20 After theft systems for vehicle recovery
20.1 Overview of service
20.1.1 Transport context
After Theft Systems for Vehicle Recovery (ATSVR) is an electronic means of identifying and locating stolen vehicles leading to their recovery. The standards involved in this area (EN 15213 – series) which incidentally have a slightly different title of “After theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles”. The standards define the architecture and the minimum standards for information and assurance to users as to the functionality of systems leading to the recovery of stolen vehicles, the detection of offenders and hence a reduction in crime. It seen will been later in this document that there are a diverse number of actors within the end to end process and it is vital that the ATSVR elements are well defined so they can be interfaced with existing systems.
Theft of transport has been a major problem from the earliest days of stealing horses and carts. Vehicles up until the 1970’s were simple to break into and “hot wire” to get them started and remove them, but as the manufacturers fitted steering wheel locks and alarms those who wished to steal the vehicle developed more sophisticated methods of overcoming the deterrents up to the point now where keyless entry systems are overcome to enable the criminal to unlock the As long as there are desirable cars criminals will steal vehicles by gaining access and overcoming the disabling the security the security elements in the engine management systems.
In 2015 the records show that nearly 1 million vehicles were stolen in the European Union countries, that is 2,700 per day; an average of 124 vehicles per 100,000 population. The figures show a significant loss to the economy and to individuals; car theft is not a “victimless crime”. In the UK in 2019, less than half of all stolen vehicles were ever recovered. 85% of stolen cars registered after 1997 were stolen with the car keys. Thieves break into houses or force drivers out of vehicles by carjacking as stealing the keys is the easiest way to steal a vehicle. This however is changing as many vehicles now have keyless entry and starting systems that can be highjacked using inexpensive devices widely available on the Internet.
Apart from the disruption of life due to vehicle theft to the owner, all of society pays for the crime because of higher insurance premiums and the Law Enforcement Agencies’ time dealing with the aftermath of thefts.
Given that vehicles will still be stolen, it is important that there is a viable and efficient way of identifying stolen vehicles, their location and their status so that recovery might be possible.
Most of the functions of ATSVR concerns identifying stolen vehicles and determining their location and passing the data to the law enforcement agencies. These functions however cannot result in recovery of the stolen vehicles if the vehicle is being driven by the thief; some systems are either degrade the performance of the vehicle or even immobilise it. This optional function can be triggered from outside the vehicle when the vehicle is in line of sight of the apprehending agency. However, this functionality may not be legal in some countries; a feasibility report on remote engine slow and stop technology has been produced that discussed the options and the advantages and disadvantages of degrading the vehicle performance remotely has been produced and is available as document CEN/TC278 N2463.
Most of the methods for identifying stolen vehicles, their location and status use on-board equipment. This equipment might be stand alone for the purpose of recovery, but also it is likely in the future that the on -board equipment for recovery might also be used for other purposes as part of an e-call system or as part of the system for Cooperative and Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CCAM). Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) is also a significant element of ATSVR.
The standards described for ATSVR are agnostic to laws prevailing in each jurisdiction. The standards explain the functions, and entities needed but not how they might be implanted.
20.2 Overview of stakeholders/actors
The conceptional architecture shown in the next main clause contains a number of actors, additionally there are organisations with a direct interest in the successful recovery of stolen vehicles.
20.2.1 Law enforcement agencies – police, licencing and revenue
The law enforcement agency or organisation is the approved or appointed (by governments) to have jurisdiction in a territory over the recovery of stolen vehicles. In the majority of cases this would be the police or the vehicle licencing and revenue collection agencies. The jurisdiction might cross boarders with organisations such as Europol interfacing between the stolen vehicle identification systems and the internal systems for these agencies are essential so that the required data is complete and unambiguous.
20.2.2 Insurance associations
In the majority of jurisdictions vehicle owners and operators are required to have insurance to cover damage to third parties (other road users and their vehicles as well as the wider community interests), and to cover the cost of damage and loss of the insured vehicle. It is in the insurers best interests if vehicles are resistant to being stolen and can be tracked to recover then (hopefully undamaged) if they are stolen. By reducing losses and hence pay-outs due to vehicles being stolen insurance companies should be able to reduce premiums. Indeed, for many high-end and desirable vehicles may only be able to be insured if they have approved tracking and immobilisation capability.
