,

 

 

Courtesty of © ASFINAG

10.1   Overview of the EFC community

 

 

Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) is an ITS service enabling the user of a vehicle-related transport service to pay for the related transport service, e.g. the use of a tolled road, without manual intervention.

 

The ITS application providing the ITS service will usually be implemented in equipment installed in the vehicle, at the roadside and in central systems. In some scenarios, it also includes personal equipment, e.g. smartphones.

The EFC architecture can be described by a community of external and internal enterprise objects with the objective of providing an EFC service with its benefits regarding traffic safety, traffic efficiency, comfort and mobility to the EFC service user. External enterprise objects are involved in the provision of the EFC service but are not set up for the sole purpose of EFC. This clause of the document only discusses the definition of the internal enterprise objects in the EFC community, but the external enterprise objects are highlighted in Figure 10.1 to give the complete picture of the EFC community.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 10.1 — Enterprise objects in the EFC community according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

 

The following subclauses describe the roles internal to the EFC domain, EFC use case interactions in form of action diagrams and the applicable requirements and test standards.

Section 10.4 provides an overview of EFC standard deliverables.

Section 10.5  provides an overview of the European electronic toll service (EETS) legal provisions and standards.

EFC Fig 1 - Enterprise objects in the EF
 
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toll plaza LQ.png

Courtesty of © Logma

10.2   Roles internal to the EFC domain

10.2.1   Overview

EFC domain roles can be grouped in two sets, one related to the functional operation of the systems, and another one related to system operation, as illustrated in Figure 10.2.1.

 

 

 

Figure 10.2.1 — Roles in a tolling environment according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

 

 

The functional operation roles are responsible for all activities related to the functional operation of the system, in this case the system providing the services in the ITS service group called electronic fee collection (EFC).

The following sub-clauses describe the above identified EFC roles, indicating the responsibilities for each role.

10.2.2   Interoperability Manager

 

A specific role is identified to manage an EFC domain, i.e. defining and maintaining a set of rules that, taken together, defines the policy of a given regime or of the overall EFC domain.

The responsibilities of the Interoperability Manager role include:

  • Setting rules, including:

    • Defining the supported security and privacy policies for the EFC system, acting as security authority that defines the security interaction policy among the different security domains.

    • Defining and maintaining identification (ID)-based-schemes and, if necessary, supporting the issuing of IDs ensuring unique registration codes for organisations and components and unique identifiers or rules for generating unique identifiers for the EFC applications and messages.

  • Certifying EFC constituents, including:

  • Defining the certification requirements for actors involved and equipment used in the EFC system,

  • Giving or withdrawing permissions to operate to involved actors,

  • Monitoring of operations via periodical report.

  • Handling disputes, including:

    • Defining the operational procedures among the operators,

    • Managing disputes among operators.

 

These responsibilities pertain to the system operation, and it is to be noted that, differently from other roles, the Interoperability Manager role can hardly be fulfilled by a single actor. Rather, its responsibilities are in real EFC systems often taken (if at all) by different actors and regulations. Given its general nature, this role will not be specified further in this document.

 

10.2.3   Toll Service Provider

 

 

The Toll Service Provider role is responsible for the contracts with the User role, and provides artefacts, mechanisms, organizational structures, and information transfer tools needed to run an EFC system. Responsibilities of this role pertain to the functional operation of the system. This role is fulfilled by direct interactions with the Interoperability Manager role, the Toll Charger role, and the User role.

Responsibilities of the Toll Service Provider role include:

  • Providing basic provisions, including:

  • providing the OBE, when tolling is performed by means of on-board electronic equipment (OBE),

  • guaranteeing the payment of the toll to the entity performing the Toll Charger role,

  • organizing the payment modalities for the User,

  • collecting the money from the signer of the EFC contract,

  • managing the customer relationships related to the use of the toll service concerning information, claims, questions and answers, error handling and any contractual or financial matters,

  • implementing and adhering to the security and privacy policies for the toll systems,

  • monitoring the actual operational quality relative to agreed service level agreements (SLAs).

  • Acting as a contract agent, including:

  • offering contractual relations according to defined conditions to interested Users and concluding contractual agreements,

  • providing and managing the EFC contract including the service rights for the toll service User.

  • Providing toll declaration, including:

  • making sure that the OBE is reporting information needed for the toll charging in a secure way,

  • providing context data originated elsewhere (e.g. by a Toll Charger role) in a way that they can

  • be installed in the OBE.

  • Customising the OBE, including customising the OBE in a secure way.

  • Maintaining the OBE, including maintaining the functionality of the OBE.

 

10.2.4   User of the service

 

A transport service is related to the use of or the presence of a vehicle in a toll domain. The toll domain may encompass a road network, a specific section of a road (e.g. a bridge or a tunnel) or a specific area offering a service (e.g. a ferry, a parking lot, or access to a protected area in a city). It could also be any service related to the use of a vehicle in the transport system (e.g. a petrol station enabling the driver to buy petrol) by means of EFC.

A role is thus identified that covers all aspects of using the toll system and, if applicable, of the transport service. Implementations of toll systems in various domains commonly refer to this role as, e.g. driver, user or customer. Responsibilities of this role pertain to the functional operation of the system. This role directly interacts with the Toll Service Provider role.

