explained.

NOTE 1 CALM links are required for quasi-continuous, prolonged and short-duration communications between vehicles and the roadside, between vehicles, and between mobile equipment and fixed infrastructure points, over medium and long ranges.

 

This International Standard defines how to connect and disconnect a communication session using satellite communication systems in the context of an application operated within the environment defined in ISO 21217. It supports peer-to-peer modes of communication. Support for broadcast satellite systems is defined in ISO 13183, which provides a common approach for all broadcast media. It supports satellite communications networks that are interconnected with the public network, as well as those which connect via the internet and those which provide a stand-alone capability.

NOTE 2 As there are multiple instantiations of satellite systems, most of which are not interoperable, there is the possibility of several simultaneous satellite sessions, each forming a separate CALM medium (although the differences may only be in software within the on-board equipment).

 

Wherever practicable, this International Standard has been developed by reference to suitable existing standards, adopted by selection. Application-specific upper layers are not included, but will be driven by application standards (which may not be technology-specific).

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:29282:ed-1:v1:en

 

8.3.1.65   ISO 29284:2012, Intelligent transport systems — Event based Probe Vehicle Data

 

This Technical Specification specifies:

  • reference architecture for event-based probe vehicles which encompasses event-based probe data and standard probe data elements (ISO 22837:2009);

  • basic data framework of event-based probe data reporting, based on ISO 22837:2009;

  • the definition of an initial set of event-based probe data elements. These elements will be commonly used in typical event-based probe data enabled application domains, such as traffic, weather, and safety. Standardizing these event-based probe data elements facilitates the development of probe vehicle systems and the distribution of probe data. This is not intended to be an exhaustive listing of event-based probe data probe data elements.

 

This Technical Specification provides a common framework for defining event-based probe data messages to facilitate the specification and design of probe vehicle systems.

 

It provides concrete definitions of event-based probe data elements.

 

It serves as a supplement to ISO 22837:2009, and specifies additional normative data (probe data elements) that are delivered by an event-based probe data system

 

 

https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:ts:29284:ed-1:v1:en

 

 

8.3.2   CEN Standards

8.3.2.1   EN 16157-1:2019, Intelligent transport systems — DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information — Part 1: Context and framework


This document specifies and defines components required to support the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The components include the framework and context for the modelling approach, data content, data structure and relationships. This document is applicable to: - traffic and travel information which is of relevance to road networks (non-urban and urban), - public transport information that is of direct relevance to the use of a road network (e.g. road link via train or ferry service), - traffic and travel information in the case of Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS). This document establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors: - Traffic Information Centres (TICs), - Traffic Control Centres (TCCs), - Service Providers (SPs),

 

Use of this document can be applicable for use by other actors. This document covers, at least, the following types of informational content: - road traffic event information - planned and unplanned occurrences both on the road network and in the surrounding environment, - information about operator-initiated actions - including both advisory and mandatory measures, - road traffic measurement data, status data, and travel time data, - travel information relevant to road users, including weather and environmental information, - road traffic management information and information and advice relating to use of the road network. This part of EN 16157 specifies the DATEX II framework of all parts of this European Standard, the context of use and the modelling approach taken and used throughout this European Standard. This approach is described using formal methods and provides the mandatory reference framework for all other parts.

 

8.3.2.2   EN 16157-2:2019, Intelligent transport systems — DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information — Part 2: Location referencing


This European Standard series (EN 16157) specifies and defines component facets supporting the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for exchanges, the modelling approach, data content, data structure and relationships.

 

This European Standard series is applicable to: - traffic and travel information which is of relevance to road networks (non-urban and urban), - public transport information that is of direct relevance to the use of a road network (e.g. road link via train or ferry service), - traffic and travel information in the case of Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS).

 

This European Standard series establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors: - Traffic Information Centres (TICs), - Traffic Control Centres (TCCs), - Service Providers (SPs). Use of this European Standard series may be applicable for use by other actors.

 

This European Standard series covers, at least, the following types of informational content: - road traffic event information – planned and unplanned occurrences both on the road network and in the surrounding environment, - operator initiated actions, - road traffic measurement data, status data, and travel time data, - travel information relevant to road users, including weather and environmental information, - road traffic management information and instructions relating to use of the road network.

 

This part of the EN 16157 series specifies the informational structures, relationships, roles, attributes and associated data types, for the implementation of the location referencing systems used in association with the different publications defined in the DATEX II framework. It also defines a DATEX II publication for exchanging predefined locations. This is part of the DATEX II platform independent data model.

 

 

 

8.3.2.3   EN 16157-3:2019, Intelligent transport systems — DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information — Part 3: Situation Publication

 

This document specifies and defines component facets supporting the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for exchanges, the modelling approach, data content, data structure and relationships.

 

This document is applicable to:

- traffic and travel information which is of relevance to road networks (non-urban and urban),

- public transport information that is of direct relevance to the use of a road network (e.g. road link via train or ferry service),

- traffic and travel information in the case of Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS).

 

This document establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors:

- Traffic Information Centres (TICs),

- Traffic Control Centres (TCCs),

- Service Providers (SPs),

 

Use of this document can be applicable for use by other actors. This document covers, at least, the following types of informational content:

- road traffic event information

- planned and unplanned occurrences both on the road network and in the surrounding environment, - operator-initiated actions,

- road traffic measurement data, status data, and travel time data,

- travel information relevant to road users, including weather and environmental information,

- road traffic management information and instructions relating to use of the road network.