20.2.3 Car manufacturers
Car manufacturers have an interest in the security and theft-proofness of their vehicles. This enhances the perceived value of their vehicles and may be a prerequisite for the insurance companies resulting in lower premiums. Manufacturers would prefer to integrate all additional functionality into their vehicles rather than third party equipment that would need to be verified so as not to interfere with core functions of the vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers are also increasingly interested in providing services to customers beyond the initial sale and mechanical servicing of the vehicle. Manufactures such as, for example, General Motors with Onstar and Ford with Ford Pass. Most vehicle manufacturers offer vehicle recovery services as part of their concierge services along with e-call and other services concerned with the management of the vehicle during its lifetime.
20.2.4 Vehicle rental and leasing associations
A small proportion of vehicles that are rented are never returned as required. Tracing and recovery these vehicles is of major importance to the rental company.
There are four types of rental vehicle theft:
Fraud where the hirer has given invalid or fake addresses, presented bogus ID, a cloned or stolen credit card etc. with the intention of dishonestly keeping the rental vehicle for their own use.
Conversion where fraudsters will refuse to hand back the vehicle at the end of the hire period with the intention of keeping the vehicle permanently, thus depriving the rental company of their property.
Theft where the rental vehicle is stolen from the hirer during the period of the rental agreement.
Theft directly from the rental company’s premises where the vehicle is stolen at the rental company’s site due to ineffective security and access and egress controls.
Increasingly, rental companies are using vehicle pick up and drop off systems that are undertaken remotely without the customer having to interreact with the rental company staff or go to a rental car lot.
New modes of “public” transport are being introduced. Carsharing or car clubs are a model of car rental where users rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour and via telematic applications. There will be an issue when vehicles go missing and the car sharing operator will have to take steps to recover the vehicle. Tracking the location of the vehicle is an integral part of the carshare offer and of course can use the tracking and location systems available in the vehicles, but there will be situations where the Law Enforcement Agencies will become involved.
20.2.5 ATSVR system and product providers
It is not only the vehicle manufacturers that provide ATSVR services. In most countries they are a number of offerings from independent suppliers. For example, Europ Assistance owned by Generali operates across Europe and Concentrix (only examples and not unique). It should be noted that there are also many other independent international and national operators. It is vital that these operators System Operating Centres form strict performance and indemnity agreements with the Law Enforcement Agencies in each country that the provider operates in. This gets particularly challenging where the System Operating Centre is based in a country other than where the identifying, tracking and recovery is taking place. The indemnity needs to include issues arriving from the false notification of a stolen vehicle to injury to third parties arising out of requests from ATSVR Operating Centres. There are also GDPR issues on the use and sharing of potentially personal and confidential data and information, particularly if the System Operating Centre is not based in the country where the theft is allegedly to have taken place. The standards (EN 15213 – 2) in this area should be followed to ensure that sufficient data is collected to allow the Law Enforcement Agencies to be able to act, without collecting information which might breach confidentiality rules.
20.2.6 Communications Authorities
To be able to operate an ATSVR system need both location services and communications between the vehicle and the System Operating Centre and in some cases to a roadside unit. It is claimed by some ATSVR operators that they have systems to be able to overcome the problem with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and mobile data systems such as GSM, 3G, 4G and now 5G signals being blocked if the vehicle is in a metal shipping container, and underground car park , or a steel framed building. The allocation of frequencies and technologies for both the long and short range communication with the vehicles will have to be negotiated with national and European authorities. The precise nature of the communication technology is not a subject of the standards.
The position reference source can provide the location of a vehicle at any time assuming there are clear positioning satellite signals to the vehicle. The actual position of the vehicle on the surface of the earth is generally recorded in WGS 84 or its enhanced European version ETRS89. This location reference is not usable to human operators unless it is translated to known features. This is normally done via a conversion to a point on a map such as a street or even address. This conversion is undertaken by mapmakers who provide the correspondence between the coordinate reference system and usable physical features. There are many different instantiations of maps from different companies; a map will be used by the System Operating Centre and by the Law Enforcement Agency; it is probable that the maps used will differ and that confusion on the feature may be confused.