Responsibilities of the User role include:

  • Being liable for the toll including:

  • using the OBE, when tolling is performed by means of OBE, as a tool to fulfil its obligations,

  • interacting with the OBE when it is present on-board, e.g. declaring the vehicle characteristics for the vehicle subject to toll or receiving messages and acting on the messages from the OBE,

  • behaving according to the rules of a specific toll system, e.g. recognising a signal or a road sign.

  • Owning or operating a vehicle, including:

  • adhering to the toll regime for a toll domain,

  • signing a contract with a Toll Service Provider,

  • signing a contract with the issuer of the EFC contract becoming responsible for compliance to the rules related to the use of the toll service,

  • acquiring an OBE,

  • installing and eventually de-installing the OBE in the vehicle,

  • terminating the contractual relation to the Toll Service Provider,

  • receiving the bill, e.g. by means of an invoice, for a service that has been used and a toll to be paid,

  • paying the toll included in the bill,

  • storing and protecting the contractual data and eventually the payment means, e.g. an electronic purse, needed for the toll charging and communicating the data to other actors having roles related to issuing or toll charging. This role is always bound to the OBE.

 

10.2.5   Toll Charger

 

The Toll Charger role defines the toll regime, operates the toll system and may provide transport services. It provides artefacts, mechanisms, organizational structures, and information transfer tools needed to run an EFC system. Responsibilities of this role pertain to the functional operation of the system. This role is fulfilled by direct interactions with the Interoperability Manager and the Toll Service Provider roles.

The responsibilities of the Toll Charger role include:

  • Basic charging, including:

  • providing, if applicable, the transport service, e.g. access to a road network, a parking lot or a ferry connection,

  • defining the charging principles for the service offered, e.g. the tariffing principles for a tolled road or zone.

  • Calculating the toll (directly or by delegation to the Toll Service Provider), including:

  • possibly communicating to the User, the result of the charging process,

  • communicating in a secure way with actors having roles related to the issuing of the EFC contract, payment means and OBE.

  • Originating EFC context data, including:

  • informing the driver of the vehicle about the EFC availability and the toll charging principles, e.g. through signs and messages either directly or via the OBE.

  • Communicating with passing vehicles, including, whenever applicable and according to the technology chosen in the given toll domain:

  • providing, if applicable, to autonomous systems geographical details of the charge objects in the toll domain, as well as providing positioning information. This process is also known as localisation augmentation.

  • detecting a vehicle subject to a toll,

  • collecting the characteristics of a vehicle enabling a correct classification of the vehicle used for a toll calculation. The information collected can either be read from the OBE, measured (both used for toll calculation or verification of data read from the OBE) or collected from a central data base or vehicle register (off-line toll calculation),

  • communicating in a secure way with the OBE, when present on-board, by exchanging information needed for the toll charging,

  • accepting the service rights stored in the OBE, i.e. the medium carrying the contractual data, when the OBE is present on-board.

  • collecting the information enabling the operator of the toll domain to identify the receiver of a claim for a transport service provided, e.g. by licence plate recognition. The role enables toll collection without an OBE installed in the vehicle.

  • Operating enforcement, including:

  • detecting, recording and handling exceptions (including fraud) whenever a vehicle passes through a toll domain. Compliance check of autonomous systems is included in this responsibility.

  • handling enforcement cases while protecting the privacy of the actors having taken the role as driver,

  • implementing and adhering to the security and privacy policies for the EFC domains.

 

10.2.6   EFC functional roles and responsibilities

 

Figure 10.2.2 summarises the EFC roles, with their responsibilities and interactions.

 

Figure 10.2.2 — EFC roles, responsibilities and interactions according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

A real tolling system that implements the standardized EFC architecture does not need to implement all roles and responsibilities that are detailed in EN ISO 17573-1 and summarized in Figure 10.2.2

 

A real tolling system may implement as many roles and responsibilities among those defined in EN ISO 17573-1 as needed. The only obligation in order to claim standard compliance is that those interactions among roles and information exchanges that are implemented shall be compliant to those specified in the associated standards (see 10.2.2), in order to achieve interoperability among systems belonging to different organizations, or implementations by different suppliers.

EFC Fig 2 - Roles in a tolling environme
EFC Fig 3 - EFC roles, responsibilities
 
 
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  • Courtesy of © NPRA – Photographer: Knut Opeide

 

10.3   Use cases and linking to standards

10.3.1   General

 

This sub-clause details uses cases and highlights the corresponding requirements standards, which specify the interactions, and the associated test standards that support the conformity evaluation of implementations.

The following use cases are detailed below:

  • Providing EFC contract

  • Collecting transit information

  • Providing payment information

  • Detecting exceptions

  • Handling exceptions

  • Providing local information

  • User billing

 

10.3.2   Providing EFC contract

 

Providing an EFC contract requires that the Toll Service Provider defines his conditions, offers its service and reaches a potential User with this information. The User will contact the contracting agent who will verify if the User fulfils the conditions. If the user does fulfil the conditions, a contract will be established and signed. The contracting agent will initialize the issuing and customization of a new OBE, when an OBE is used for tolling. In the general case, the OBE will be subsequently loaded with appropriate information before it is ready for operation. Figure 10.3.1 shows the related action diagram.

 

 

Figure 10.3.1 — Providing EFC contract according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

Note that Figure 10.3.1 shows some actions that only occur when an OBE is used for the specific toll domain. If no OBE is used, e.g. in automated number plate recognition (ANPR) tolling systems, those actions do not occur.

Note also that Figure 10.3.1 shows some actions that involve interactions and related information exchanges inside the same role (Toll Service Provider).