This document specifies the informational structures, relationships, roles, attributes and associated data types required for publishing situation traffic and travel information within the DATEX II framework. This is specified as a DATEX II Situation Publication sub-model which is part of the DATEX II platform independent model, but this part excludes those elements that relate to:

- location information which are specified in FprEN 16157 2;

- common information elements, which are specified in EN 16157 7

 

 

8.3.2.4   EN 16157-7:2019, Intelligent transport systems — DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information — Part 7: Common data elements

 

This document specifies and defines component facets required to support the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for data content, data structure and relationships, communications specification.

This document is applicable to: - traffic and travel information which is of relevance to road networks (non-urban and urban), - public transport information that is of direct relevance to the use of a road network (e.g. road link via train or ferry service), - traffic and travel information in the case of Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS). This document establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors:

- Traffic Information Centres (TICs),

- Traffic Control Centres (TCCs),

- Service Providers (SPs),

Use of this document can be applicable for use by other actors.

 

This document covers, at least, the following types of informational content:

- road traffic event information

- planned and unplanned occurrences both on the road network and in the surrounding environment, - information about operator initiated actions

- including both advisory and mandatory measures,

- road traffic measurement data, status data, and travel time data,

- travel information relevant to road users, including weather and environmental information,

- road traffic management information and information and advice relating to use of the road network.

 

This part of EN 16157 specifies common informational structures, relationships, roles, attributes and associated data types required for publishing information within the DATEX II framework. This is specified as a DATEX II sub-model which is part of the DATEX II platform independent model, but this part only covers common elements that are used by more than one publication. It excludes those elements that relate to location information which are specified in FprEN 16157 2.

 

 

8.3.2.5   EN 12253:2005, Road transport and traffic telematics - Dedicated Short Range, Communication (DSRC) - Physical layer using microwave at 5,8 GHz

 

The DSRC Standards EN 12253, EN 12795 and EN 12834, which together form a three-layered architecture for DSRC, are designed to encompass a wide range of services for different purposes in order to make the basic DSRC architecture suited for many different applications and for a wide range of possible products and systems.

 

This document: - specifies a physical layer at 5,8 GHz for DSRC as applicable in the field of Road Transport and Traffic Telematics (RTTT). - provides requirements for the communication medium to be used for exchange of information between road-side units (RSU) and on-board units (OBU). - caters for a communication means to be used by several applications in the RTTT sector.

 

 

8.3.2.6   EN 12795:2005, Road transport and traffic telematics — Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) — DSRC data link layer: medium access and logical link control


This European Standard:

- defines the Data Link Layer of DSRC; - is positioned with respect to other related standards by the layers defined in OSI Basic Reference Model [EN ISO/IEC 7498-1] as adopted for DSRC;

- supports broadcast and half-duplex transmission modes;

- supports a variety of fixed equipment configurations. It supports configurations where one fixed equipment communicates with one mobile equipment unit, as well as configurations where one fixed equipment can communicate with several mobile equipment units;

- takes into account that the mobile equipment communicates with the fixed equipment while passing through a limited communication zone;

- defines neither any specific configuration nor the layout of the communication zone;

- does not define to what extent different instances of fixed equipment, operating in the vicinity of each other, need to be synchronised with each other;

- defines parameters to be used in negotiation procedures taking place between fixed equipment and mobile equipment.

 

By defining two distinct sublayers, namely the medium access control sublayer and the logical link control sublayer, this standard defines:

a) medium access control procedures for the shared physical medium;

b) addressing rules and conventions;

c) data flow control procedures;

d) acknowledgement procedures;

e) error control procedures;

f) services provided to application layer.

 

The MAC sublayer is specific to the DSRC. The LLC services offered are unacknowledged and acknowledged connectionless services based on [ISO/IEC 8802-2]

 

 

 

8.3.2.7   ​EN 12834:2005, Road transport and traffic telematics - Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) - DSRC application layer


This European Standard specifies the Application Layer Core which provides communication tools for applications based on DSRC. These tools consist of Kernels that can be used by application processes via service primitives. The application processes, including application data and application specific functions, are outside the scope of this European Standard.

 

The standard is named 'Application Layer' although - it does not cover all functionality of OSI Layer 7 and - it includes functionality from lower layers. This European Standard uses services provided by DSRC Data Link Layer, [EN 12795], and covers functionality of intermediate layers of the OSI Basic Reference Model [EN ISO/IEC 7498-1].

 

The following subjects are covered by this European Standard:

- application Layer structure and framework;

- services to enable data transfer and remote operations;

- application multiplexing procedure;

- fragmentation procedure;

- concatenation and chaining procedures;

- common encoding rules to translate data from abstract syntax ASN.1, [ISO/IEC 8824-1], into transfer syntax, [ISO/IEC 8825-2], and vice versa;

- communication initialisation and release procedures;

- broadcast service support;

- DSRC management support including communication profile handling.

 

It is outside the scope of this European Standard to define a security policy.

 

Some transport mechanisms for security related data are provided.

 

NOTE During the lifetime of ENV 12834:1997, no implementation of the Broadcast Pool functionality has become known. Broadcast Pool functionality is therefore considered untested and is kept in this European Standard for compatibility with the ENV only.

