car park.jpg
 
 
 
16.
Parking

 

 

16.0    Parking Landscape

16.0.1    General

 

Parking is an integral part of a modern industrialised society. Access to parking services, whether free or paid, forms part of both an integrated, multimodal traveller experience as well as a regular part of day to day living for citizens and the delivery of services in the context of business, shopping, commerce, education, health, etc.


In the past the parking industry has been highly fragmented, with the larger market providers controlling a small proportion of available parking; and many small operators.  Provision is made both by private operators and public entities - with provision been quite disparate in nature. Most parking is owned by property owners (e.g. a building for business tends to own its own parking, a university owns its parking, plus municipalities own parking assets (garages and on street).  The deployment of common services and common data has no particularly prevalent historical tradition as many solutions have been isolated and local.

Historically parking was an ad-hoc process with the driver searching for available parking areas either on-street or within off-street parking places, where the cost of parking, the type of restrictions, the current or predicted availability, etc. are not known before arrival at the intended location for parking.  Parking provision, historically, is very diverse in terms of the organisation managing and offering parking, the ways in which parking is offered and controlled, and what systems and equipment are used to support different deployments (pay by Automatic Number Plate Recognition; pay and display (pay in advance and display proof of payment); pay by space; contract parking; pay in arrears (typically by use of tickets), as well as other features such as validations and discounts, etc.).

 

This situation has been evolving over time, perhaps most visibly with traffic managers deploying and controlling driver parking advisory systems, typically using different forms of variable message signs, generally within an urban environment or peri-urban approaches to cities or larger traffic attractors (such as regional shopping complexes).  Pricing is used as a means to manage and direct vehicles to different locations. Additionally, driver information services via over-air broadcast services, mobile internet services, as well as internet-based services support pre-trip planning services, more recently including parking related information, and sometimes reservation services.

 

More recent developments see services including parking information being available via in-vehicle service provision, via smartphone apps, internet sites, as well as service provision platforms providing comparison and additional service offerings, including parking provision, reservation and payment services.  These changes are driven by economic, mobility, environmental, or accessibility policies, associated regulation, commercial imperative, and changing market dynamics as more of us expect access to high-quality services at the touch of a button and the expectation to electronically pay for services that would previously been transacted on a cash-only basis.

 

As well as the distinction for parking between on-street and off-street general parking provision, there are also more specialised provision for specific purposes, such as safe and secure truck parking, retail parking, but also integrating parking into other services (e.g. event parking with event ticket, public transport [park & ride] parking tied to public transport ticketing, etc). These are covered in more detail below.

 

From a standardisation perspective within the world of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), there have been historic efforts to establish formal standards that have sought input from parking industry stakeholders.  These have not been entirely successful, due to the fragmented nature of the parking industry, but the factors influencing change are bringing existing standards to more prominence as well as the development of new standards in this domain.

 

Parking is a critical service in today's modern urbanised world. Parking and kerbside management are intricately linked to a range of ITS and transport domains. They have fast growing, strong interactions with logistics and freight, traffic management, traffic regulations and circulation, EV charging and co-mobility as well as multi-modal travel - as parking is a key interchange point for many multi-modal journeys.

 

The parking sector is an important economic activity in its own right. Within the 27 EU Member States it employs over 450,000 people and has an annual turnover in excess of 70 billion €. Most importantly, parking is a strategic policy tool, as well as a significant revenue generator for many public authorities.

 

The parking sector has been and continues to be at the forefront of innovation in terms sustainable mobility solutions and the introduction of digitization into the operation of parking and kerbside management activities. As the number of actors in the parking sector increased along with the complexity of the interactions between them the necessity for wider uptake and use of appropriate standards for data exchange becomes clear.

 

 

 

16.0.2    Scope of this section

Parking management has no unique, unambiguous definition. According to the Oxford English Dictionary Parking is "the action of moving a vehicle into a place in a car park or by the side of the road where it can be left".  The term "car park" is not internationally standardised with a variety of terms in common usage such as "car park", "parking", "parking lot", "garage", etc. Some modern services would even include parking on private driveways if these are offered as part of a service.

 

This section also looks at related activities which see use of the kerb side, to support:

  • vehicle waiting,

  • loading and unloading passengers or freight,

  • set-down and pick-up which are terms generally related to provisioned services such as public transport buses, coaches, taxis, private hire vehicles, and dynamic responsive services

 

Kerb-side management is a relatively new term and area of great interest as a means to implement policy, provide equality of access and use, promote healthy living, etc. It is also a novel area for standardisation.

 

 

 

 

16.1   Overview of stakeholders

16.1.1    Context

 

There are a large number of actors that have interest in various elements of parking – which can encompass on-street and off-street provision, free to use or paid, various rights usage models, various means for users to purchase or obtain rights, and various roles in the provision, operation, control, monitoring, enforcement and regulation of parking.  The following subsections provide a description of the most significant stakeholders, in what can sometimes be very complex operational and deployment scenarios.

 

NOTE: these stakeholder types and definitions are not standardised and instances of use are contextual and may vary significantly – as such, they are provided for general guidance only.

 

16.1.2    End user

 

Individual or organisation making use of a right for an intended purpose – in the case of parking, typically a vehicle driver undertaking the act of parking the driven vehicle.

 

 

16.1.3    Place owner

 

Person or organization that is the legally recognised owner of a place (or facility).

 

 

Note: given that parking occurs with a range of locations, sometimes with defined controlled structures (car parks or similar), at motorway or autoroute service areas, commercial and freight vehicle parks, residential and business parking zones or can be undertaken at the kerb-side on-street either in a controlled parking area or zone or in an uncontrolled manner, the term place here can have a broad interpretation.  The phrase "parking option" and "facility" is also used to describe parking places in this section.

 

 

16.1.4    Place operator

 

Person or organization that is providing day to day operational control for a place.

 

 

 

16.1.5    Customer service provider

 

Person or organization providing end-user oriented services for a place.

 

 

 

16.1.6    Emergency service contact provider

 

Person or organization providing emergency assistance contact, support and/or response for a place.

 

 

 

16.1.7    Property manager

 

Person or organization that manages infrastructure for a place typically on behalf of an owner.

 

 

 

16.1.8    Security service provider

 

Person or organization providing security monitoring, support and/or response for a place.

 

 

 

16.1.9    Equipment provider

 

Entity that supplies equipment (e.g. software and hardware technology to access control, monitor or facilitate payment) to an owner or operator.

 

 

 

16.1.10    Service provider

 

Entity that provides services to Operator, Users, Right Holders, etc. e.g. payment, reservation, enforcement processing, reselling Rights, etc.

 

 

 

16.1.11    Rights owner

 

Entity holding a right or permission for a specific set of actions typically related to an identifiable place, that often will grant that permission to others for benefit or gain. This is typically the owner or operator.

 

 

 

16.1.12    Rights issuer

 

Entity holding permission from the Rights owner or subsequent granted rights holders to issue or resell the given right. Typically, this is the operator or service provider.

 

 

 

16.1.13    Rights holder

 

Person or organization holding a given right, which may have been purchased and subject to usage constraints. This is typically the end user.

 

 

 

16.1.14    Urban administrations

Statutory bodies which exist within a jurisdiction and a specific area of responsibility delivering services and capabilities for the benefit of citizens, enterprises and social infrastructure. Urban administrations typically seek to provide policy and investment (both capital and on-going resource operational expenditure) to achieve a set of often competing policy and strategy objectives.  Concerning parking, urban administrations often seek to ensure liveability of the urban realm, often considering air quality, noise pollution levels, accessibility, mobility and the balance and connectivity for different modes of transport (vehicle, bicycle, foot traffic, other modes); but also supporting the provisioning of services to citizens, and public and private enterprises; and opportunities to develop local enterprises and social society.

 

 

 

16.1.15    Enforcement authorities, agencies and their officers

Law enforcement agency or organisation which is a statutory body, or its agents, existing within a jurisdiction and a specific area of responsibility that administers legislation to regulate, monitors and potentially enforce compliance with existing legislation.  Within the domain of parking this is likely to encompass public and private sector organisations responsible for the identification and prosecution of reparative actions relating to the infringement of a given right.

 

 

 

16.1.16    Traffic managers

Entities responsible for the safe and efficient use through monitoring and control of traffic and activities on the road network.

 
 
 

16.2   Main functional areas

16.2.1    Functional area - Overview

 

This section subdivides the topic of parking operations and management into a set of disciplines of functional areas, against which the key relevant standards and links to European Regulations are provided.

 

The functional areas listed are as follows:

 

  • Parking management – systems architecture

  • Parking management – information sharing

  • Parking control systems

  • Reservation and payment services

  • Automated valet parking

  • Regulated vehicle parking

  • Truck parking information services

 

This list is not exhaustive,  but provides a structure for the sub-sections that follow that link and reference published standards. Other domains, which lack published standards could also be highlighted such as event parking management, parking enforcement, policy functions (such as tariff setting and control) and planning (including planning policy and consent).

 

16.2.2    Parking management – Systems architecture

16.2.2.1     Purpose

 

The purpose of this functional area is to integrate systems and tools needed to enable effective management of parking and kerb side management places.