 

These information exchanges may need to be standardized if the involved responsibilities/activities are played by different actors.

Unsubscribing a previously signed service contract will follow the same logical sequence starting with the definition of conditions.

The following interactions are identified:

  1. A Contractual conditions interaction that allows transfer of the contractual information.

  2. A Signed Contract interaction, that allows transfer of a signed contract.

  3. A Customization info interaction, that allows customization of the OBE with contractual information when an OBE is used in the specific toll domain. Customization info exchanges are standardized in CEN ISO TS 21719-1 Personalization of OBE – Framework, CEN ISO TS 21719-2 Personalization of OBE – Using dedicated short-range communication and CEN ISO TS 21719-3 Personalization of OBE – Using integrated circuit(s) cards.

 

In terms of service interactions:

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as content provider for the Contractual conditions, and as information sink for the Signed contract and the OBE status. If the responsibilities of maintaining the OBE and collecting usage data are performed by different actors, these will play the roles of respectively service provider and service user for the Customization info interaction.

  • The User shall act as a content provider for the Signed contract and as information sink for the Contractual information.

 

 

10.3.3   Collecting transit and transit information

10.3.3.1   General

 

The interactions between the actors in the collection of transit information are different in different types of EFC systems. Therefore, the following separate use cases are described for the different types of EFC systems:

  • Collecting transit information in short-range communication systems, such as dedicated-short range communication (DSRC) systems

  • Collecting charging information in autonomous systems

  • Colling transit information in non-OBE-based systems

 

NOTE           CEN is, at the time of writing of this report, finalising a pre-study on the use of vehicle license plate information and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technologies (CEN ISO TR 6026 Electronic fee collection — Pre-study on the use of vehicle licence plate information and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technologies, see further details in 10.6.3). The objective is to foster a common understanding on the use of vehicle licence plate information and ANPR technologies for EFC and to define the associated standardization roadmap.

 

 

10.3.3.2   Collecting transit information in short-range communication systems

 

Collection of transit information in short-range communication (SRC)-based EFC systems is performed by an actor performing the role of Toll Charger in various ways, which generally do not involve interactions with the User. Figure 10.3.2 shows an activity diagram where interactions happen between Toll Charger and Toll Service Provider in an SRC-based system.

 

Collection of transit information happens in an SRC (short range communication) domain when an actor playing the role of Toll Charger recognises the presence of an OBE. In order to cover the most general case, exchange of mutual identification information is shown in the diagram, at the end of which the Toll Charger identifies the User, and the Toll Service Provider recognises the charging domain.

 

Figure 10.3.2 — Collecting transit information (SRC systems) according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

The following interactions are identified:

  1. A User identification interaction, to verify customer’s credentials by means of Toll Service Provider’s available information.

  2. A Charging identification interaction, to verify Toll Charger’s credentials.

  3. A Transit information interaction, to transfer transit related information.

  4. A Charging information interaction, to notify the result of the charging transaction.

 

All above interactions are standardized in EN ISO 14906:2018/A1:2020 Application interface definition for DSRC ("toolbox") and EN 15509 Interoperability application profile for DSRC. The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications are defined in EN ISO 14907-1 / 2 and EN 15876-1/ 2, respectively.

In terms of service interactions:

  • The Toll Charger shall act as service user for the User identification, Charging identification and Transit information exchanges, and as content provider for the Charging information exchange.

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as service provider for the User identification, Charging identification and Transit information exchanges, and information sink for the Charging information exchange.

 

 

10.3.3.3   Collecting charging information (autonomous systems)

In autonomous systems based tolling systems, collection of transit information is performed by the Toll Service Provider, which by means of the OBE recognises charge objects (locations, areas, road segments), on the basis of available EFC context data, determines the transit information (in some cases also the charging information), and communicates it to the Toll Charger in the form of toll declarations. The set of activities to collect charging information in autonomous systems is performed almost entirely within the Toll Service Provider, and is detailed in Figure 10.3.3 solely for the sake of clarity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 10.3.3 — Collecting charging information (autonomous systems) according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

 

The granularity of toll declarations depends on specific agreements between the actors playing the Toll Charger and Toll Service Provider roles.

 

The Toll Service Provider may invalidate a User (for example, in case of credit threshold overridden) subsequently to the processing of usage data, and consequently put it in an exception list. Exchange and usage of exception lists is detailed in 10.3.3.

 

The following interactions are identified:

  1. A toll declaration interaction, to notify charging information related to one or more transits. toll declaration exchanges are standardized in EN ISO 12855 Information exchange between service provision and toll charging ("toolbox") and in CEN TS 16986 Interoperable application profiles for information exchange between Service Provision and Toll Charging. The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications for the latter are defined in CEN TS 17154-1/2.

  2. A Usage data interaction, to notify the actor performing the function of providing toll operation of the collected usage data. Usage data exchanges are standardized in EN ISO 17575-1 Charging. The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications are defined in EN ISO 16407-1/2.

In terms of service interactions:

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as content provider for the toll declaration information. If collecting usage data and providing toll declarations are performed by different actors, these actors shall act as content provider and information sink, respectively, for the usage data interaction.

  • The Toll Charger shall act as information sink.

 

 

10.3.3.4   Collecting transit information in non-OBE-based systems

Collection of transit information happens in such a tolling domain when an actor playing the role of Toll Charger recognises the presence of a vehicle and can identify the User without any direct interactions with either the User or the Toll Service Provider.