 

 

 

8.3.2.8   CEN/TS 17182:2019, Intelligent transport systems — eSafety — eCall via an ITS-station

 

In respect of 112-eCall (operating requirements defined in EN 16072:2015), this Technical Specification defines the high level application protocols, procedures and processes required to provide the eCall service via an ISO 21217 compliant “ITS station unit”

 

NOTE 1 The objective of implementing the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system (eCall) is to automate the notification of a traffic accident, wherever in Europe, with the same technical standards and the same quality of services objectives by using a 'Public Land Mobile Network' (PLMN) (such as ETSI prime medium) which supports the European harmonized 112/E112 emergency number and to provide a means of manually triggering the notification of an emergency incident.

 

NOTE 2 Requirements for third party services supporting eCall can be found in EN 16102 [6],  This technical specification applies only to 112-eCall service provision and makes no specifications in respect of third party eCall service provision, and the reader is referred to EN 16102 for any third party eCall specifications.

 

 

8.3.2.9   CEN/TR 17297-1:2019, Intelligent transport systems - Location referencing harmonization for Urban ITS - Part 1: State of the art and guidelines

 

This document presents:

- a concise tutorial on location referencing methods;

- applicable location referencing specifications, standards and directives;

- an introduction into challenges given by a multiplicity of different location referencing systems.

 

 

8.3.2.10   CEN/TS 17297-2:2019, Intelligent transport systems - Location Referencing Harmonisation for Urban-ITS - Part 2: Transformation methods

 

This document specifies requirements, recommendations, and permissions related to translations between location referencing methods applicable in the urban transport environment.

 

 

8.3.2.11   CEN/TS 17378:2019, Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Air quality management in urban areas

 

This document provides

• information, guidance and specifications on how o to set up an air quality and emissions management policy;

  - to deploy reliable and scalable technologies to monitor air quality on a continuous or regular basis;    - to react with adequate measures;

  - to specify air quality levels for triggering a scenario;

• a toolkit of parameters and data definitions that a regulator can use;

• means to measure the air quality required by relevant EU directives

• to specify use of TS 17380 Intelligent transport systems - Urban-ITS - 'Controlled Zone' management using C-ITS, for the purposes of geofenced controlled zones for emissions management

 

NOTE: In order to maximise European harmonisation, it is recommended that this specification is used in combination with a module of standardised data concepts, however, this version of this document, which is focussed on policies and procedures, does not provide these data concept specifications.

 

 

8.3.2.12   CEN/TS 17380:2019, Intelligent transport systems - Urban-ITS - 'Controlled Zone' management for UVARs using C-ITS

 

This document provides information and specifications enabling management of road traffic in controlled zones applying geofencing. Specifically, this document provides:

- a "Controlled Zone Data Dictionary" (CZDD) for management of controlled zones providing an      extendible toolkit that regulators can use e.g. to inform potential CZ users, e.g. vehicles, about

the CZ area, i.e. the geographical boundaries of the CZ;

- CZ access conditions including exemptions;

- time windows indicating when these CZ access conditions are applicable, allowing the potential CZ users to select an appropriate routing, either by pre-trip planning or ad hoc re-routing;

- and illustrations and guidelines on how to use this toolkit.

 

The toolkit is designed in compliance with the general ITS station and communications architecture specified in ISO 21217, and optionally applicable C-ITS protocols and procedures, e.g. ISO 22418:2018 [b8.8] on "Service Announcement", EN ISO 18750 on the "Local Dynamic Map", and EN ISO 17419 [b8.5] on globally unique identifiers.

 

Enforcement is out of the scope of this document.

 

 

8.3.2.13   CEN/TS 17496:2020, Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) — Communication profiles [1]

 

This document specifies a methodology to define ITS-S communication profiles (ITS-SCPs) based on standardized communication protocols to interconnect trusted devices. These profiles enable secure information exchange between such trusted devices, including secure low-latency information exchange, in different configurations.

 

The document also normatively specifies some ITS-SCPs based on the methodology, yet without the intent of covering all possible cases, in order to exemplify the methodology. Configurations of trusted devices for which this document defines ITS-SCPs include:

 

a) ITS station communication units (ITS-SCU) of the same ITS station unit (ITS-SU), i.e. station-internal communications;

b) an ITS-SU and an external entity such as a sensor and control network (SCN), or a service in the Internet;

c) ITS-SUs. Other ITS-SCPs can be specified at a later stage.

 

The specifications given in this document can also be applied to unsecured communications and can be applied to groupcast communications as well.

 

 

 

[1] Almost identical TS at ISO published with slightly different title: ISO/TS 21185:2019 Intelligent transport systems — Communication profiles for secure connections between trusted devices

 

 

 

8.3.3   ETSI standards

ETSI standard deliverables can be downloaded from 

https://portal.etsi.org/webapp/WorkProgram/SimpleSearch/QueryForm.asp.

8.3.3.1   EN 202 798 V1.1.1, 2011-01, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Testing; Framework for conformance and interoperability testing

 

The scope of the document is to support ITS projects on the development of test specifications for ITS base standards from ETSI, ISO, CEN and other "Standard Developing Organisations" (SDOs) by providing:

• An ITS testing framework for conformance testing.

• An ITS testing framework for interoperability testing.

 

#The testing framework proposed in the present document provides guidance for development of conformance and interoperability test strategies, test systems and the resulting test specifications for ITS.