 

Parking management and operations is a diverse and fragmented area, encompassing a wide spectrum of different technologies and approaches to ensure effective management of parking and related places.  Parking operators and management tends to use a variety of technologies but seek to integrate data. The technical choices of different operators differ. Parking places may be on-street or off-street and operated by entities from either the public or private sector.  Parking management encompasses a range of functions which are in turn supported by numerous technologies:

 

  • Access control

  • Credential and rights management

  • Parking session management

  • Detection and observations

  • Links to payment, reservation and financial transactions

  • Revenue control and management

  • Reporting and auditing

  • Monitoring, infringement identification and enforcement

 

Parking offers (the intended usage and user base of a provided place) may be targeted to achieve different objectives, serve differentiated market sectors, and have to be dynamic across time.  As such, the ITS architectures, systems and tools in this application area need to:

 

  • align with, and support, policy choices and decisions

  • support practical operational practice, management regimes and outcome objectives

  • take account of business practices, commercial arrangements, management of parking places (both on and off street)

  • provide interfaces with other relevant disciplines such as access to traffic information, public transport integration, kerbside/Automated Mobility management, freight and fleet operations, payment services, etc.

 

Technical choices are also often constrained by physical constraints, existing physical design and construction limitations which prevent adaptation to new requirements.

 

Due to a range of local factors, commercial models, regulatory conditions and the multiplicity of actors involved, no singular architectural model exists, but standards do support functional, organisation and system architecture views on how to organise parking enterprises, and provide common building blocks to meet specific functional needs.

 

The task of designing, delivering and managing an overall architecture is likely to be focussed primarily on parking place operators (both public and private sector), commercial platforms of information provision, reservation service and rights sales, with commercial entities with required interfaces to the relevant policy and regulatory authorities.

 

 

 

16.2.2.2   Actors

Different aspects of parking management involve a wide range of actors, as described in the following sections. Each separate functional domain has requirements for the systems that support it, and these often link and interconnect to those of other functional domains.

 

The task of designing, delivering and managing an overall architecture for a specific configuration of parking management is likely to be led by system suppliers working in conjunction with the parking operator.  Many parking places are operated on behalf of the owner of the place - be that municipalities, highway operators or private real estate owners.  Deployment and operations of such systems is normally set within a framework of legislation and local ordinances which covers acceptable practice, infringement and enforcement processes. 

 

Regulations to protect personal privacy are an important factor in parking operations, especially when weighed against the need to record the arrival and departure of identifiable vehicles, ensuring compliance concerning payment for services used, etc. Many urban environments will see local authorities granting concessions or similar outsourcing arrangements to enable private sector entities to deliver high-quality, cost effective parking management services. However, commercial private sector parking offers are also common.

 

Many other actors may have involvement.

 

 

 

16.2.2.3    System context

 

At high level, the system context for parking management is shown in Figure 16.1 below. The individual components respect different functional domains, as described in the remainder of this section.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 16.1 - Simplified High level functional architecture for parking management

 

 

16.2.2.4    Relevant Standards

There are no standards in the ITS domain that specifically address architectural design of parking management systems.  

 

Architectural frameworks for ITS (see Section 7 [architectures]), such as FRAME and ARC-IT, recognise parking as a distinct set of functions, see section 16.4.1.5 and 16.4.1.6 respectively. However, as different deployed solutions call upon different technologies to support functions within the overall deployment the nature of system architectures for parking operations and management is known to very widely, often underpinned by proprietary commercial systems products.

There are a great many cross-references to specific technology standards – and several domains-specific architectural models also have relevance for the delivery of parking-related capabilities. For example, technologies, systems architecture, roles and responsibilities and contractual arrangements supporting Electronic Fee Collection which is most normally associated with collection of fees for use of paid-for roads, is also deployed for access control and accounts-based payments for some parking places. Where appropriate these have been crossed referenced in the Sections below.

 

 

 

16.2.2.5   Parking functions within FRAME

FRAME - European Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Framework Architecture, is outlined in Section 7.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 16.2 - FRAME Architecture – High-Level Functional Areas

 

 

 

FRAME describes this sub-area as follows: These are assumed to exist in the urban environment, although in practice as an alternative they could be used in the inter-urban environment.  The facilities enable the use of car park spaces to be monitored both in terms of the numbers being used (car park occupancy and/or car park state) and the time that individual spaces are used.  The consequent state of car parks is output directly to Drivers.

 

It is also possible for Drivers to be charged for the use of particular car park spaces and for them to be prosecuted for overstaying their time in a particular space.  Information about the car park occupancy and status is passed to the Trip Planning and Traffic Management data storage facilities, as well as to the inter-urban service area management facilities.  Facilities are provided in this High-level Function for the direct output to Drivers of information about the status of service areas.  

 

The Parking Operator is able to provide data about the spaces available in each car park, monitor the use of the car parks, to override the status setting (e.g. to close a car park) and to obtain a record of the payment for the use of car park spaces.

 

This Functional Area is sub-divided into 9 sub-areas (High Level Functions):

 

        ·3.1.4.1 Monitor numbers of vehicles in Car Parks
        ·3.1.4.2 Detect the occupancy of Car Park spaces
        ·3.1.4.3 Calculate Occupancy for individual Car Park Spaces
        ·3.1.4.4 Calculate Car Park Occupancy and Status
        ·3.1.4.6 Collect Payment for Car Park space use
        ·3.1.4.7 Provide Operator interface for Car Park Management
        ·3.1.4.8 Manage Urban Parking Data Store
        ·3.1.4.9 Output Car Park Information to Drivers

 

NOTE: FRAME references car parks but in general these functions can be applied to other forms of parking operations within a controlled facility/place (e.g. truck parking).

 

 

 

16.2.2.6    Parking functions within ARC-IT            

 

ARC-IT, see Section 7, defines most elements related to parking operations within the Service Area "Parking Management" (link) which addresses the management of parking operations including both space management and the electronic payment for parking.

This area supports communication and coordination between equipped parking places and regional coordination between parking places and traffic and public transport management systems. It includes monitoring and managing parking spaces and in lots, garages, and other parking areas and places as well as loading/unloading zones.

 

Within the " Parking Management " Service Area ARC-IT defines 6 Service Packages:

  • PM01: Parking Space Management

  • PM02: Smart Park and Ride System

  • PM03: Parking Electronic Payment

  • PM04: Regional Parking Management

  • PM05: Parking Reservations

  • PM06: Loading Zone Management

 

 

16.2.3    Legislation on system architectures for parking operations and management

 

There is currently no Europe-wide legislation that requires a specific approach to be adopted to parking operations and management system architectures.

 

Systems using data that may be considered personal (generally originating in the identity of the user using parking places) will be subject to European regulation on the processing of such data, that is to say to GDPR (REGULATION (EU) 2016/679 of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data). This is likely to have implications for cybersecurity design and practice across the architecture.

 

 

16.2.4   Parking operations and management – Information sharing

16.2.4.1    Purpose

 

The purpose of this functional area is to provide information concerning parking operations and management to support a range of information services.

 

Information sharing in relation to parking management is used to support a wide range of information services, which are detailed more below.  These information flows include, but are not limited to:

 

  • The choice of parking options available

  • Aids to drivers in locating and navigating to parking options

  • The availability of parking options, and sometimes predicted trends for availability

  • The cost (rates or tariffs) for parking options

  • Any restrictions on use applying to parking options, including hours of operation

  • Commercial offers available to use parking options (typically referred to as Rights)

  • Reservation opportunities, mechanisms, availability and confirmation

  • Recording of instances of use of parking options – typically tied to specific vehicles and/or specific use of Rights

  • Observations of instances of parking for monitoring, control, or infringement identification purposes

  • Accessibility to/from parking options (e.g. wheelchair accessibility, or passenger lift access to all floors of a multistorey structure)

  • Opportunities for transport mode interchange, distances to points of interest

  • Other services that are available in conjunction with parking options – such as Disabled Toilets, shower and toilet block facilities, prescribed levels of security, connections for power supplies -  for example - for electric vehicle charging

  • How and where to buy Rights to the use of parking options and branding

  • Permits, visible labels or badges, required for Rights conformance

  • Rights infringement monitoring, enforcement and penalties

  • Loyalty schemes, etc.

 

 

16.2.4.2    Actors

  • Parking operators

  • Service providers

  • Traveller information system providers

  • Traffic Managers

  • Mobility platform providers

  • Journey planning platform providers

  • Data integrators

  • Enforcement agencies

 

 

 

 

 

16.2.4.3     Systems context

 

As described above the need to and desire to share a spectrum of information concerning parking continues to strengthen, both in terms of the provision on improved and novel information services and also to support evolving configurations of business actors involved in the delivery of parking services. Figure 16.3 provides an illustration of some of the actors appearing in the modern parking data information network.

 

Due to the diversity and complexity of existing deployed parking operations and management systems and their fixed geographical deployment localised configurations are common. 

 

To support both integration of parking commercial arrangement and information service provision and in support of policy objectives, there is both user demand and increasing regulatory obligation to provide common interfaces and shared common data on parking.  Necessarily in this diverse landscape, the use of standards is paramount to providing common data.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 16.3 - Growing complexity of data flows in the parking domain

(Courtesy of the Alliance for Parking Data Standards)

16.2.4.4    Relevant Standards – Overview

 

It is common for standards to be developed by a group of stakeholders sharing consensus views on common aims developing outputs that are well suited to their perspective and business needs. It is also natural for all standards that scope boundaries are defined. To some degree parking spans across a number of different disciplines and therefore it is not entirely surprising to find that we have parking data appearing in a set of different technical standards which have been borne from different disciplines and communities of interest. 