20.3 List of functional areas
EN15213-1:2013 describes the three basic functional areas of ATSVR and the two optional functions.
20.3.1 Detection Function
This is a basic function to detect automatically or semi-automatically the location of a Registered Stolen Vehicle. The registration of a stolen vehicle will have taken place before the detection takes place. This registration may be manual or automatically from the vehicle f it is capable of determining that it has been stolen and raises and alarm.
The detection may be undertaken by Signalling or by Consulting:
Detection by Signalling is where the On-Board Equipment (OBE) has been activated by a signal from an external source. This activation may come from a mobile or stationary source, which will be local to the vehicle (Short-Range) or at a distance from the vehicle say from a System Operating Centre (Long-Range).
Once activated the OBE will transmit a signal that is capable of being picked up by ATSVR Detection Equipment located either locally to the vehicle or at a distance from the vehicle (the System Operating Centre. The transmitted signal may contain other relevant information that can further aid detection and provide data useful for the recovery of the vehicle.
Detection by Consulting is where an external item of Detection Equipment interrogates the OBE and the OBE responds by transmitting data to the Detection Equipment. The Detection Equipment then compares the received data with a database of Registered Stolen Vehicles, a data match confirms that a Registered Stolen Vehicle is present and further action can take place.
20.3.2 Location function
This is a basic function where once the Registered Stolen Vehicle has been detected, its location can be established by one of the following functions:
Location by direct or indirect geographic co-ordinates which is the process that establishes the general or precise location of the vehicle at a given point in time, which allows entitled persons to carry out their define tasks of recovering;
Homing (also known as Tracing or Relative Positioning) which is the process that periodically updates the range and direction of the detected vehicle from an intercepting vehicle over a period of time, thus allowing entitled personnel to approach or intercept the detected vehicle without the necessary use of landmarks or absolute geographic references;
Tracking which is the process that updates location and other information on the detected vehicle over a period of time and allows entitled personnel to monitor the location of the detected vehicle and approach or intercept it.
20.3.3 Identification function
This is a basic function which allows the unequivocal identification of a vehicle as being the Registered Stolen Vehicle. This may be by means of a secure process that allows the unique vehicle data to be read, e.g. Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), registration number, and other data, e.g. theft status, model, colour and, if relevant, location. There are three elements to identification of the Registered Stolen Vehicle.
Discrimination is the process that enables entitled personnel unambiguously to differentiate the detected vehicle from other surrounding vehicles.
Recognition is the process that enables entitled personnel correctly to select the detected vehicle through visual observation based on knowledge of the vehicle particulars such as make, model, colour and other specific observable features.
Indirect Identification is the process resulting from data coming from a central or remote data bank, whilst Direct Identification is that resulting from data coming from the OBE itself.
20.3.4 Remote Degradation
This is an optional function of remotely degrading vehicle performance. The use of this function is controversial and not allowed in many administrations. Where it is allowed the onus is on the operator of the service to do it in a manner that does not present a danger to the vehicle driver or to other road users. It is considered that that the degradation of vehicle performance is undertaken in such a way that control of the vehicle is never compromised.
20.3.5 Theft Indication
This is an optional function and concerns the transmission of a warning or alert from the OBE to a System Operating Centre or to roadside detecting equipment that the transmitting vehicle may have been stolen.
This function may be triggered automatically by the vehicle leaving a geofenced area or the correct starting procedure (coded) not being used or it not being used in the vehicles prescribed manner.
20.4 How the functions chain together in the life cycle of an ATSVR event
Figure 20-1 (below) shows where and when the functions come into play during the cycle of an event.
The communications in ATSVR fall into three categories: Network communications between the various elements of the system; long range communication and short-range communications. For location services a Global Satellite Communications Systems (GNSS) is generally used, but other solutions that are less susceptible to shielding may be used.
20.5.1 Infrastructure network
This is the communications between the various actors in the chain. Typically, between the System Operating Centre and the Law Enforcement Agencies, although other actors such as the Insurance companies and hire companies may well be on this network.