 

8.3.3.2   EN 301 893 V2.1.1, 2017-06, 5 GHz RLAN

 

Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU

 

The scope of the document is to support ITS projects on the development of test specifications for ITS base standards from ETSI, ISO, CEN and other "Standard Developing Organisations" (SDOs) by providing:

• An ITS testing framework for conformance testing.

• An ITS testing framework for interoperability testing.

 

The testing framework proposed in the present document provides guidance for development of conformance and interoperability test strategies, test systems and the resulting test specifications for ITS.

 

 

8.3.3.3   EN 302 571 V2.1.1, 2017-06, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Radiocommunications equipment operating in the 5 855 MHz to 5 925 MHz frequency band 

 

Harmonised Standard covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU

 

The document specifies technical characteristics and methods of measurement for radio transmitters and receivers operating in the frequency range 5 855 MHz to 5 925 MHz. The spectrum usage conditions are set out in ECC Decision (08)01 for the frequency range 5 875 MHz to 5 925 MHz (with 5 905 MHz to 5 925 MHz considered as a future ITS extension) and in ECC Recommendation (08)01 for the frequency range 5 855 MHz to 5 875 MHz. The Commission Decision 2008/671/EC [mandates a harmonised use of the frequency band 5 875 MHz to 5 905 MHz dedicated to safety-related applications of ITS throughout the member states of the European Union.

The document covers the essential requirements of article 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU under the conditions identified in annex A.

Interference mitigation techniques in the present document are provided to protect road tolling applications using CEN DSRC or HDR DSRC.

 

8.3.3.4   EN 302 636-4-1 V1.3.1, 2017-08, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4: Geographical addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications; Sub-part 1: Media-Independent Functionality

 

 

The document specifies the media-independent functionality of the GeoNetworking protocol

 

 

8.3.3.5   EN 302 636-5-1 V2.2.1, 2019-05, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 5: Transport Protocols; Sub-part 1: Basic Transport Protocol

 

The document specifies the Basic Transport Protocol (BTP) for the transport of packets among ITS stations. It resides on top of the GeoNetworking protocol specified in ETSI EN 302 636-4-1 and ETSI TS 102 636-4-2 and below the ITS-S facilities layer. It provides an end-to-end, connection-less and unreliable transport service.

 

 

 

8.3.3.6   EN 302 636-6-1 V1.2.1, 2014-05, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 6: Internet Integration; Sub-part 1: Transmission of IPv6 Packets over GeoNetworking Protocols

 

The document specifies the transmission of IPv6 packets over the ETSI GeoNetworking protocol via a protocol adaptation sub-layer referred to as the GN6ASL (GeoNetworking to IPv6 Adaptation Sub-Layer). The scope of the present document is limited to the GN6ASL.

 

The techniques specified in the present document fulfil the requirements for GeoNetworking and IPv6 integration described in [b8.3]. In particular, these techniques allow for the transport of IPv6 packets by ETSI GeoNetworking protocol, enabling sub-IP multi-hop delivery of IPv6 packets, e.g. in a vehicular network. As a result, the connectivity provided by points-of-attachment to IPv6 infrastructure networks is extended by means of mobile relay nodes.

 

In addition to that, the techniques described in the present document allow for geocasting of IPv6 multicast packets. The scope of the GN6ASL is limited to the fulfilment of the requirements for GeoNetworking and IPv6 integration described in its clause 5.9, by enabling an ITS station including a GeoAdhoc router running the GeoNetworking protocol and an IPv6-compliant protocol layer to:

 

• exchange IPv6 packets with other ITS stations;

• acquire globally routable IPv6 unicast addresses and communicate with an arbitrary IPv6 host located in the Internet, whenever an ITS station including a GeoAdhoc router and including or connected to an access router providing IPv6 connectivity to the Internet is reachable directly or via other relay ITS stations;

• perform the operations required by for a Mobile Router whenever:

   a) an ITS mobile router supporting Network Mobility Basic Support (NEMO BS) is present in the ITS          station and runs on top of the GN6ASL; and

  b) an ITS station including a GeoAdhoc router and including or connected to an access router                  providing IPv6 connectivity to the Internet is reachable directly or via other relay ITS stations.

 

NOTE: The document adopts the definition of "IPv6-compliant" and "sub-IP multi-hop delivery" introduced in clause 3.1. Extending the IPv6 basic standards to support new features is outside the scope of the present document. Extensions to NEMO BS [14] are outside the scope of the present document.

 

Mechanisms for the dissemination of IPv6 routing information for hosts and routers not directly attaching to the network where GeoNetworking is used are outside the scope of the present document (e.g. discovery of IPv6 in-vehicle prefixes). However, the present document aims at providing the underlying support for the dissemination of such routing information, i.e. IPv6 multicast support for the network where the GeoNetworking protocol is used. With respect to IPv6 multicast and anycast support, the document is limited to the support required to enable distribution of IPv6 multicast and anycast traffic on a shared link.

 

Amendments to specific IPv6 multicast forwarding mechanisms are out of the scope of the  document. However, the document aims at not preventing existing IPv6 multicast forwarding mechanisms from being used in conjunction with the GN6ASL. In order to facilitate the deployment of ITS systems, the document aims at maintaining backward compatibility with pre-existent IPv6-compliant protocol implementations and NEMO BS implementations compliant with. A usage example of NEMO BS with the GN6ASL is presented in the informative annex F.