 

When viewed from, for example, a perspective of multimodal travel information services for public transport, parking is often seen as the basis for a point on the journey to change mode of transport – often when a traveller joins public transport networks.  In some cases, special provisions exist, such as park and ride places, where through policy initiatives, sometimes linked to measures to limit or aggressively price city centre parking options, private car users are encouraged to park their vehicle and choose public transport options as a convenient alternative.

 

For traffic management purposes, parking is often seen as the end point of a road journey where the priority aim is how to efficiently guide traffic to parking places in a way that is efficient and non-disruptive to the road network.  This has benefits in reducing congestion on the network, air quality improvements and making best use of sometimes scarce parking resources. Then when viewed from the perspective of regulated vehicles, the provision of parking information is often a secondary effect to the desire to support drivers to manage driving hours and find suitable locations for necessary rest stops. This supports driver hours regulations compliance and in a way such that commercial vehicles can be safely and securely taken away from the road network.

 

Therefore in Europe, we have two primary families of CEN standards, from different domains, which define parking data using unaligned models, concepts and definitions. These CEN standards covering parking data can be found in:

 

  • the Transmodel family of CEN standards for public transport – EN 12896 series standards ("Transmodel"); CEN TS 16614 series standards ("NeTEx") – see section 16.4.3.1,

  • the EN 16157 "DATEX II" series of CEN standards (most specifically CEN TS 16157-6) covering traffic management and information – see section 16.4.3.1. 

 

The CEN standards are referenced in EU Delegated Regulations.

 

Additionally, a global industry initiative, the Alliance for Parking Data Standards (APDS), responding to parking industry and kerbside management stakeholder needs from within Europe and beyond, is developing specifications that they consider represent the data exchange requirements of their stakeholders. The APDS specifications form the basis of an emerging ISO Technical Specification ISO/TS 5206-1; with formal publication foreseen in mid-2022, with strong European parking sector support.

 

The shaping of these standards has been led by their stakeholder communities seeking to apply modelling to the parking domain that fits to the stakeholder requirements coming from those specific domains.  Hence, we find many common parking concepts are shared within these standards.  As these standards have been developed independently by separate Working Groups within CEN/TC 278, the basis of modelling, terminology and how concepts are grouped and related differ between the two CEN standards (and also the APDS specification). The emphasis of the two standards is also different. Uptake of use of the standards for parking data has not yet been significant.

 

In support of the EU ITS Directive (2010/40/EU), Delegated Regulations have been established and adopted to support the deployment of more coherent ITS information services covering a range of topics including multimodal traveller information, traffic management, traffic information, safe or secure truck parking, etc. These Delegated Regulations (EU Delegated Regulations 2013/885, 2013/886, 2015/926, 2017/1296) place obligation upon EU Member States to enact national legislation that will make a range of transport and mobility data available, including references to parking data, park and ride information, etc.

 

In 2018, a project funded and participated in by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), sought to provide clarity on the Technical Standards and standardisation gaps in the scope of Priority Action A of the ITS Directive (EU-wide multimodal travel information services). The project was named "INSPIRE support to MMTIS", formed under the European Location Interoperability Solutions for e-Government (ELISE) programme.  It reviewed and identified overlaps between standards for specific data categories in the Annex of the Regulation 2017/1296. Regarding the parking model, no agreement took place within the project team "INSPIRE support to MMTIS" to determine a Reference standard. 

 

In 2019, the DATEX II stakeholder community steering group took an independent decision to seek to adopt the APDS data model as the basis for the DATEX II data model for parking and consequently as the basis of the revised version of CEN TS 16157-6. An important consideration was that on-street parking management is a public responsibility, controlled by public organisations running a much larger process that is supported by APDS standards. The traffic and travel management view on on-street and off-street parking overlaps significantly with a subset of the parking operations information requirements. Data provision as such will only be implemented in a sustainable way if the standards used are supportive to the primary processes of the data source. Supporting the user views of both by a joined and aligned set of standards is of greatest interest for both communities and will significantly contribute to the aims of the EU Delegated Regulations: opening datasets for enhanced traveller support.

 

APDS has committed to work with the DATEX II community to ensure revised specifications continue to provide the technical means to meet obligations laid out under Delegated Regulations 885/2013 and 2015/962. A tool that supports the mapping of APDS/DATEX encoded datasets to TM/N data structures for the core data-elements will be provided to facilitate unambiguous interpretation in mixed environments. The parking industry is familiar with such conversion tools as the current multiplicity of actors and data formats makes them necessary.

 

Although initial three-way collaborative discussions have concluded, between representatives for the two families of CEN standards (Transmodel/NeTEx and DATEX II) and APDS it can be expected that further alignment of these standards will emerge in future.

 

 

 

 

 

16.2.4.5    Relevant Standards – Parking data in the traffic management domain

In Europe the premier framework for traffic management is the DATEX II framework – this is described in more detail in the Traffic Management section (see section 21). DATEX II is primarily aimed at the structured data relevant to traffic management – especially for professional use (e.g by other traffic managers or information service providers).

 

With respect to parking data the key standard is CEN TS 16157-6: Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 6: Parking publications

 

This is currently under revision (see below).   Scope: This new work item will produce the sixth part of the DATEX II Technical Specifications which deals with a DATEX II Level B extension (two publications and a Truck Parking profile) that supports the exchange of static as well as dynamic information about parking facilities and areas, including intelligent truck parking as defined by the directive 2010/40/EU priority actions e and f. The publications are intended to support the exchange of informational content from the organisation performing measurements and collecting/eliciting basic data to other organisations providing ITS services or onward information exchange. It is the ambition to harmonise existing information models from different sources such as EasyWay deployment guidelines, In-Time CAI and Truck Parking initiatives, and to liaise with the stakeholders involved.

 

CEN/TS 16157-6 provides data structures defining parking data, structured to support 3 distinct types of publications:

 

  • ParkingTablePublication – which provides data content, primarily static in nature, concerning parking facilities (including parking sites, groups of parking sites, parking spaces and how they relate to one another), times of operation, tariff structures, limitations on use (assignments, permits and prohibitions), location and characteristics data, information on equipment and service facilities, contact information related to the parking facility, etc.

 

  • ParkingStatusPublication – which references across to records provided by the ParkingTablePublication, and supports a more compact provision of dynamic status information (for example occupancy, availability etc.) for parking sites/groups of parking sites/parking spaces as well as status information for a number of other specific elements from the static part of the Parking Publications model (routes, usage scenarios, equipment and service facilities etc.).

  • ParkingVehiclesPublication – provides data relating to individual parked vehicles with their characteristics and specific parking related information.

 

 

CEN/TS 16157-6 provides defined profiles of how these DATEX II publications are expected to be used in a number of use cases scenarios:

 

 

  • Comprehensive DATEX II profile for urban parking information - capable of urban parking information, i.e. infrastructure and occupancy information for parking sites located in an urban context

 

  • Lean DATEX II profile for urban parking - to provide an information structure with reduced complexity that may be used to describe urban parking information with focus on primary data only

 

 

CEN/TS 16157-6:2015 is coherent with other Parts of the DATEX II 16157 series of standards, most notably using the DATEX II data modelling methodology, as specified in 16157-1, and location referencing methods as specified in 16157-2.

 

At the time of writing CEN TS 16157-6 is current under revision.

 

As mentioned above the DATEX II community steering group has decided to replace its own parking data model with the industry-led one coming from APDS, and at the time of writing integration work is underway which will see this revised content presented in the revision of CEN TS 16157-6.

 

 

 

16.2.4.6    Reference to European Regulation – Parking data in EU-wide real-time traffic information services

 

EU Delegated Regulation 2015/962 concerning the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services.

 

Article 4 states:

 

1. For the purpose of facilitating the provision of compatible, interoperable, and continuous real-time traffic information services across the Union, road authorities and road operators shall provide the dynamic road status data they collect and update pursuant to Article 9[1] in DATEX II (CEN/TS 16157 and subsequently upgraded versions) format or any machine-readable format fully compatible and interoperable with DATEX II.

 

 

This Delegated Regulation specifies the following data categories related to parking information to be made available through the NAP (Member States National Access Points):

 

Static road data, including:

  • Location of parking places and service areas,

 

Dynamic road status data, including:

  • Availability of parking places,

  • Cost of parking.

 

 

 

16.2.4.7    Relevant Standards – Parking data in the public transport domain

 

Standardisation of public transport data is extensive and mature. In the European context, the central reference model for this is Transmodel (EN12896 series). The current version is documented in eight normative specifications and one guidance document (for more details see section 17 [public transport]):

 

EN 12896-1:2016: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 1: Common concepts

EN 12896-2:2016: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 2: Public transport network

EN 12896-3:2016: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 3: Timing information and vehicle scheduling

EN 12896-4:2019: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 4: Operations monitoring and control

EN 12896-5:2019: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 5: Fare management

EN 12896-6:2019: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 6: Passenger information

EN 12896-7:2019: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 7: Driver management

EN 12896-8:2019: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 8: Management information & statistics

CEN TR 12896-9:2019: Public transport - Reference data model - Part 9: Informative documentation

 

Transmodel as a conceptual model is relatively abstract, but this is supported by standards which provide more concrete specifications for particular parts of the public transport domain. Parking data high-level concepts are defined in the Transmodel series, with more specific implementation details provided in the NeTEx family of standards (EN16614 series – Public transport – Network and timetable exchange (NeTEx)):

 

 

 

16.2.4.8    Reference to European Regulation - provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services

 

EU Delegated Regulation 2017/1926 concerning the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services.