20.5.2 Long-range interface
This is the communications that are generally greater than 100 metres and not in line of sight. They typically handle the communications between the System Operating Centre and the On-board equipment.
20.5.3 Short-range interface
This is typically the communications between the on-board equipment and equipment in following vehicles or equipment at the roadside be they infrastructure based or hand-held. Inevitably they are less than 100m and in line of sight. This interface can be used to positively identify the vehicle and then, with the correct authorisation, apply degradation to the performance of the vehicle.
20.5.4 The ATSVR status of the on-board equipment
The on-board equipment can be in a number of conditions which it can transmit to detection equipment:
clear where there is no indication that the vehicle has been stolen – its normal condition;
theft where the on-board equipment indicates that the vehicle has been stolen. This can be raised when it detects a stolen scenario, or a signal is sent to the on-board equipment raising its status to stolen;
degradation status – whether remote degradation is activated or not.
20.6 Interoperability and compatibility of ATSVR systems
It is useful that systems from several manufacturers are able to work together to achieve a common solution. Of course, this is the scenario that standards were designed for, but of course adherence to a standard or parts of a standard do not necessarily guarantee interoperability. In this context interoperability is the ability to provide to and accept services from others systems to enable them to operate together. Compatibility is the ability of one subsystem to interact with another; typically, this means that the subsystem complies with a series of redefined rules and interfaces.
There are two issues in interoperability that should be considered:
Human Machine Interface – it is important that a user can interpret easily the different status of the on-board equipment resulting in a common way of interacting with the system by input methods and consistent displays.
That ATSVR systems do not interfere with operations of other systems within the vehicle.
That the systems can interact correctly and consistently with other functions within the vehicle.
20.7 After theft systems for stolen vehicle recovery functions, architecture and human interactions
20.7.1 The functions chaining up to provide the end to end service
The functions described in the previous sections are used at various points in the lifecycle of the recovery of stolen vehicle from the various notifications that indicate that the vehicle may have been stolen, through registration and detection of the stolen vehicle through to deactivation of the ATSVR systems after the vehicle has been recovered.
Figure 20-1 below shows the core and optional functions that come into play during the 3 phases of the ATSVR activity.
Figure 20-1 – ATSVR functions chaining up
188.8.131.52 Early warning that the vehicle is being subject to theft
The actual implementation of notification systems will be subject to decisions and regulations enshrined in an individual country’s prevailing laws.
The System Operation Centre may be alerted to the vehicle being in the process of or actually stolen in a number of ways:
Manual notification by the driver or another agency;
Automatic notification if the vehicle is acting in an unexpected way;
the vehicle is geofenced.
Optional functions here are theft indication with detection, location and identification.
184.108.40.206 Operations in the course of a stolen vehicle search and recovery
After the vehicle has been identified as stolen or in the process of being stolen the basic, and core, ATSVR functions are detection of the vehicle, its location and identification, of course subject to individual country’s prevailing laws. Subject again to national legislation the optional remote degradation function could be brought into action to assist in the recovery of a moving stolen vehicle.
220.127.116.11 After the vehicle has been recovered
After a vehicle has been recovered or indeed if it was erroneously flagged as stolen it will be necessary to reset the on-board unit to “not-stolen” mode and reset stolen registration across the complete ATSVR operation.
20.7.2 Conceptual architecture model for ATSVR functions
In section 20.8.1 the concept of the various ATSVR functions chaining up during the cycle of reporting to recovery of a stolen vehicle. Figure 20.2 shows the functions of the ATSVR operation and how they are linked.
Figure 20-2 – Conceptual architecture model for ATSVR functions
Each of the core elements of the system are shown:
the Operating Centre(s) which can contain one or more ATSVR operation centres that manage the stolen vehicle recovery which then communicate to register the stolen vehicle with the law enforcement agencies;
the communications networks that make the interactions between the vehicle and the operations centres possible. These communications networks encompass position referencing, infrastructure networks and both the mobile and stationary detection equipment.
the vehicle containing the on-board equipment which will interface and interact with both the communications network and on-board sensors and activators.
20.7.3 Human interactions for the ATSVR model
20.8.1 and 20.8.2 have shown how the functions chain together and how the elements interface at the machine level, but there are also interactions between humans and the ATSVR system. Figure 20-3 shows these interactions.