 

The document requires the assignment by IANA of an anycast identifier for ETSI GeoAnycast Reserved IPv6 Subnet Anycast Address (see clause 9.4).

 

The mechanisms specified in the document are distinct from but compatible with the IPv6-related functionalities, which specifies how IPv6 networking is generally operated in ITS stations.

 

The techniques described in the document provide a way to transport IPv6 packets that is fully compatible with the IPv6 specifications and pre-existing implementations, and hence is compatible with ISO 21210-2010: "Intelligent Transport Systems - Communications access for land mobiles (CALM) - IPv6 networking"

 

 

8.3.3.7   EN 302 637-2 V1.4.1, 2019-04, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 2: Specification of Cooperative Awareness Basic Service

 

The document provides the specifications of the Cooperative Awareness basic service (CA basic service), which is in support of the BSA road safety application. This includes definition of the syntax and semantics of the Cooperative Awareness Message (CAM) and detailed specifications on the message handling.

 

 

8.3.3.8   EN 302 637-3 V1.3.1, 2019-04, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 3: Specifications of Decentralized Environmental Notification Basic Service

 

The document provides specification of the DEN basic service, which is in support of the RHW application.

 

More specifically, the document specifies the syntax and semantics of the "Decentralized Environmental Notification Message" (DENM) and the DENM protocol handling.

 

The DEN basic service may be implemented in an vehicle ITS-S, a road side ITS-S, a personal ITS-S or a central ITS-S.

 

 

 

8.3.3.9   EN 302 663 V1.2.1, 2013-07, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); European profile standard for the physical and medium access control layer of Intelligent Transport Systems operating in the 5 GHz frequency band

 

The document defines the two lowest layers, physical layer and the data link layer, grouped into the access layer of the ITS station reference architecture ETSI EN 302 665.

 

8.3.3.10   EN 302 665 V1.1.1, 2010-09, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Communications Architecture

 

The document specifies the global communication architecture of communications for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSC). This version of the present document is dedicated to the road transport context.

 

This document on the ITSC architecture specifies mandatory and optional elements and interfaces of ITSC. Some elements of ITS applications, especially those directly related to ITSC, are also considered.

 

The document is enabling different implementation architectures as presented in its informative annex B.

 

Note: This document was developed simultaneously with ISO 21217. The content is almost identical. The latest edition of the ITS communications architecture is the one from ISO.

 

8.3.3.11 EN 302 890-1 V1.2.1  Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Facilities layer function; Part 1: Services Announcement (SA) specification

 

 

The document provides the specification of the Services Announcement (SA) service, including its protocol functions, based on ISO/TS 16460.

The definition of the interface between Service Provider and Service Announcer ITS stations (ITS-S) as well as of the communication steps following the service announcement protocol procedure and related protocol details between Service Announcer and Service User ITS-S are application-specific are not covered by the document.

 

 

 

8.3.3.12 EN 302 890-2 V2.1.1  Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Facilities layer function; Part 2: Position and Time management (PoTi); Release 2

 

 

The document provides the specification of the Position and Time (PoTi) services. It includes functional and operational requirements for the position and time data to support ITS Applications.

 

In addition, it includes the definition of syntax and semantics of messages exchanged between ITS-Stations (ITS-Ss) to augment the position and time accuracy.

 

Finally, it specifies the facilities layer protocol in support of such message exchanges.​

 

 

8.3.3.13   EN 302 895 V1.1.1, 2014-09, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Local Dynamic Map (LDM)

 

The document defines functional behaviour associated with a Local Dynamic Map (LDM) for usage in an ITS station unit (ITS-SU). It specifies functions and interfaces supported by a LDM. These functions and interfaces provide secure access to the LDM to manage LDM data objects stored in a LDM. It defines LDM data objects for safety-related and Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V)-related applications.

 

8.3.3.14   EN 302 931 V1.1.1, 2011-07, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Geographical Area Definition

 

The location referencing method enables ITS stations to exchange location-related information [i.1] and [i.3]. It facilitates communication protocols [i.2] and [i.4] to address geographical areas and to disseminate information in these areas. The location referencing method is designed to minimize overhead and computational complexity.

Encoding and decoding of the geospatial information is beyond the scope of the document.

 

8.3.3.15   TR 102 638 V1.1.1, 2009-06, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Definitions

 

The document describes a Basic Set of Applications (BSA) to be specified by Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in Release 1 of the ETSI ITS standards set.

 

The present document defines BSA mainly focusing on V2V, V2I and I2V communications in the V2X dedicated frequency band. However, it does not exclude using other access technologies such as cell networks (e.g. 2G, 3G, 4G), and / or broadcasting systems (DAB, T-DMB, DVB).

 

Furthermore, the present document introduces a V2X facilities layer model allowing the identification of the functional elements belonging to the facilities layer. It is intended, that the present document will be used to scope the standardization work which is required to enable the deployment of the defined Basic Set of Applications. It is considered as a stage 1 of the ETSI ITS WG1 work. In stage 2, BSA functional requirements and operational requirements are to be developed. Detailed specifications of higher layer protocols and specifications as identified in stage 1 and stage 2 are provided in stage 3.

 

The intended audience of the document are those stakeholders developing standards for applications in the BSA. The present document can also serve as reference document for different stakeholders developing ITS services.