 

Article 4 states:

 

1. Transport authorities, transport operators, infrastructure managers or transport on demand service providers shall provide the static travel and traffic data and historic traffic data listed in point 1 of the Annex (which contains the list of data categories concerned by the regulation), of the different transport modes by using:

 

(a) for the road transport, the standards defined in Article 4 of Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/962;

 

(b) for other transport modes, the use of one of the following standards and technical specifications: NeTEx EN16614 and subsequent versions, technical documents defined in Regulation (EU) No 454/2011 (TAP TSI for rail) and subsequent versions, technical documents elaborated by IATA or any machine-readable format fully compatible and interoperable with those standards and technical specifications;

 

(c) for the spatial network the requirements defined in Article 7 of Directive 2007/2/EC (INSPIRE).

 

This Delegated Regulation specifies the following data categories related to parking information to be made available through the NAP:

 

Static travel data

 

Level of service 1

 

  1. Location search, including:

 

  • Points of interest to which people may wish to travel,

 

Note: The "INSPIRE support to MMTIS" project sought to clarify the understanding of this data category in 2017/1926 and considered parking facilities to be included as Points of Interest.  This clarification is informative and has no legal standing.

 

Level of service 2

 

Location search (demand-responsive modes), including:

 

  • Park & Ride stops,

 

  • Bike sharing stations,

 

  • Car-sharing stations,

 

  • Secure bike parking (such as locked bike garages),

 

 

Information service, including:

 

  • Where and how to buy tickets for .... and car parking (incl. retail channels, fulfilment methods, payment methods),

 

Level of service 3:

 

  1. Information service (all modes), including:

 

  • Where and how to pay for car parking....

 

Dynamic information provision:

 

Level of service 2

 

(c)  Availability check

  • Car-sharing availability, bike sharing availability,

  • Car parking spaces available (on and off-street), parking tariffs.

 

 

Article 9 - Updating dynamic road status data

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16.2.5    Parking control systems

16.2.5.1   Purpose

 

The purpose of this functional area is to provide systems and services that support the effective management and control of use of parking options.  These systems and services monitor and manage parking activity in parking places and on-street controlled parking zones and spaces and other parking areas. Access control systems are often used in the management of parking operations by monitoring parking place ingress and egress, parking space occupancy and availability.

 

Infrastructure-based detectors and/or connected vehicles may be used to monitor parking occupancy, which may be achieved at a place-wide level, within intermediate zones, or in some cases relating to an identifiable parking space.

 

 

 

16.2.5.2   Stakeholders

 

  • Place owner

  • Place operator

  • Security service provider

  • Rights owner

  • Rights issuer

  • Urban administrations

  • Enforcement authorities, agencies and their officers

  • Traffic Managers

  • System suppliers

 

 

 

 

16.2.5.3   Systems context

 

A wide range of management and control mechanisms are deployed across a range of operating environments.  These systems support a range of functions:

 

  • Access control – forms of physical entry and exit access controls, Automatic Number Plate Recognition, EFC tag identification, drive-up ticket issuing machines, QR readers, oversize vehicle detection systems, etc.

 

  • Monitoring – demand and supply (traffic count) systems, CCTV camera systems (for both monitoring and security purposes), Dynamic pricing algorithms, if used.

 

 

 

16.2.5.4   Key standards

 

Due to the diverse nature of technologies and approaches used for access control, monitoring (and payment), apart from specific instances where technologies and architectures from other domains are extended to cover parking (such as the use of EFC toll tags to control ingress and egress from places and support electronic account based payment) there are no existing European standards in the ITS domain relating to the control and management of parking places.

 

Some common technical approaches and frameworks do exist at a national level. For example, in the UK the Urban Traffic Management & Control (UTMC) Specifications provide both a technical framework and interface specifications for a wide range of traffic management equipment and expressly include interface specifications for access control systems, car park monitors, traffic counters, variable message signs, automatic number plate detection systems, and car parking management.

 

Therefore, there are several specification frameworks that may be applicable; in addition to UTMC, regional solutions include OCIT (principally Germany/Austria,), DIASER (France), IVERA (Netherlands), RSMP (Sweden), and others.

 

 

16.2.6   Reservation and payment services

16.2.6.1    Purpose

 

The purpose of this functional area is to provide service and systems deployed to support reservation service offers, individual reservation acceptance, modification, cancellation, actuation, and related payment consolidation, and other payment related services. This includes all types of parking fee collection including short term and long-term parking and pay-for-use loading zones.

 

It collects parking fees from in-vehicle equipment, contact or proximity cards, any smart payment device, but also includes other forms of payment via in-place payment machines (cash, payment card, vouchers). This service package supports both payment via a local point of sale in the parking place or direct payment via wide area wireless communications. User accounts may be established to facilitate secure payment using only a secure ID and enhance services offered to frequent customers.

 

 

16.2.6.2    Stakeholders

  • Place operator

  • Rights owner

  • Rights issuer

  • Service provider (both parking and financial)

  • Systems suppliers

  • Equipment supplier

  • Urban administrations

  • Enforcement authorities, agencies and their officers

  • Traffic Managers

 

 

 

 

16.2.6.3    System context

 

Many parking options require payment. Some offerings provide the opportunity to pre-book a reservation to secure access to a parking option.  The landscape of systems delivering these services is very fragmented and in general localised.  It has become more commonplace for card-based payments to be accepted for either reservation or on-site payment, which obviously forms an interface to the payments and banking/finance sector and the standards that they use.

 

Some larger scale initiatives have been established, such as the Dutch National Parking Platform (Nationaal Parkeer Register) [NPR] is a national database, managed by the RDW (Netherlands Vehicle Authority), in which all current parking rights for many areas of the Netherlands are registered.

 

The NPR enables, among other things, the following services:

  • facilitating mobile parking through all parking providers;

  • the registration of permits and parking fees via the parking machine;

  • recording information on parking areas and rates;

  • registration of disabled parking tickets;

  • enabling digital parking enforcement.

 

Other examples of similar forms of data sharing and combined payment platforms are emerging.

 

16.2.6.4    Key standards

 

There have been several references in the earlier content to functional crossover with other domains.  In respect of reservation and payment services there are certainly paradigms from other domains (notably EFC and public transport) where ticketing and integrated ticketing solutions, use of smartcards, rights management, monitoring, payment, payment settlement mechanisms, security and trust arrangements, infringements, and reservation services can be ported from those domains to be applied to parking.  As such it is important to reference the approaches and Standards that exist in those domains (see section 10 for EFC, see section 17 for public transport).  

 

These cross overs between domains are particularly meaningful in some contexts – for example the use of tolling transponder for car park access control and accounts-based payment (EFC) and integrated rights and ticket for use of park and ride solutions and integrated connections to public transport services (public transport).

 

These standards are not perceived to be universally applicable across all forms of parking delivery and therefore it remains a mixed landscape.

 

Other payment standards, drawn from beyond the ITS domain, are also relevant. These include industry standards such as those set by PCI-SSC for securing card payments.

 

Specifically, for parking, the European Parking Association (EPA) has developed and promoted an industry specification named International Parking Industry Payments Standards (IPIPS) which describes the implementation of the OPI (coherent with IFSF “POS-to-EPS”) standard in the parking environment.This references ISO 8583 Financial transaction card originated messages — Interchange message specifications.

The specification are:

 

• The interface and protocol used between the selling device (retailer’s Point-of-Sale (POS) application) and the payment device holding the payment application (Payment terminal (EPS application)).

 

• The interface and protocol used between the payment device and the authorisation server (also referred to as “Front End Processor”);

 

• The interface and protocol used to communicate between the authorisation server and other host systems which could be the Acquiring Banks, or the Parking Operator central host system;

 

• Along with the security standards attached to the above.

 

 

 

16.2.6.5    Links to European Regulation – Reservation and payment services

 

As referenced in the sections above:

  • see section 16.4.4.6, EU Delegated Regulation 2015/962 concerning the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services, references the provisioning of dynamic road status data including the availability of parking places and the cost of parking.

 

  • see section 16.4.4.8, EU Delegated Regulation 2017/1926 concerning the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services, references the provisioning of "where and how to pay tickets for … car parking".

 

 

 

 

16.3   Parking specialisms

16.3.1    Automated Valet Parking

16.3.1.1    Purpose

 

An emerging area, yet to be operationally deployed, is the use of vehicle and infrastructure systems that support the operation of so-called valet parking systems within which automated vehicles self-park within a defined parking place. 

 

16.3.1.2   Stakeholders

  • Parking operators

  • Automotive OEMs and their supply chain

  • Systems suppliers

  • Service providers

 

 

16.3.1.3    Systems context

 

Automated valet parking systems (AVPS) provide vehicle owners an automated valet parking service. After a suitably-equipped vehicle has been driven to a suitably equipped parking place, the user may leave the vehicle at a designated area, and the AVPS will automatically direct and self-drive the vehicle to a vacant parking space. Corresponding to a request from the user to retrieve the vehicle, the system will automatically direct the parked vehicle to a designated location where the user can rejoin the vehicle to leave the parking place.