Vehicle identification, together with transit information, is subsequently provided by the Toll Charger to the Toll Service Provider by means of the Providing payment information sub-service, detailed in 10.3.4.

 

 

10.3.4   Providing payment information

The Providing payment information sub-service is based on previous exchanges of billing details and can be actualized in two ways:

  1. on demand by the Toll Charger, which requires the Toll Service Provider the payment of a number of transits related to previously exchanged billing details;

  2. spontaneously by the Toll Service Provider, which only notifies the Toll Charger of an effected payment, together with the indication of the billing details the payment is related to.

 

Figure 10.3.4 summarises the providing payment information action.

 

In case one of the partners complains that the other partner does not fulfil his obligations defined in the certification, the Management can be involved to settle the dispute, as detailed in EN ISO 17573-1, 7.2.6.

 

 

Figure 10.3.4 — Providing payment information according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

The following interactions are identified:

  1. A Billing details interaction, which allows either the Toll Charger or the Toll Service Provider to notify transit information, possibly with associated charging information.

  2. A Payment claim interaction, which allows Toll Chargers to request payments.

  3. A Payment notification interaction, which allows the Toll Service Provider to notify payments.

 

 

All above interactions are standardized in EN ISO 12855 Information exchange between service provision and toll charging ("toolbox") and in CEN TS 16986 Interoperable application profiles for information exchange between Service Provision and Toll Charging. The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications for the latter are defined in CEN TS 17154-1/2.

 

In terms of service interactions:

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as content provider for Payment notifications, and information sink or Content Provider for Billing details, according to the type of tolling system. The Toll Service Provider shall act as service provider for the Payment claim interaction.

  • The Toll Charger shall act as information sink for Payment notifications, and information sink or content provider for Billing details, according to the type of tolling system. The Toll Charger shall act as service user for the Payment claim interaction.

 

10.3.5   Detecting exceptions

Detecting Exceptions is an interaction which may be initiated when the user’s vehicle enters a charging zone.

 

Different actions can be performed by the charger in order to detect exceptions, which include collecting own data (from, i.e. sensors) or interacting with the User OBE to get data, or both. In order to cope with the general case, Figure 10.3.5 shows an action diagram where both actions are performed.

 

 

Figure 10.3.5 — Detecting exceptions according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

The following interaction is identified:

An OBE interrogation interaction, that allows an actor playing the Toll Charger role to request OBE’s operational parameters and status. OBE interrogation interactions are standardized in EN ISO 12813 Compliance check communication. The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications are defined in EN ISO 13143-1/2.

 

In terms of service interactions:

  • The Toll Charger shall act as service user.

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as service provider.

 

 

10.3.6   Handling exceptions

 

Exceptions can be detected (see 10.3.5) by either the Toll Charger when, e.g. an OBE transiting in the Toll Charger’s domain is inspected or for ANPR systems when a vehicle’s license plate is not recognised as valid, or by the Toll Service Provider when, e.g. a User status is to be updated (User cancelled due to missing payments, User put in a special list).

 

The result of detecting an exception causes the interactions depicted in Figure 10.3.6 to happen.

 

Figure 10.3.6— Handling exceptions according to EN ISO 17573-1

The following interactions are identified:

  1. A Notify anomaly interaction that allows an actor playing the Toll Charger role to inform the Toll Service Provider of some detected anomalies, e.g. in an OBE’s operational parameters or status.

  2. An Exception list interaction that allows the Toll Service Provider to inform an actor playing the role of Toll Charger about change of status for one User.

 

All above interactions are standardized in EN ISO 12855 Information exchange between service provision and toll charging ("toolbox") and in CEN TS 16986 Interoperable application profiles for information exchange between Service Provision and Toll Charging. The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications for the latter are defined in CEN TS 17154-1/2.

In terms of service interactions:

  • The Toll Charger shall act as content provider for the Notify anomaly.

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as content provider for the Exception list.

10.3.7   Providing local information

 

When detecting a User’s vehicle entering a charging zone, the Toll Charger may provide local information if the vehicle has an OBE. A practical example of such information is localisation data, to be used to improve location accuracy. Figure 10.3.7 shows an action diagram where such an action is performed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 10.3.7 — Provide local information according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

The following interaction is identified:

  1. A Provide data to OBE interaction that allows an actor playing the Toll Charger role to inform the OBE about local information. Localisation information interaction is standardized in EN ISO 13141 "Localisation augmentation communication". The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications are defined in EN ISO 13140-1/2.

 

In terms of service interactions:

  • The Toll Charger shall act as service provider.

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as service user.

10.3.8  User billing

User billing is performed by means of a series of interactions between the Toll Service Provider and the User. Exceptions happening in performing user billing may cause contracts to be revoked, and related information to be transmitted to Toll Chargers by using Handling Exceptions sub-services (see 10.3.7). The exception list information will be used also by all the contract agents to detect users being known as insolvent customers that try to sign new contracts. Figure 10.3.8 shows the related action diagram.

 

 

Figure 10.3.8 — User billing according to EN ISO 17573-1

 

The following interactions are identified:

  1. A User bill interaction, to inform the User of a bill to be paid. This information may include also notifications, e.g., termination of a contract (last bill).