 

The present document takes into account the ITS requirements of the listed stakeholder categories. Each application and use case has been considered against a set of criteria in the following classes:

• Strategic requirements;

• Economical requirements;

• System Capabilities requirements;

• System performances requirements;

• Organizational requirements;

• Legal requirements; and,

• Standardization and certification requirements

 

 

8.3.3.16   TS 101 539-1 V1.1.1, 2013-08, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); V2X Application; Part 1: Road Hazard Signalling (RHS) application requirements specification

 

The document provides the specification of the ITS application Road Hazard Signalling (RHS) based on the cooperative awareness (CA) basic service and the decentralized environmental notification (DEN) basic service.

 

This includes functional and operational requirements of the RHS application for other layers and entities of an ITS-Station on both the originating and the receiving sides. For the originating side of the RHS application the operational conditions related to the hazard detection and the triggering of the DENM are specified. Furthermore values are defined for use case specific data elements of the DENM and for indication of a message priority to achieve the required timely transmission.

 

In addition, the document considers performance requirements for the generation and transmission of the CAM and DENM, which enable different levels of RHS, and also collision avoidance and collision mitigation applications

 

8.3.3.17   TS 101 539-2 V1.1.1, 2018-06, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); V2X Application; Part 2: Intersection Collision Risk Warning Specification

 

The document provides Intersection Collision Risk Warning Application requirements and specifies the necessary parameters and conditions to operate the application using CAM, DENM and the intersection service messages. It includes the specifications of functional requirements and operational requirements of the LCRW application.

 

8.3.3.18   TS 101 539-3 V1.1.1, 2013-11, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); V2X Application; Part 3: Longitudinal Collision Risk Warning Specification

 

The document provides a description of the Longitudinal Collision Risk Warning application requirements and the specification of the necessary parameters and conditions to operate the application using CAM and DENM. It includes the specifications of functional requirements and operational requirements of the LCRW application.

The objective of the document is to support ITS projects on the development of test specifications for ITS base standards from ETSI, ISO, CEN and other "Standard Developing Organisations" (SDOs) by providing:

• An ITS testing framework for conformance testing.

• An ITS testing framework for interoperability testing.

 

The testing framework proposed in the document provides guidance for development of conformance and interoperability test strategies, test systems and the resulting test specifications for ITS.

 

8.3.3.19   EN 302 636-4-1 V1.3.1, 2017-08, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4: Geographical addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications; Sub-part 1: Media-Independent Functionality

The document specifies the media-independent functionality of the GeoNetworking protocol.

 

 

8.3.3.20   EN 302 636-5-1 V2.2.1, 2019-05, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 5: Transport Protocols; Sub-part 1: Basic Transport Protocol

 

The document specifies the Basic Transport Protocol (BTP) for the transport of packets among ITS stations. It resides on top of the GeoNetworking protocol specified in ETSI EN 302 636-4-1 and ETSI TS 102 636-4-2 and below the ITS-S facilities layer. It provides an end-to-end, connection-less and unreliable transport service.

 

https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_en/302600_302699/3026360501/02.01.00_20/en_3026360501v020100a.pdf

 

8.3.3.21   EN 302 636-6-1 V1.2.1, 2014-05, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 6: Internet Integration; Sub-part 1: Transmission of IPv6 Packets over GeoNetworking Protocols

 

The document specifies the transmission of IPv6 packets over the ETSI GeoNetworking protocol via a protocol adaptation sub-layer referred to as the GN6ASL (GeoNetworking to IPv6 Adaptation Sub-Layer).

 

The scope of the document is limited to the GN6ASL. The techniques specified in the present document fulfil the requirements for GeoNetworking and IPv6 integration. In particular, these techniques allow for the transport of IPv6 packets by ETSI GeoNetworking protocol, enabling sub-IP multi-hop delivery of IPv6 packets, e.g. in a vehicular network. As a result, the connectivity provided by points-of-attachment to IPv6 infrastructure networks is extended by means of mobile relay nodes.

 

In addition to that, the techniques described in the present document allow for geocasting of IPv6 multicast packets. The scope of the GN6ASL is limited to the fulfilment of the requirements for GeoNetworking and IPv6 integration by enabling an ITS station including a GeoAdhoc router running the GeoNetworking protocol and an IPv6-compliant protocol layer to:

• exchange IPv6 packets with other ITS stations;

• acquire globally routable IPv6 unicast addresses and communicate with an arbitrary IPv6 host located in the Internet, whenever an ITS station including a GeoAdhoc router and including or connected to an access router providing IPv6 connectivity to the Internet is reachable directly or via other relay ITS stations;

• perform the operations required by for a Mobile Router whenever: a) an ITS mobile router supporting Network Mobility Basic Support (NEMO BS) [14] is present in the ITS station and runs on top of the GN6ASL; and b) an ITS station including a GeoAdhoc router and including or connected to an access router providing IPv6 connectivity to the Internet is reachable directly or via other relay ITS stations.

NOTE: The document adopts the definition of "IPv6-compliant" and "sub-IP multi-hop delivery" introduced in clause 3.1.

 

Extending the IPv6 basic standards to support new features is outside the scope of the document. Extensions to NEMO BS are outside the scope of the document. Mechanisms for the dissemination of IPv6 routing information for hosts and routers not directly attaching to the network where GeoNetworking is used are outside the scope of the document (e.g. discovery of IPv6 in-vehicle prefixes).