 

AVPS can be utilized in places such as large-scale public parking places of shopping complexes, airports, large residential developments, or publicly accessible parking places.  This is seen as perhaps the first live deployment use for Level 4 automated vehicles.

 

Depending on the type of AVPS being deployed (the emerging ISO Standard supports several types) information requirements may include detailed configuration of the place including high-definition (HD) digital maps, as well as vehicle configuration, capability and status information.  AVPS is designed to be deployed in both dedicated and mixed-use places.

 

The architectural model for AVPS deployment sees establishment of a trusted domain and collaborative communications between the vehicle manufacturer's back end system, service providers offering AVPS service management and parking place operators in order to ensure correct processes for the lifecycle of the AVPS event of a vehicle using AVPS in a parking place. This lifecycle includes a range of elements including: reservation (including suitability checks); check-in and handover; vehicle movements within the place; recall, check-out and hand back, as well as measures to address emergency response situations.  The ISO standard does not prescribe specific communications technologies. 

 

At the time of writing, Part 2 of the Standard on Security integration is just starting to be defined.

 

16.3.1.4    Key standards

 

ISO AWI 23374-1 - Intelligent transport systems — Automated valet parking systems (AVPS) — Part 1: System framework, requirements for automated driving, and communication interface

 

Link : this ISO standard is still under development and therefore not yet formally published.

 

Scope: This document contains the system framework, operation sequence and communication interface, general requirements for the parking facility, and requirements and test procedures for the vehicle operation of an Automated Valet Parking System (AVPS).

The system operation consists of multiple phases where it begins from the point where the user searches for available parking, and ends when the vehicle is returned to the user after completion of the automated entering/ exiting operation of the vehicle. This document provides a general system flow and detailed sequences during each of these operation phases.

The system is realized by cooperation of physically separated subsystems, in many cases provided from different entities. This document prescribes the system architecture and specifies the requirements for the communication between these subsystems.

The vehicle operation of this system is highly automated (Level 4) [1] and does not require human burden during normal operation conditions. This feature is realized by the cooperation of the in-vehicle subsystem and AVP local sub-system. This document specifies their task allocation and requirements as well as their test procedures. Requirements for the parking facility, including the environmental conditions and physical structures are also specified in terms of the operational design domain.

This document applies to all subsystems that comprise the system, and parking facility capable of AVPS.

 

[1] Reference to level definition for vehicle automation defined in SAE J3016 - Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems

 

16.3.2    Regulated vehicle parking

16.3.2.1    Purpose

 

The purpose of this functional area is to provide systems and processes to support forms of monitoring, surveillance and reporting of regulated vehicles and their use of parking-like places.  Dependent upon the jurisdictional requirements, there may exist obligation for certain forms of vehicles, or vehicles carrying specific loads to be subject to regulatory control and monitoring. For example, the safe use of parking areas by vehicles carrying some forms of hazardous load, or requirements from jurisdictions, vehicle/load owners or insurers that vehicles park in secure parking places when taking rest stops.

 

16.3.2.2    Stakeholders

 

  • Parking operators

  • Freight and logistics operators and managers

  • Traffic managers and traffic management authorities

  • Insurers

  • Regulators - jurisdictional authorities and monitoring functions, enforcement agencies

  • ITS device and communications system suppliers

  • System service providers

 

 

16.3.2.3     Systems context

 

It is taken for granted that produce and products are moved rapidly across not just jurisdictions, but across continents, and between continents, often by road transport. The ISO 15638 (TARV) series of Standards defines data collection regarding management of load content, truck loading and routing etc. Combined with stricter driving hours and route restrictions, there is a significant and continuing growth of long-distance transport that involves the requirement for overnight or rest period stops. There is growing concern about a growing trend of attacks on cargo and vehicles, coupled with the lack of adequate rest facilities for drivers. ‘Vehicle Parking Facilities’ therefore recognises that the establishment of (especially secure) truck parking sites and associated information services is becoming increasingly important to help reduce crime and improve driver working conditions.

 

The TARV architectural model supports a range of applications.

 

The Vehicle Parking Facilities application (ISO 15638-19) is just one of a series of regulated applications that have been defined.  By way of background, it is noted that some jurisdictions have legislation requiring persistent or regular on-going monitoring of regulated freight vehicle operations.  In general, this form of legislation and associated requirements have arisen in response to road safety concerns. 

 

A regulated freight vehicle is (often but not always designed to haul commercial freight) that is subject to regulations determined by the jurisdiction as to its use on the road system of the jurisdiction in regulated circumstances, subject to certain conditions, and in compliance with specific regulations for that class of vehicle.

 

Each jurisdiction may have different regulated applications but the TARV standards support a generic telematics communications platform, aimed to address a range of regulated applications and support multiple communications technologies.  Initial legislation and the supporting service delivery tended to be focussed on abnormal freight loads (such as very large transporters), but as the architectural approach has been successfully deployed, additional legislation has been forthcoming seeking to utilise the capabilities offered by the approach.

 

NOTE: The definition of what comprises a ‘regulated’ service is regarded as an issue for National decision, and may vary from country to country. The ISO 15638 (TARV) series of standards does not impose any requirements on nations in respect of how they define a regulated commercial freight vehicle or which services for regulated commercial freight vehicles countries will require, or support as an option, but will provide standardised sets of requirements descriptions for identified services to enable consistent and cost-efficient implementations where implemented.

 

 

The TARV 'Vehicle Parking Facilities’ (ISO 15638-19) profile does not define the detail of a secure truck parking system. Such systems are being defined around the world, and will vary in detail according to local regulations and practices. This Part of ISO15638 specifies the generic data collection and exchanges required for such systems, so they can be supported from a standard platform within any equipped vehicle.

 

Within the TARV architecture (see ISO 15638-1) the provision of such services are provided to a ‘user’ (vehicle operator and/or driver) by a service provider, operating within a regulatory framework determined by a jurisdiction, and in the case of vehicle parking, by managers of (often secure) parking facilities which in some jurisdictions may require licensing or approval, although in other jurisdictions may simply be a commercial unregulated service provision.

 

The TARV specification supports a range of service providers for the provisioning of Vehicle Parking Facility services, including:

 

  • Providers of application services to the operator/vehicle, which is not part of a fleet management system;

  • Providers of application services to the operator/vehicle, which is part of a fleet management system; 

  • Providers of a vehicle parking facility;

  • Providers of a booking reservation, payment management, or multi-site management of  vehicle parking providers.

 

The TARV specification recognises that practices and the regulation environment will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and in some jurisdictions there may be no regulatory involvement whatsoever. 

 

The TARV specification characterises the generic features for such systems, and the generic inputs from and outputs to the regulated vehicle.

 

The relationship between the jurisdiction, service providers, and vehicle operators is recognised but the relationship and transactions between these parties will vary according to local legislation/regulations, commercial service offerings and specific contracts between vehicle operators and commercial service providers.

 

Some of the benefits drawn from the use of the TARV specification for the vehicle parking facility application service include:

 

  • Improved safety

  • Reduced insurance costs

  • Improved fleet management and logistics management

  • Meet employers' requirements for working conditions, and supporting drivers with their working conditions obligations

  • Relieving drivers from responsibility for finding a secure and safe location to park the regulated vehicle during overnight and rest periods

  • Ability to make requests for "Parking Slots", specifying the time of day required, the duration required, the type of vehicle and goods, either reserved pre-trip, or on-demand during the trip.

  • Solve the safety problems due to regulated vehicles, being parked in dangerous locations (such as on road shoulders), posing high risk for both passing traffic and parked vehicle

 

 

 

 

16.3.2.4   Key standards

 

The most significant standards within this functional area are the ISO 15638 series for TARV (TARV - Telematics Applications for Regulated vehicles) standards. 

 

ISO 15638 Intelligent transport systems — Framework for cooperative telematics applications for regulated commercial freight vehicles (TARV) series for Telematics Applications for Regulated Vehicles standards – there are 24 TARV Standards Deliverables:

  • Parts 1-7 provide the overall framework, architecture and management features.

  • Parts 8-25 provide "Application level" data transfers.

 

Part 19: 'Vehicle parking facility' is the most relevant to parking. 

 

Scope: ISO TS 15638-19:2013 addresses the provision of 'Vehicle Parking Facility' and specifies the form and content of such data required to support such systems, and access methods to that data.

 

ISO TS 15638-19:2013 provides specifications for common communications and data exchange aspects of the application service 'Vehicle Parking Facility' that a regulator may elect to require or support as an option, including:

a) high level definition of the service that a service provider has to provide (the service definition describes common service elements, but does not define the detail of how such an application service is instantiated, nor the acceptable value ranges of the data concepts defined);

b) means to realise the service

c) application data, naming content and quality that an IVS (in-vehicle system) has to deliver.

 

The definition of what comprises a 'regulated' service is regarded as an issue for national decision, and may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. This document does not impose any requirements on nations in respect of which services for regulated vehicles jurisdictions will require, or support as an option, but provides standardised sets of requirements descriptions for identified services to enable consistent and cost efficient implementations where instantiated.

 

 

Note: The Truck Parking information service supported using DATEX II Standards (see 16.5.3) seeks to provide truck related parking information between traffic managers, and between traffic managers and service providers.  The regulated vehicle parking facility services using TARV Standards defines services directed to in-vehicle systems.