  2. A Financial object interaction, to inform the Toll Service Provider about a payment.

  3. An Exception list interaction, to possibly indicate Users that are to be blacklisted due to e.g. missing payments. Exception lists exchanges are standardized in EN ISO 12855 Information exchange between service provision and toll charging ("toolbox") and in CEN TS 16986 Interoperable application profiles for information exchange between Service Provision and Toll Charging. The corresponding conformity evaluation test specifications for the latter are defined in CEN TS 17154-1/2.

 

In terms of service interactions:

  • The User shall act as information sink for the user bill, and as a content provider for the Financial objects.

  • The Toll Service Provider shall act as content provider for the Exception list and for the user bill, and as information sink for the Financial objects.

 

[1] Under preparation.

 
EFC Fig 8 - Detecting exceptions.jpg
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EFC Fig 5 - Collecting transit informati
EFC Fig 8 - Detecting exceptions.jpg
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EFC Fig 7 - Providing payment informatio
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10.4   European electronic toll service legislation

 

The recast of the European electronic toll service legislation brought about the adoption of the following European legislative acts:

  • EU Directive 2019/520 on Interoperability of electronic road toll systems and facilitating cross-border exchange of information on the failure to pay road fees

  • Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/204 on detailed obligations of Toll Service Providers and Toll Charges

  • Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2020/203 on obligations of users, classification of vehicles, requirements for interoperability constituents and NBs

 

8 CEN /ISO EFC standards are referred to in the EETS legislative acts, see Figure 10.4.

 

Figure 10.4 — EFC standards referred to in the EETS legislation

NOTE           CEN TR 17546 EETS gap analysis and proposed standards roadmap provides the result of an analysis of the technical elements of the recast EETS legislation and identification of potential need for new or updated standards.

Courtesty of © ASFINAG

10.5    EETS legal provisions and standards  

 

10.5.0    How standards underpin the EETS legislation

This section highlights how standards underpin the EETS legislation. It contains tables that highlight the correspondence between the requirements in the EETS legislative acts and the associated relevant supporting standard, including the relevant clause(s) with the referenced standard.

10.5.1    Correspondence between EN ISO 14906:2018 and the EETS legislation

Table 10.5.1 highlights the correspondence between the requirements in EN ISO 14906:2018 with the associated requirements of the EETS legislation (recast).

Table 10.5.1 — Correspondence between EN ISO 14906:2018 and the EETS legislation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The associated standardized ASN.1 data types can be found via https://www.itsstandards.eu/efc#EFCstandards.

 

10.5.2   Correspondence between EN 15509:2014 and the EETS legislation

 

 

Table 10.5.2 highlights the correspondence between the requirements in EN 15509:2014 with the associated requirements of the EETS legislation (recast).

Table 10.5.2 — Correspondence between EN 15509:2014 and the EETS legislation

 

10.5.3   Correspondence between EN ISO 12183 and the EETS legislation

 

 

Table 10.5.3 highlights the correspondence between the requirements in EN ISO 12813 with the associated requirements of the EETS legislation(recast).

 

 

Table 10.5.3 — Correspondence between EN ISO 12183:2019 and the EETS legislation

 

 

 


 

 

10.5.4   Correspondence between EN ISO 13141:2015 and the EETS legislation

Table 10.5.4 highlights the correspondence between the requirements in EN ISO 13141:2015 with the associated requirements of the EETS legislation (recast).

Table 10.5.4 — Correspondence between EN ISO 13141:2015 and the EETS legislation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

10.5.5   Correspondence between CEN/TS 16986:2016/AC:2017 and the EETS legislation

Table 10.5.5 highlights the correspondence between the requirements in CEN/TS 16986:2016/AC:2017 with the associated requirements of the EETS legislation (recast).

Table A.10.5.5 — Correspondence between CEN/TS 16986:2016/AC:2017 and the EETS legislation

 

 

10.5.6   Other relevant EU laws and supporting standards

It should be noted that there is an extensive existing EU legislative framework in place, in particular Directive 2014/35/EU [b10.35], Directive 2014/30/EU [b10.36] and Directive 2014/53/EU [b10.37]. In order to ensure coherency of EU laws and avoid overlap and legal uncertainty, no additional requirements, in relation to the EETS interoperability constituents (Article 15(4) of EU Directive 2019/520 [b10.30] regarding health and safety and environment protection were laid down in the Commission implementing and delegated regulations.

The scope of this clause mirrors the EETS legislative acts and only contains the EU laws mentioned in the EETS legislative acts. Hence, it provides a non-exhaustive list of laws and supporting standards. Consequently, it e.g. does not list the supporting standards related to the Directive on restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) [b10.39] and the Directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) [b10.40].

 

Table 10.5.6 provides, in the context of the EETS, a non-exhaustive list of other relevant EU laws and relevant supporting standards.

Table 10.5.6 — Other relevant EU laws and supporting standards

EFC Fig 12 - EFC standards referred to i
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10.6     Key recent EFC Standards

10.6.1 CEN ISO TS 17573-3:2021

10.6.1.1 Reference number and title

 

CEN ISO/TS 17573-3:2021, Electronic fee collection — System architecture for vehicle related tolling — Part 3: Data dictionary

 

10.6.1.2 Scope

 

This document specifies the syntax and semantics of data objects in the field of electronic fee collection (EFC). The definitions of data types and assignment of values are provided in accordance with the abstract syntax notation one (ASN.1) technique, as specified in ISO/IEC 8824 1. This document defines:

—    ASN.1 (data) types within the fields of EFC;

—    ASN.1 (data) types of a more general use that are used more specifically in standards related to EFC.