 

However, the document aims at providing the underlying support for the dissemination of such routing information, i.e. IPv6 multicast support for the network where the GeoNetworking protocol is used. With respect to IPv6 multicast and anycast support, the document is limited to the support required to enable distribution of IPv6 multicast and anycast traffic on a shared link.

 

Amendments to specific IPv6 multicast forwarding mechanisms are out of the scope of the document. However, the document aims at not preventing existing IPv6 multicast forwarding mechanisms from being used in conjunction with the GN6ASL. In order to facilitate the deployment of ITS systems, the document aims at maintaining backward compatibility with pre-existent IPv6-compliant protocol implementations and NEMO BS implementations.]. A usage example of NEMO BS with the GN6ASL is presented in the informative annex F. The document requires the assignment by IANA of an anycast identifier for ETSI GeoAnycast Reserved IPv6 Subnet Anycast Address (see clause 9.4). The mechanisms specified in the document are distinct from but compatible with the IPv6-related functionalities in, which specifies how IPv6 networking is generally operated in ITS stations.

 

The techniques described in the document provide a way to transport IPv6 packets that is fully compatible with the IPv6 specifications and pre-existing implementations, and hence is compatible with IPv6.

 

8.3.3.22   TS 101 556-1 V1.1.1, 2012-07, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Infrastructure to Vehicle Communication; Part 1: Electric Vehicle Charging Spot Notification Specification

 

The document specifies the application responsible for the broadcasting of dynamic information from a roadside ITS station, or any other appropriate node (e.g. EV charging spot) in possession of this information and compliant to the ITS specifications, to Electric Vehicle ITS Stations (EV) related to the availability and characteristics of the EV Charging Spot(s) in the vicinity and/or surrounding areas of the vehicle.

 

The roadside ITS station can be the EV charging spot itself. Broadcasting is defined as a communication configuration attribute which denotes a point-to-multipoint mode of transmission, i.e. unidirectional distribution to all ITS Stations connected to the network and tuned for receiving. Further interactions with the infrastructure and Central ITS Stations, like reservation or payment of a Charging Spot, are out of the scope of the document, but will be another part of the global ITS system specifications

 

 

8.3.3.23   TS 101 556-2 V1.1.1, 2016-02, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Infrastructure to Vehicle Communication; Part 2: Communication system specification to support application requirements for Tyre Information System (TIS) and Tyre Pressure Gauge (TPG) interoperability

 

The document provides a specification of the communication system required to support the requirements of Tyre Information System (TIS) application, TPG (Tyre Pressure Gauge) application and TPG operator application. The TIS application has the objective to monitor in real time the pressure of the vehicle tyres, to advise the driver and to support him for the tyre(s) refilling if one or several tyre(s) are not at the recommended pressure. TPG application and TPG operator application have the objective to notify the TPG to road users and provide tyre pressure refilling service to vehicles, either manually, or automatically. Consequently, the communication system specification considers the various phases of the driver support process starting with the provisioning of available Tyre Pressure Gauge (TPG) locations, pairing the vehicle with a selected TPG and ensuring the data elements exchange required for the selected TPG to refill the concerned tyre(s) until reaching recommended pressure(s). The present document is developed in accordance with requirements defined in CEN EN 16661.

 

 

 

 

8.3.3.24   TS 101 556-3 V1.1.1, 2014-10, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Infrastructure to Vehicle Communication; Part 3: Communications system for the planning and reservation of EV energy supply using wireless networks

 

The document specifies wireless application protocols and messages supporting the discovery of offered services (completing related discovery protocols), charging spot reservation (and possible renegotiation), pre-payment of the service reservation in the vehicle (involving pre-payment support or contract validation), and application-level logical pairing of the Electric Vehicle to a selected charging spot. Requirements regarding the underlying transport and network layer services are also defined.

 

 

 

8.3.3.25   TS 102 636-4-2 V1.1.1, 2013-10, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4: Geographical addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications; Sub-part 2: Media dependent functionalities for ITS-G5A media

 

The document specifies the media-dependent functionalities for GeoNetworking over ITS-G5 as a network protocol for ad hoc routing in vehicular environments

 

 

 

8.3.3.26   TS 102 637-1 V1.1.1, 2010-09, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 1: Functional Requirements

 

The document provides the functional requirements for the applications and their use cases as defined in the BSA. The intended audience of the document are those stakeholders developing standards for applications in the BSA. The document can also serve as a reference document for stakeholders developing and implementing the BSA use cases. It is not the intention of the document to specify the development nor the implementation procedure of BSA use cases.

 

 

 

8.3.3.27    TS 102 687 V1.2.1, 2018-04, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Decentralized Congestion Control Mechanisms for Intelligent Transport Systems operating in the 5 GHz range; Access layer part

The document describes the means of controlling the data traffic injected to a frequency channel from the access layer perspective. The outlined algorithms are only applicable to ITS-G5.

 

 

 

 

8.3.3.28   TS 102 724 V1.1.1, 2012-10, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Harmonized Channel Specifications for Intelligent Transport Systems operating in the 5 GHz frequency band

The document specifies details of the channel usage in the ITS G5A and ITS G5B bands including multichannel operation support which includes

• Control and service channels operation for ITS G5;

• Usage of ITS G5 channels for road safety and traffic efficiency ITS applications;

• ITS G5 transmit and receive policies, channel selection and configuration;

• Per-traffic-stream and per-channel rate control;

• Reference usage scenarios and parameters;

• ITS G5 adjacent channel interference considerations.