 

16.3.3   Truck Parking Information Services

16.3.3.1    Purpose

 

The purpose of this functional area is to provide systems and processes to support forms of information and reservation services oriented to freight and fleet parking places – often located on long-distance corridors or near arterial routes in large conurbations and cities.

 

In Europe, particularly on major cross-border long distance haulage routes, significant safety and traffic management issues can arise with freight and fleet vehicle stopping and parking in unsuitable, sometimes dangerous locations.  Provisioning of information from traffic managers and operators of rest areas and motorway/autoroute service areas provides a valuable source of information to support improved route and stop planning by freight and logistic operators and their drivers.

 

16.3.3.2   Stakeholders

 

  • Parking operators

  • Freight and logistics operators and managers

  • Traffic management authorities

  • Insurers

  • Service providers

  • In-vehicle fleet system and service providers

 

 

16.3.3.3    Systems context

 

As explained above the types and nature of systems deployed in different parking places can vary significantly.  This also applies to parking places for commercial and freight vehicles too.  As discussed in the section on regulated vehicle parking (see 16.5.2) it is both a road safety and crime prevention policy measure to be able to provider freight and commercial vehicle operators and drivers with reliable information on suitable parking places to enable improved journey planning, especially for vehicle stops.

 

Deployed systems for the monitoring and management of parking areas for commercial and freight vehicles use a range of different technologies.  Different operational and commercial settings dictate the level of sophistication of monitoring systems for example, with paid-for services generally taking a more rigorous (and generally costly) approach to recording the presence of identifiable vehicles.

 

16.3.3.4   Key standards

 

DATEX II Part 6 (CEN TS 16157-6:2015) provides data structures to provide parking data, including profiling for truck parking data.

 

 

 

16.3.3.5    Reference to European Regulation

 

EU Delegated Regulation No 885/2013 concerning the provision of information services for safe and secure parking places for trucks and commercial vehicles, specifically references the CEN 16157 series of standards (DATEX II) as a means to achieve compliance with the requirement to provide data.

 

Article 4 of the Regulation details the data to be provided as follows:

 

  • Identification information of parking area

  • Location information including road- and direction information, exit to be taken

  • Total number of free parking places for trucks and number of parking places for refrigerated goods vehicles

  • Price and currency of parking places

  • Information on safety and equipment of the parking area

  • Information on specific equipment or services for specific goods vehicles and others

  • Contact information of the parking operator and consent of the operator to make this public

  • Dynamic data on availability of parking places including whether a parking is: full, closed or number of free places which are available.

 

 

16.3.4    Links to other ITS services

 

As noted above, parking operations and management have many interactions with other functional areas – indeed in many cases it is considered to be an integral part of functional areas such as public transport, traffic management, freight and fleet operations.

 

 

 

16.3.4.1   Links with Public Transport

 

See section 16.2.4 (above), where the ITS services supplied describe public transport services.  Parking is often seen as an integral part of many multimodal journeys for individual travellers, whether using specialised places such as Park and Ride sites or in the more general case of a traveller parking a driven vehicle before proceeding by another mode of transport (e.g. foot, bicycle, bus, rail, etc.) to complete their journey. From that perspective information concerning the location, nature, availability and cost of parking forms important multi-modal traveller information. Accessibility information can also be important in some cases.

 

To this end, traveller oriented parking information forms part of the wider set of multimodal traveller information and therefore the suite of Public Transport standards (Transmodel, NeTEx, SIRI).

 

 

 

16.3.4.2    Links with traffic and travel information

See section 16.3.4 (above), where the ITS services described provide traffic and traveller information.  As stated above, parking is often seen as an integral part of many planned journeys for individual travellers, providing a means to safely par a driven vehicle by another mode of transport (e.g. foot, bicycle, bus, rail, etc.) to complete their journey. Traffic and traveller information services provide a means to serve the traveller with parking related information, typically blended with other traffic and traveller information (e.g. by presentation of known parking options close to the desired destination of a journey support by satellite navigation routing services). Section 22 describes Traffic and Traveller information standards series, such as TPEG2, where ISO TS 21219-14 – Parking information is specified.

 

ISO/TS 21219-14:2016- Intelligent transport systems — Traffic and travel information (TTI) via transport protocol experts group, generation 2 (TPEG2) — Part 14: Parking information application (TPEG2-PKI)

 

ISO TS 21219-14:2016 specifies the TPEG Parking Information application which has been designed to deliver parking information to a variety of receivers using a number of different channels, foremost of course are digital broadcasting and Internet technologies. Parking information may be presented to the user in many different ways, including text, voice, or graphics.

Today, traffic congestion has become a serious problem in urban areas. Some traffic congestion is attributed to drivers searching for parking spaces. Therefore, timely provision of parking information could help ease traffic congestion. Furthermore, parking information would be valuable for the visitor, particularly when it could be used to signal where a temporary parking facility is established for a special occasion.

 

 

ISO TS 21219-14:2016 - Intelligent transport systems — Traffic and travel information (TTI) via transport protocol experts group, generation 2 (TPEG2) — Part 14: Parking information application (TPEG2-PKI)

 

ISO TS 21219-14:2016 specifies the TPEG Parking Information application which has been designed to deliver parking information to a variety of receivers using a number of different channels, foremost of course are digital broadcasting and Internet technologies. Parking information may be presented to the user in many different ways, including text, voice, or graphics.

 

Today, traffic congestion has become a serious problem in urban areas. Some traffic congestion is attributed to drivers searching for parking spaces. Therefore, timely provision of parking information could help ease traffic congestion. Furthermore, parking information would be valuable for the visitor, particularly when it could be used to signal where a temporary parking facility is established for a special occasion.

 

16.3.4.3    Links with Electronic Fee Collection

 

See section 10 (Electronic Fee Collection), plus sections 16.4.5 and 16.4.1.

 

 

 

16.3.4.4    Links with Freight and Fleet Management

 

See section 12 (Freight and Fleet), plus sections 16.5.2 and 16.5.3.

 

 

 

16.3.4.5   Links with Location Referencing and Spatial Data

The information services listed above all depend upon the ability to describe the location of a parking option or a specific vehicle in terms that can be readily consumed by receivers of the data.  As such the technical approaches and their supporting Standards tie across to many standards that define spatial data, coordinated systems, data encoding and location referencing, see section 19 (Road Traffic Data, Geographic and Spatial Data).

 

 

 

16.3.4.6   Links with the Exchange of Electronic Traffic Regulation and Kerbside/Automated Mobility Management

 

Two emerging areas which are considered to be significant in supporting digital services, automated vehicles, enhanced mobility and optimisation of the urban street scene realm are the exchange of electronic traffic regulations and kerbside management.  Both domains have very strong links to the parking domain. 

 

Traffic Regulations which are traditionally analogue and in some cases paper-oriented are undergoing a digital revolution – to enable the traffic regulations of the future to be interpreted by machines, reliably robustly and safely exchanged, and evolve to quality levels that are likely to be required for emerging services.  Most on-street parking is permitted and controlled via forms of traffic regulations that are typically issued by the relevant local authority. 

 

Regimes for payment, monitoring, infringement identification and management and enforcement vary widely. 

 

Standards for the digital exchange of traffic regulations are emerging – but none are published at the time of writing.

 

Similarly the ability to clearly share, and digitally control the permitted actions of user at the kerbside (and in the highway in general) is of going interest. This is especially true in larger cities where competing demands and policy objectives are raising innovative approaches to how to manage the kerbside. Again, standards for kerbside management are emerging – but none are published at the time of writing. See section 13.

 


 

 

 

16.4    Supporting infrastructure

16.4.1    Communications

 

Parking management system solutions are deployed across many countries and many physical contexts, as such a wide range of communications technologies are deployed. The communications layer is not special to parking operations and management, and the more general ITS context is presented in section 8.

 

Roadside and vehicle mounted equipment is subject to European regulations on EMC. Radiocommunications is governed by spectrum licensing regulations.

 

 

16.4.2   Security

 

In a similar manner to communications technologies to support parking operations and management system there are no specific ITS standards that relate to security that apply solely to parking.  Some applications related to parking are both commercial and private in nature (payment, payment accounts, etc) where standards are generally adopted from wider payment systems infrastructures that are not specific to parking in the ITS context.  Where these are achieved by means of solutions and systems complying to EFC, appropriate standards are drawn from the EFC domain (see section 10 Electronic Fee Collection).

 

Given the actions being undertaken in services such as automated valet parking (see 16.3.1), where control of vehicles is done by systems, not a human driver, additional work is being undertaken to consider the applicability of some existing ITS security-oriented standards as a means for securing the necessary trusted communications within the AVPS deployment architecture.

 

 

16.5    Referenced European Regulations

 

Link (general), (EN)

  • COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) 2015/962 of 18 December 2014 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services, referenced as Priority Action B in the EU ITS Directive.

Link (general), (EN)

Link (general), (EN)

 

 

16.6    List of standards

16.6.1   ISO 15638-19 Intelligent transport systems — Framework for cooperative telematics applications for regulated commercial freight vehicles (TARV) – Part 19: Vehicle parking facility

ISO 15638-19:2013 addresses the provision of ‘Vehicle Parking Facility' and specifies the form and content of such data required to support such systems, and access methods to that data.