 

This document does not seek to define ASN.1 (data) types that are primarily related to other fields that operate in conjunction with EFC, such as cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS), the financial sector, etc.

 

10.6.1.3  Introduction

 

This document is a part of the ISO 17573 series that defines the system architecture for vehicle-related tolling. ISO 17573-1 gives a reference model for the system architecture. ISO TS 17573-2 provides a collection of terms and definitions within the field of electronic fee collection (EFC) and road user charging that are used in the different documents published in ISO and CEN under the general title, Electronic fee collection.

This document (ISO TS 17573-3) provides a data dictionary that contains the definitions of ASN.1 (data) types and the associated semantics.

The document is intended to be used as a reference by editors of ISO and CEN documents in EFC and in related areas of standardization (such as Intelligent Transport Systems, ITS).

It is foreseen that the library of ASN.1 (data) types contained in this document will be augmented with additional definitions as these become available.

 

10.6.2  CEN TR 17546:2020

10.6.2.1 Reference number and title

 

CEN TR 17546:2020, Electronic fee collection — EETS gap analysis and proposed standards roadmap

 

10.6.2.2  Scope

 

This document provides an EETS gap analysis with the aim to identify the need for new or updated standards to provide an enhanced support of the recast of the EU EETS legislation.

 

10.6.2.3  Introduction

 

Historical background

From 2004 to 2019, two main European legislative acts were ruling the regulated interoperable tolling service in Europe, the so-called European Electronic Tolling Service (EETS):

1.     the Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and European Council of the 29th of April, 2004, concerning the interoperability of tolling systems within the Community;

2.     the Decision of the European Commission of the 6th of October 2009 regarding the definition of the European tolling service and its technical aspects (2009/750/EC).

The main objective of the above acts was to set up the conditions to ensure compatibility and interoperability of the different electronic tolling systems in the European Union (EU). The acts apply to road tolling, as well as tunnels, bridges and ferries.

Key aspects of the legislation were:

1.     creation of a European Electronic Tolling Service (EETS);

2.     obligation for all new tolling systems (installed after the 1st of January 2007) to support the technologies listed in the legislation, i.e. 5,8 GHz dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), global navigation satellite system (GNSS, including GPS and GALILEO) and Global System for Mobile communications-General Packet Radio Service (GSM-GPRS); systems may be DSRC-based or GNSS-based (autonomous tolling systems) schemes;

3.     obligation for all toll service providers to provide their users with the possibility to obtain on-board devices that support all technologies above;

4.     possibility for users to have a single contract with a service provider that gives access to all electronic tolling systems in Europe;

5.     obligation for all toll chargers to give not-discriminatory access to their tolling domains for all European toll service providers.

 

Tuning the EETS service definition: the new legislation

 

After the introduction of the European legislation, the development of the EETS went on slower than expected, due to commercial, procedural and legislative aspects that were not initially considered.

 

Some pilots and European projects (among all the Regional EETS) had shown that a number of standards ought to be added to and become part of the European EETS legislation, in order to achieve a more solid interoperable framework.

 

While, with lengthy procedures, a core of EETS was beginning to take shape, with Service Providers being accredited in a number of Toll Domains and registered in their respective member state of the EU, the European Commission decided that it was time to revise (recast in EU legal parlance) the Directive. The revision process, a rather lengthy process, eventually led to a recast Directive (EU) 2019/520 of the 19th of March 2019.

 

The new Directive gives more flexibility in the on-board equipment (OBE) (possibility for light weight vehicles to mount a DSRC-only device, possibility of a “scattered” device that possibly uses already existing components in the vehicle, …), more flexibility for accreditation and registration as European Toll Service Provider, provides for cross-border enforcement, and empowers the EU Commission with the ability of adopting Delegated and Implementing Acts to refine the technical contents of the “new” EETS.

 

New main characteristics of the new EETS legislation are:

•      addition of cross-border enforcement;

•      separation of Light Weight Vehicles and Heavy Weight Vehicles;

•      clarification of responsibilities of the EETS providers;

•      clarification of responsibilities of the Toll Chargers;

•      removal of market entry barriers in order to promote competition;

•      addition of automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technologies.

 

The Commission adopted two Acts, one named Commission Implementing Regulation, the second one named Commission Delegated Regulation, that were adopted at the end of 2019, to further define the technical and procedural characteristics of the EETS. These Acts, among others, name and prescribe a number of CEN standards to be used for the EETS.

 

This document examines the requirements expressed in the new European legislation for EETS (including mandated CEN/ISO standards) and maps these requirements to the current CEN EFC standards, with the aim to identify gaps in the standardized offer (standards to be developed/enhanced) and also perceived inconsistencies and weaknesses in the current version of the European legislation.

 

A roadmap is then proposed to fill the discovered gaps, whilst noting that it is not CEN's role to develop a turnkey solution for the EETS.

 

 

10.6.3  FprCEN ISO DTR 6026:2021

 

10.6.3.1  Reference number and title

 

FprCEN ISO DTR 6026:2021, Electronic fee collection – Pre-study on the use of vehicle licence plate information and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technologies

 

10.6.3.2  Scope

 

This document provides an analysis of the use of licence plate number (LPN) information and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technologies in electronic fee collection (EFC), through the description of the legal, technical, and functional contexts of LPN-based EFC. It also provides an associated gap analysis of the EFC standards to identify actions to support standardised use of the identified technologies, and a roadmap to address the identified gaps.