 

The specified parameters and procedures will be used in the definition of the cross layer DCC algorithms and management entities.

 

8.3.3.29   TS 102 731 V1.1.1, 2010-09, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; Security Services and Architecture

 

The document specifies mechanisms at the stage 2 level defined by ETS 300 387 for secure and privacy-preserving communication in ITS environments. It describes facilities for credential and identity management, privacy and anonymity, integrity protection, authentication and authorization. The mechanisms are specified as stage 2 security services according to the 3 stage method described in ETS 300 387, and identify the functional entities and the information flow between them.

 

The stage 2 security services will be refined into a number of security protocols as part of the stage 3 specifications.

 

There may be several security protocols able to fulfil the requirements of a security services. The present document describes the stage 2 security architecture of the ETSI Intelligent Transport System (ITS).

 

The stage 2 security architecture and security services shall be used as the basis for further developing the ITS security architecture by mapping the security services and its functional components to the ITS architecture. This mapping is part of stage 3 specifications.

 

8.3.3.30   TS 102 792 V1.2.1, 2015-06, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Mitigation techniques to avoid interference between European CEN Dedicated Short Range Communication (CEN DSRC) equipment and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) operating in the 5 GHz frequency range

 

Radio transmissions in the ITS-G5A/B/D frequency bands (see ETSI EN 302 571) interfere with CEN DSRC using the TTT band (see EC Decision 2013/752/EC when equipment from both systems are close to each other. This was shown in ECC Report 101, ECC Report 228 [i.8], ETSI TR 102 960 and ETSI TR 102 654.

 

The document specifies requirements to ensure coexistence between ITS stations using the frequency bands ITS-G5A/B/D and CEN DSRC using the TTT band. It is intended to be used as a basis for product development and for development of suitable testing procedures to prove conformance to regulations.

 

8.3.3,31 TR 102 893 V1.2.1, 2017-03, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; Threat, Vulnerability and Risk Analysis (TVRA)

 

The document summarizes the results of a Threat, Vulnerability and Risk Analysis (TVRA) of 5,9 GHz radio communications in an Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The analysis considers vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside network infrastructure communications services in the ITS Basic Set of Applications (BSA) operating in a fully deployed ITS.

 

The document was prepared using the TVRA method described in ETSI TS 102 165-1.

 

NOTE: Whilst the document is a technical report it identifies requirements for future work. In all cases these requirements are considered indicative pending their ratification in formal ETSI Technical Specifications within the ETSI ITS Work Programme.


 

8.3.3.32   TS 102 894-1 V1.1.1, 2013-08, Intelligent Transport System (ITS); Users and Applications requirements; Part 1: Facility layer structure, functional requirements and specifications

The document defines the functional architecture for the facilities layer of the ITS station and provides functional requirements and specifications for main identified facilities. The identified facilities are required to support BSA.

 

Other proprietary facilities might be required to be included in the facilities layer for BSA and other ITS applications. Such proprietary facilities are not defined in the present document.

 

 

 

 

8.3.3.33   TS 102 894-2 V1.3.1, 2018-08, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Users and applications requirements; Part 2: Applications and facilities layer common data dictionary

 

The document defines a repository of a set of data elements and data element sets, denoted as data frames, that are commonly used in the ITS applications and facilities layer messages.

 

Each data element is defined with a set of attributes, enabling the identification of the data element in question in a number of perspectives, e.g. descriptive name, ASN.1 definition, data definition, minimum data granularity requirement, etc.

 

The document focuses on the data elements being used by the Cooperative Awareness basic service as outlined in ETSI EN 302 637-2 and by the Decentralized Environmental Notification basic service as outlined in ETSI EN 302 637-3. The present document does not specify the syntax and requirements of data elements in the specific context of any message. Such syntax and requirements are specified in the corresponding message standards such as ETSI EN 302 637-2 and ETSI EN 302 637-3.

 

 

 

8.3.3.34   TS 102 940 V1.3.1, 2018-04, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; ITS communications security architecture and security management

 

The document specifies a security architecture for Intelligent Transport System (ITS) communications. Based upon the security services defined in TS 102 731, it identifies the functional entities required to support security in an ITS environment and the relationships that exist between the entities themselves and the elements of the ITS reference architecture defined in EN 302 665.

 

The document also identifies the roles and locations of a range of security services for the protection of transmitted information and the management of essential security parameters. These include identifier and certificate management, PKI processes and interfaces as well as basic policies and guidelines for trust establishment.

 

 

 

8.3.3.35   TS 102 941 V1.3.1, 2019-02, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; Trust and Privacy Management

 

The document specifies the trust and privacy management for Intelligent Transport System (ITS) communications. Based upon the security services defined in ETSI TS 102 731 and the security architecture defined in ETSI TS 102 940, it identifies the trust establishment and privacy management required to support security in an ITS environment and the relationships that exist between the entities themselves and the elements of the ITS reference architecture defined in ETSI EN 302 665.

 

The document identifies and specifies security services for the establishment and maintenance of identities and cryptographic keys in an Intelligent Transport System (ITS). Its purpose is to provide the functions upon which systems of trust and privacy can be built within an ITS.