ISO 15638-19:2013

provides specifications for common communications and data exchange aspects of the application service ‘Vehicle Parking Facility' that a regulator may elect to require or support as an option, including:

 

a) high level definition of the service that a service provider has to provide (the service definition describes common service elements, but does not define the detail of how such an application service  is instantiated, not the acceptable value ranges of the data concepts defined);

 

b) means to realise the service

 

c) application data, naming content and quality that an IVS has to deliver.

 

 

 

16.6.2    CEN TS 16157-6: Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 6: Parking publications 

The sixth part of the DATEX II Technical Specifications which deals with a DATEX II Level B extension (two publications and a Truck Parking profile) that supports the exchange of static as well as dynamic information about parking facilities and areas, including intelligent truck parking as defined by the Directive 2010/40/EU priority actions e and f. The publications are intended to support the exchange of informational content from the organisation performing measurements and collecting/eliciting basic data to other organisations providing ITS services or onward information exchange. It is the ambition to harmonise existing information models from different sources such as EasyWay deployment guidelines, In-Time CAI and Truck Parking initiatives, and to liaise with the stakeholders involved.

 

 

 

16.6.3   EN 12896-1:2016 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 1: Common concepts 

 

Scope

The main objective of this European Standard is to present the Public Transport Reference Data Model based on: - the Public Transport Reference Data Model published 2006 as EN12896 and known as Transmodel V5.1, - the model for the Identification of Fixed Objects for Public transport, published 2009 as EN 28701 and known as IFOPT, incorporating the requirements of – EN 15531-1 to 3 and TS 15531-4 and 5: Service interface for real-time information relating to public transport operations (SIRI), - TS16614-1 and 2: Network and Timetable Exchange (NeTEx), in particular the specific needs for long distance train operation.

 

Particular attention is drawn to the data model structure and methodology: - the data model is described in a modular form in order to facilitate understanding and use of the model, - the data model is entirely described in UML. In particular, a Reference Data Model kernel is described, referring to the data domain: - Network Description: routes, lines, journey patterns, timing patterns, service patterns, scheduled stop points and stop places.

 

This part corresponds to the network description as in Transmodel V5.1 extended by the relevant parts of IFOPT. Furthermore, the following functional domains are considered:

- Timing Information and Vehicle Scheduling (runtimes, vehicle journeys, day type-related vehicle schedules)

- Passenger Information (planned and real-time)

- Operations Monitoring and Control: operating day-related data, vehicle follow-up , control actions

- Fare Management (fare structure and access rights definition, sales, validation, control) - Management Information and Statistics (including data dedicated to service performance indicators).

- Driver Management:

- Driver Scheduling (day-type related driver schedules),

- Rostering (ordering of driver duties into sequences according to some chosen methods),

- Driving Personnel Disposition (assignment of logical drivers to physical drivers and recording of driver performance).

 

The data modules dedicated to cover most functions of the above domains are specified. Several concepts are shared by the different functional domains. This data domain is called “Common Concepts”.

 

Functional domain description

 

Public transport network and stop description The reference data model includes entity definitions for different types of points and links as the building elements of the topological network. Stop points, timing points and route points, for instance, reflect the different roles one point may have in the network definition: whether it is used for the definition of (topological or geographical) routes, as a point served by vehicles when operating on a line, or as a location against which timing information like departure, passing, or wait times are stored in order to construct the timetables.

 

The line network is the fundamental infrastructure for the service offer, to be provided in the form of vehicle journeys which passengers may use for their trips. The main entities describing the line network in the reference data model are the line, the route and the journey pattern, which refer to the concepts of an identified service offer to the public, the possible variants of itineraries vehicles would follow when serving the line, and the (possibly different) successions of stop points served by the vehicles when operating on the route. The functional views of the network are described as layers.

 

A projection is a mechanism enabling the description of the correspondence between the different layers. This mapping between the layers is particularly useful when spatial data from different environments (sources, functional domains) have to be combined. An example of such a situation is the mapping of the public transport network on the road network.

 

 

 

16.6.4   EN 12896-2:2016 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 2: Public transport network

 

This part corresponds to the network description as in Transmodel V5.1 extended by the relevant parts of IFOPT. - Furthermore, the following functional domains are considered:

- timing information and vehicle scheduling (runtimes, vehicle journeys, day type-related vehicle schedules);

- passenger information (planned and real-time);

- operations monitoring and control: operating day-related data, vehicle follow-up, control actions;

- fare management (fare structure and access rights definition, sales, validation, control);

 - management information and statistics (including data dedicated to service performance indicators);

- driver management:

- driver scheduling (day-type related driver schedules);

- rostering (ordering of driver duties into sequences according to some chosen methods); - driving personnel disposition (assignment of logical drivers to physical drivers and recording of driver performance).

 

The data modules dedicated to cover most functions of the above domains are specified. Several concepts are shared by the different functional domains. This data domain is called “common concepts”.

 

Functional domain description

 

The different functional domains taken into account in the present Standard and of which the data have been represented as the reference data model are described in EN 12896-1: “Public transport reference data model - Part 1: Common concepts”.

They are:

- public transport network and stop description;

- timing information and vehicle scheduling;

- passenger information;

- fare management;

- operations monitoring and control;

- management information;

- personnel management: driver scheduling, rostering, personnel disposition.

 

The aspects of multi-modal operation and multiple operators’ environment are also taken into account.

 

 

 

16.6.5   EN 12896-3:2016 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 3: Timing information and vehicle scheduling 

 

This part corresponds to the Network Description in Transmodel V5.1 extended by the relevant parts of IFOPT. relevant parts.

 

Particular Scope of this Document

The present European Standard entitled “Reference Data Model for Public Transport – Part 3: Timing Information and Vehicle Scheduling”. incorporates

- Journey and Journey Times Model: describes the time-related information at the level of vehicle journeys, i.e. planned timing for the vehicles at day-type level.

 - Dated Journey Model: describes the link of the timing information for a single operating day and the day type related timing,

- Passing Times Model: describes all the different types of passing times for the day type related information,

- Vehicle Service Model: describes the information related the work of vehicles as planned for days types. It constitutes the main part of the Vehicle Scheduling Data Domain.

- Vehicle Journey Assignment Model: describes operational assignments (advertised vehicle labels, stopping positions) related to particular vehicle journeys.

 

 

16.6.6   EN 12896-4:2019 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 4: Operations monitoring and control 

 

Incorporates the following data packages:

 

- Dated Production Components MODEL;

- Call MODEL;

- Production Plan MODEL;

- Detecting and Monitoring MODEL;

- Control Action MODEL;

- Event and Incident MODEL;

- Messaging MODEL;

- Situation MODEL; and

- Facility Monitoring and Availability MODEL.

 

The data structures represented in this part form descriptions of data that are specific to operations for an operational day (as opposed to those planned for day types).

 

 

 

16.6.7   EN 12896-5:2019 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 5: Fare management

 

Incorporates the following data packages:

- Fare Structure;

- Access Right Assignment;

- Fare Pricing;

- Sales Description;

- Sales Transaction;

- Fare Roles;

- Validation and Control;

- Explicit Frames for Fares.

 

This document itself is composed of the following parts:

- Main document (normative) representing the data model for the concepts shared by the different fare domains covered by Transmodel,

- Annex A (normative), containing the data dictionary, i.e. the list of all the concepts and attribute tables present in the main document together with the definitions,

- Annex B (normative), providing a complement to the "Common Concepts" domain, particularly useful for parts 4 to 8 of the Public Transport Reference Data Model, Annex C (informative), indicating the data model evolutions from previous versions of Transmodel (EN 12896:2006).

 

 

 

 

 

16.6.8    EN 12896-6:2019 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 6: Passenger information

 

Incorporates the following main data packages:

- Trip Description;

- Passenger Queries.

 

This document itself is composed of the following parts:

- Main document (normative) representing the data model for the concepts shared by the different fare domains covered by Transmodel;

- Annex A (normative), containing the data dictionary, i.e. the list of all the concepts and attribute tables present in the main document together with the definitions;

- Annex B (normative), providing a complement to EN 12896-1:2016, particularly useful for parts 4 to 8 of the Public Transport Reference Data Model;

- Annex C (informative), indicating the data model evolutions;

- Annex D (informative), indicating the high-level equivalences of the example passenger information functional requests to the capabilities of other standards;

- Annex E (informative), providing an example set of commonly found passenger information functional requests and data dictionary for the elements used in the examples.

 

 

 

16.6.9    EN 12896-7:2019 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 7: Driver management

 

Incorporates the following data packages:

- Driver Scheduling; Rostering;

- Personnel Disposition;

- Driver Control Actions.

 

This document itself is composed of the following parts:

- Main document (normative) presenting the data model for the concepts shared by the different domains covered by Transmodel,

- Annex A (normative), containing the data dictionary, i.e. the list of all the concepts and attribute tables present in the main document together with the definitions,

- Annex B (normative), providing a complement to EN 12896-1:2016,, particularly useful for Parts 4 to 8 of the Public Transport Reference Data Model; and - Annex C (informative), indicating the data model evolutions.

 

 

 

16.6.10    EN 12896-8:2019 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 8: Management information & statistics

 

Describes how to structure data which refers to the planning stages (e.g. timetables, run times, driver rosters, etc.) and/or to the daily actual production, and which is registered for different purposes, in particular to build service performance indicators.