 

The gap analysis in this document is based on use cases, relevant regulations, standards, and best practices in the field of EFC, based on the European electronic toll service (EETS) model.

 

Examples of licence plate number (LPN)-based tolling schemes are given in the informative Annex A of TR 6026.

 

10.6.3.3  Introduction

This document endeavours to foster a common understanding in the context of electronic fee collection (EFC) systems on the use of vehicle licence plate information, and on automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technologies.

This document notably seeks to advance the common understanding and definitions in the following areas:

—    information associated with licence plate number (LPN);

—    information exchanges over open interfaces;

—    outline of specification of exchanges between actors, notably the toll service provider, the toll charger, vehicle registrations authorities, etc;

—    technologies regarding the ANPR.

 

The outcome is intended to contribute to more effective and efficient EFC schemes using vehicle LPN, obtained by means of ANPR technology, and any associated information (including make and model) as a primary means to identify the user via the LPN, or a complementary means to augment the reliability and the robustness of their dedicated short-range communication (DSRC)- or global navigation satellite system / cellular network) (GNSS/CN)-based systems (including degraded mode, trip reconstitution, etc).

 

10.7   Bibliography  S.10 EFC 

[b10.1]        ISO 9001:2015, Quality management systems — Requirements

Note: mentioned in 2019/520 article 4(a)

[b10.2]        EN ISO 13140‑1:2016, Electronic fee collection — Evaluation of on-board and roadside equipment for conformity to ISO 13141 — Part 1: Test suite structure and test purposes

[b10.3]        EN ISO 13141:2015,[1] Electronic fee collection — Localisation augmentation communication for autonomous systems

[b10.4]        EN ISO 13143‑1:2016, Electronic fee collection — Evaluation of on-board and roadside equipment for conformity to ISO 12813 — Part 1: Test suite structure and test purposes

[b10.5]        EN ISO 14906:2018, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for dedicated short-range communication

[b10.6]        EN ISO 14906:2018/A1:2020, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for dedicated short-range communication - Amendment 1

[b10.7]        EN ISO 14907‑1:2020, Electronic fee collection — Test procedures for user and fixed equipment — Part 1: Description of test procedures

[b10.8]        ISO TS 17573‑2:2020, Electronic fee collection — System architecture for vehicle related tolling — Part 2: Terminology

[b10.9]        EN ISO 19299, Electronic fee collection — Security framework

[b10.10]     CEN ISO TS 21719‑1:2018, Electronic fee collection — Personalization of on-board equipment (OBE) — Part 1: Framework

[b10.11]     CEN ISO TS 21719‑2:2018, Electronic fee collection — Personalization of on-board equipment (OBE) — Part 2: Using dedicated short-range communication

[b10.12]     ISO IEC 27001:2018, Information technology — Security techniques — Information security management systems — Requirements

[b10.13]     ISO IEC 27005:2018, Information technology — Security techniques — Information security risk management

[b10.14]     EN 15509:2014, Electronic fee collection — Interoperability application profile for DSRC

[b10.15]     EN 15876‑1, Electronic fee collection — Evaluation of on-board and roadside equipment for conformity to EN 15509

[b10.16]     CEN TS 16986:2016,[2] Electronic Fee Collection — Interoperable application profiles for information exchange between Service Provision and Toll Charging

[b10.17]     CEN TS 17154‑1, Electronic fee collection — Evaluation of implementation for conformity to CEN/TS 16986 — Part 1: Test suite structure and purposes

Note: not mentioned in the EETS legislative acts – but ought to be cited in an updated Commission implementing regulation, III, IV Tests specifications

[b10.18]     ETSI TS 102 708-1-1, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); RTTT; Test specifications for High Data Rate (HDR) data transmission equipment operating in the 5,8 GHz ISM band; Part 1: Data Link Layer; Sub-Part 1: Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS) proforma specification

[b10.19]     ETSI TS 102 708-1-2, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); RTTT; Test specifications for High Data Rate (HDR) data transmission equipment operating in the 5,8 GHz ISM band; Part 1: Data Link Layer; Sub-Part 2: Test Suite Structure and Test Purposes (TSS&TP)

[b10.20]     ETSI TS 102 708-2-1, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); RTTT; Test specifications for High Data Rate (HDR) data transmission equipment operating in the 5,8 GHz ISM band; Part 2: Application Layer; Sub-part 1: Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS) proforma specification

[b10.21]     ETSI TS 102 708-2-2, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); RTTT; Test specifications for High Data Rate (HDR) data transmission equipment operating in the 5,8 GHz ISM band; Part 2: Application layer; Sub-Part 2: Test Suite Structure and Test Purposes (TSS & TP)

[b10.22]     ETSI ES 200 674‑1 V2.4.1, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Road Transport and Traffic Telematics (RTTT); Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC); Part 1: Technical characteristics and test methods for High Data Rate (HDR) data transmission equipment operating in the 5,8 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band

[b10.23]     ETSI EN 301 489-1 V1.9.2, Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment and services; Part 1: Common technical requirements

[b10.24]     EN 62368‑1:2014,[3] Audio/video, information and communication technology equipment - Part 1: Safety requirements

[b10.25]     ISO IEC 17020:2012, Conformity assessment — Requirements for the operation of various types of bodies performing inspection