 

The data model is based on a generic design pattern, Generic Loggable Objects Model (provided in the Additional Common Concepts part - Annex B), and incorporates the following data packages:

- Logging Time and Place, providing additions to the Generic Loggable Objects Model,

- Recorded Objects,

- Recorded Use of Services,

- Service Journey Performance.

 

The last three packages show how the recorded data contributes to the implementation of indicators.

 

This document itself is composed of the following parts:

- Main document (normative),

- Annex A (normative), containing the data dictionary, i.e. the list of all the concepts and attribute tables present in the main document together with the definitions,

- Annex B (normative), providing a complement to EN 12896-1:2016,, particularly useful for Parts 4 to 8 of the Public Transport Reference Data Model;

- Annex C (informative), indicating the data model evolution from the previous version.

 

 

 

16.6.11    CEN TR 12896-9:2019 – Public transport - Reference data model - Part 9: Informative documentation 

 

A Technical Report with informative and didactical material to users.

 

 

 

16.6.12    CEN TS 16614-1:2020 - Public transport - Network and Timetable Exchange (NeTEx) - Part 1: Public transport network topology exchange format  

Transmodel V5.1 extended by the relevant parts of IFOPT.

Scope:

General NeTEx is dedicated to the exchange of scheduled data (network, timetable and fare information) based on Transmodel V5.1(EN 12986), IFOPT. (CEN/TS 28701) and SIRI (CEN/TS 15531-4/5 and EN 15531-1/2/3 ) and supports information exchange of relevance to public transport services for passenger information and AVMS systems.

NOTE Many NeTEx concepts are taken directly from Transmodel and IFOPT; the definitions and explanation of these concepts are extracted directly from the respective standards and reused in NeTEx, sometimes with further adaptions in order to fit the NeTEx context.

 

The data exchanges targeted by NeTEx are predominantly oriented towards passenger information and also for data exchange between transit scheduling systems and AVMS (Automated Vehicle Monitoring Systems). However it is not restricted to these purposes, and NeTEx can provide an effective solution to many other use cases for transport exchange.

 

Transport modes

Most public transport modes are taken into account by NeTEx, including train, bus, coach, metro, tram-way, ferry, and their submodes. It is possible to describe airports and air journeys, but there has not been any specific consideration of any additional provisions that apply especially to air transport.

 

Compatibility with existing standards and recommendations

 

The concepts covered in NeTEx that relate in particular to long-distance train travel include;

rail operators and related organizations;

stations and related equipment;

journey coupling and journey parts;

train com-position and facilities;

planned passing times;

timetable versions and validity conditions.

 

In the case of long distance train the NeTEx takes into account the requirements formulated by the ERA (European Rail Agency) – TAP/TSI (Telematics Applications for Passenger/ Technical Specification for Interoperability, entered into force on 13 May 2011 as the Commission Regulation (EU) No 454/2011), based on UIC directives. As regards the other exchange protocols, a formal compatibility is ensured with TransXChange (UK), VDV 452 (Germany), NEPTUNE (France), UIC Leaflet, BISON (Netherland) and NOPTIS (Nordic Public Transport Interface Standard). The data exchange is possible either through dedicated web services, through data file exchanges, or using the SIRI exchange protocol as described in part 2 of the SIRI documentation;

 

 

 

 

 

16.6.13    CEN TS 16614-3:2020 - Public transport - Network and Timetable Exchange (NeTEx) - Part 3: Public transport fares exchange format

 

General NeTEx is dedicated to the exchange of scheduled data (network, timetable and fare information). It is based on Transmodel V5.1 (EN 12986), IFOPT (EN 28701) and SIRI (CEN/TS 15531-4/5 and EN 15531-1/2/3 ) and supports the exchange of information of relevance for passenger information about public transport services and also for running Automated Vehicle Monitoring Systems (AVMS).

 

NOTE NeTEx is a refinement and an implementation of Transmodel and IFOPT; the definitions and explanations of these concepts are extracted directly from the respective standard and reused in NeTEx, sometimes with adaptations in order to fit the NeTEx context.

 

Although the data exchanges targeted by NeTEx are predominantly oriented towards provisioning passenger information systems and AVMS with data from transit scheduling systems, it is not restricted to this purpose and NeTEx can also provide an effective solution to many other use cases for transport data exchange.

 

Fares scope This Part3 of NeTEx, is specifically concerned with the exchange of fare structures and fare data, using data models that relate to the underlying network and timetable models defined in Part1 and Part2 and the Fare Collection data model defined in Transmodel V51.  

 

In summary, it is concerned with data for the following purposes:

(i) To describe the many various possible fare structures that arise in public transport (for example, flat fares, zonal fares, time dependent fares, distance-based fares, stage fares, pay as you go fares, season passes, etc., etc.).

(ii) To describe the fare products that may be purchased having these fare structures and to describe the conditions that may attach to particular fares, for example if restricted to specific groups of users, or subject to temporal restrictions.

 

These conditions may be complex:

(i) To allow actual price data to be exchanged. Note however that NeTEx does not itself specify pricing algorithms or how fares should be calculated. This is the concern of Fare Management Systems.

(ii) It may be used may be used to exchange various parameters required for pricing calculations that are needed to explain or justify a fare.

(iii) To include the attributes and the text descriptions necessary to present fares and their conditions of sale and use to the public.

 

NeTEx should be regarded as being ‘upstream’ of retail systems and allows fare data to be managed and integrated with journey planning and network data in public facing information systems. It is complementary to and distinct from the ‘downstream’ ticketing and retail systems that sell fares and of the control systems that validate their use. See ‘Excluded Use Cases’ below for further information on the boundaries of NeTEx with Fare Management Systems.

 

 

Transport modes

 

All mass public transport modes are taken into account by NeTEx, including train, bus, coach, metro, tramway, ferry, and their submodes. It is possible to describe airports, air journeys, and air fares, but there has not been any specific consideration of any additional requirements that apply specifically to air transport.

                             

16.6.14    ISO AWI 23374-1 - Intelligent transport systems — Automated valet parking systems (AVPS) — Part 1: System framework, requirements for automated driving, and communication interface

 

Under Development.

 

Scope:

This document contains the system framework, operation sequence and communication interface, general requirements for the parking facility, and requirements and test procedures for the vehicle operation of an Automated Valet Parking System (AVPS).

The system operation consists of multiple phases where it begins from the point where the user searches for available parking, and ends when the vehicle is returned to the user after completion of the automated entering/ exiting operation of the vehicle. This document provides a general system flow and detailed sequences during each of these operation phases.

The system is realized by cooperation of physically separated subsystems, in many cases provided from different entities. This document prescribes the system architecture and specifies the requirements for the communication between these subsystems.

The vehicle operation of this system is highly automated (Level 4) and does not require human burden during normal operation conditions. This feature is realized by the cooperation of the in-vehicle subsystem and AVP local sub-system. This document specifies their task allocation and requirements as well as their test procedures. Requirements for the parking facility, including the environmental conditions and physical structures are also specified in terms of the operational design domain.

This document applies to all subsystems that comprise the system, and parking facility capable of AVPS.

 

 

 

 

16.6.15    ISO TS 5206-1 - Intelligent transport systems — Parking — Part 1: Core data model (still under development, unpublished)

 

Under Development.

 

Scope:

 

This document defines terms, characterisation and the relationship of concepts, defined using Model Driven Architecture methods, for parking and parking-related activities (both on-street and off-street) covering common data supporting business to business exchanges and end user services.

 

 

 

 

 

16.7    Bibliography

 

[16.1]           DVM Exchange: see http://www.dvm-exchange.nl/

[16.2]           IVERA: see https://www.ivera.nl/

[16.3]           OCIT: see https://www.ocit.org/

[16.4]           UTMC: see http://www.utmc.eu/

[16.5]           DATEX II, beyond what is published as EN16157 series: see http://www.datex2.eu/

[16.6]           RSMP: for core specification see https://github.com/rsmp-nordic/rsmp_core, for Signal Exchange Lists see https://github.com/rsmp-nordic/rsmp_sxl_traffic_lights/

[16.7]           DIASER: AFNOR – NF P99-071, Road traffic signal control by traffic lights - Standard controller dialogue specification – Diaser. https://www.boutique.afnor.org/standard/nf-p99-071/road-traffic-signal-control-by-trafic-ligths-standard-controller-dialogue-specification-diaser/article/712817/fa143119

[16.8]           FRAME: see https://frame-online.eu/

[16.9]           Arc-IT: see Architecture Overview (iteris.com) https://local.iteris.com/arc-it/ 

[16.10]         APDS: see Home | Alliance for Parking Data Standards

[16.11]         SAE J3016 - Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems: see J3016B: Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles - SAE International

[16.12]         IPIPS: https://parkingmatters.com/project/ipips-international-parking-information-and-payment-standards/

[16.13]         NPR: see https://nationaalparkeerregister.nl/

[16.14]      PCI-SSC, see https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/

 

 

 

 

 

16.8   Parking Abbreviations

APDS                  Alliance for Parking Data Standards

AVPS                  Automated valet parking systems

EFC                     Electronic fee collection

EV                       Electric vehicle

HD                      High definition

INSPIRE             Infrastructure for spatial information in Europe

IPIPS                  International Parking Industry Payments Standards

ITS                      Intelligent transport systems

IVS                      In-vehicle system

NAP                    National access point

OEM                   Original equipment manufacturer

QR                       Quick response code

UTMC                 Urban traffic management & control