[b10.26]     ISO IEC 17011:2017, Conformity assessment — Requirements for accreditation bodies accrediting conformity assessment bodies

[b10.27]     ISO IEC 17065:2012, Conformity assessment — Requirements for bodies certifying products, processes and services

[b10.28]     Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems in the Community

[b10.29]     European Commission, Commission Decision 2009/750/EC of 6 October 2009 on the definition of the European Electronic Toll Service and its technical elements

[b10.30]     Directive (EU) 2019/520 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2019 on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems and facilitating cross-border exchange of information on the failure to pay road fees in the Union (recast)

[b10.31]     European Commission, Commission implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/204 of 28 November on detailed obligations of European Electronic Toll Service providers, minimum content of the European Electronic Toll Service domain statement, electronic interfaces, requirements for interoperability constituents and repealing Decision 2009/750/EC

[b10.32]     European Commission, Commission delegated Regulation (EU) 2020/2003 of 28 November on classification of vehicles, obligations of European Electronic Toll Service users, requirements for interoperability constituents and minimum eligibility criteria for notified bodies

[b10.33]     Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications)

[b10.34]     Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 setting out the requirements for accreditation and market surveillance relating to the marketing of products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 339/93

[b10.35]     Directive (EU) 2014/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits (recast)

[b10.36]     Directive 2014/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility (recast)

[b10.37]     Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment and repealing Directive 1999/5/EC Text with EEA relevance

[b10.38]     Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (Text with EEA relevance)

[b10.39]     Directive 2011/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2011 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment Text with EEA relevance

[b10.40]     Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) Text with EEA relevance

[b10.41]     European Commission, Commission delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/79 of 12 September 2016 establishing detailed technical requirements and test procedures for the EC type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to their 112-based eCall in-vehicles systems, of 112-based eCall in-vehicle separate technical units and components and supplementing and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/758 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the exemptions and applicable standards (Text with EEA relevance)

[b10.42]     European Commission, Commission implementing Decision (EU) 2020/167 of 5 February 2020 on the harmonised standards for radio equipment drafted in support of Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council

[b10.43]     European Global Navigation Satellite Systems Agency and EC Joint Research Centre (Dec 2018, version 1.0), Implementation guidelines for On-Board Unit manufacturers, test solution vendors and technical centres

b[10.44]     REETS-TEN Report on REETS Interoperability Management Platform in http://www.reets.eu/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&id=9:activity-07-information-platform&Itemid=109#

[b10.45]     Decision No 768/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 on a common framework for the marketing of products, and repealing Council Decision 93/465/EEC

[b10.46]     European Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/79 of 12 September 2016 establishing detailed technical requirements and test procedures for the EC type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to their 112-based eCall in-vehicles systems, of 112-based eCall in-vehicle separate technical units and components and supplementing and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/758 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the exemptions and applicable standards

[b10.47]     CEN TR 16968:2016, Electronic Fee Collection - Assessment of security measures for applications using Dedicated Short-Range Communication

[b10.48]  ISO 14907-2:2021, Electronic fee collection — Test procedures for user and fixed equipment — Part 2: Conformance test for the on-board unit application interface

[b10.49]   ISO TS 21719-3:2021, Electronic fee collection — Personalization of on-board equipment (OBE) — Part 3: Using integrated circuit(s) cards

 

[1] As amended by EN ISO 13141:2015/A1:2017.

[2] As corrected by CEN TS 16986:2016/AC:2017.

[3] As corrected by EN 62386-1:2014/AC:2015.

 

10.8      Abbreviations & Acronyms

ANPR                                     Automatic Number Plate Recognition                                          s10 EFC; s14 LA; s17 Pub. Transport;

                                                                                                                                                    s21 TMC

AWI                                        Approved Work Item                                                                     all

CEN                                       Comité européen de normalisation

                                              (European Committee for Standardization)                                   all

CEN/TC278                            European committee for standardisation of ITS                          s!0 EFC;  s18  Railway

C-ITS                                      Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems                                  All

DIS                                         Draft International Standard                                                         All

DSRC                                     dedicated-short range communication                                        s8 Communications; s10 EFC; s14 LA;

                                                                                                                                                    s23 Nomadic; s24  VR WC

EC                                          European Commission                                                                 All

EETS                                      European electronic toll service                                                   s10 EFC

EFC                                        Electronic Fee Collection                                                             s7 Architecture; s10 EFC; s14 LA;

                                                                                                                                                    s16 parking

EN                                          European Norm (standard)                                                          All

ETSI                                        European Telecommunications Standards Institute                    All

EU                                          European Union                                                                           All

EU-ICIP                                  European ITS communications and information protocols          All

GDPR                                     General Data Protection Regulation                                            All

GNSS                                     Global Navigation Satellite System                                              All

GSM                                       Global System for Mobile communications                                 All

ISO                                         International Standards Organisation                                           All

ITS                                          Intelligent Transport Systems                                                        All

ITS-S                                      ITS station                                                                                     all

OBE                                        On-Board Equipment                                                                   s7 Architecture; s10 EFC; s18  Railway;

                                                                                                                                                    s20 Stolen; s19  Spatial

SLA                                        Service level agreement                                                               s10 EFC

SRC                                        short-range communication                                                         s10 EFC

TC                                          Toll Charger                                                                                  s10 EFC

TR                                          Technical Report                                                                           All

TS                                          Technical Specification                                                                 All

TSP                                        Toll Service Provider                                                                      s10 EFC