Figure 20-3 – Human Interactions with the ATSVR system
18.104.22.168 Human interactions at the System Operating Centre
The human interactions are broken up into three aspects:
the vehicle owner – who may want to influence various aspects of the Law Enforcement Agency via requests or complaints;
the SOC operator who will monitor or control the system;
the ATSVR user who will want to monitor the vehicle location, identification and status of the stolen vehicle.
22.214.171.124 Human interactions with the Communications Networks
The human interactions with the communications is limited to the Detection Equipment user who will need to read in control functions and receive the status of the current functions.
126.96.36.199 Human interactions with the vehicle
In the ATSVR model for security reasons there are no human interactions with the vehicle. All interactions are via the communications networks either from Detection Equipment (short or long range) or from the System Operating Centre.
20.8 Links to standards
There are two main sets of CEN standards that deal directly with ATSVR. The EN 15213 series (5 ENs and 1 TS) named Intelligent transport Systems – After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles. Additionally, to cover aspects of the on-board equipment EN ISO 14814 references named Road transport and traffic telematics – Automatic vehicle and equipment identification – reference architecture and terminology.
20.8.1 EN 15213-1:2015 Intelligent transport Systems – After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles – Part 1: Reference architecture and terminology
LINK: EN 15213-1:2015
This part of the suite of six 15213 standards gives a general overview of the ATSVR system. It describes all the functions and terminology of the ATSVR system. Details of each part of the systems are described in detail in the other 4 main parts, with test procedures detailed in the sixth part.
20.8.2 EN 15213-2:2013 Intelligent transport Systems – After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles – Part 2: Common status message elements
LINK: EN 15213-2:2013
This part of the standard specifies the basic structure of the message elements, or items of information, that are put together to form the common message sets used in exchanging information in an ATSVR. These message elements can also be referenced in a unique manner and described in plain language for transmission by voice, fax or e-mail. Similarly, the data can be encoded in XML language for electronic transmission.
The standard gives a detailed format of all the elements described in Table 16.1 although not all are mandatory. Part 2 describes the message framework into which they fit. Additionally, there are common elements that are defined in other standards; examples of this are:
Country Codes assigned according to EN ISO 3166-1
Alphabetic indicators referenced in EN ISO 14816
Dates, times and time zones
It should be noted that not all of the elements will be used, but when they are they should be compliant with the format described in Annex A.
Element Description from heading
Date and time
Dynamic Data, Descriptive Location
Dynamic Data, Direction
Dynamic Data, Geographic Location
Dynamic Data, Speed
Incident, LEA holding original report
Incident, Place of Theft
Incident, Reportinq Person
Incident, Stolen Status
Incident, Theft Update, Location
Incident, Time of Theft
Incident, Unique Reference Number
Incident, vehicle load
Incident, vehicle reference
Name and Address, Keeper
Name & Address, Owner
SOC, Communication Number
Vehicle, ATSVR Details
Vehicle, Body Type
Vehicle, Engine Number
Vehicle, Enqine Size
Vehicle, Nationality and Licence Plate
Vehicle, Other Descriptive Information
Vehicle, date of manufacture
Vehicle, Reqistration Date
20.8.3 EN 15213-3:2013 Intelligent transport systems — After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles — Part 3: Interface and system requirements in terms of short range communication system
LINK: EN 15213-3:2013
This standard focuses on Short Range (SR) Interface/Systems Requirements. SR systems use an interface that allows Detection Equipment to operate some ATSVR functions in the direct line of sight of vehicles. SR systems enable LEAs in a particular country, to permit LEA personnel to perform actions on vehicles that are within their immediate vicinity. Such actions can include identification of vehicle data or influencing the vehicle from a remote site.
This part describes the structure, bit arrangements, number representation and coding of message elements that are typically transmitted as data. There is no requirement to make the messages as short or as effective as possible. Emphasis is placed on making them as clear and unambiguous as possible.
For Short Range Communications, where there is very little time available for the transfer of data between passing vehicles and detection equipment, only a subset of the message elements described in this document can be transmitted. Therefore, in these cases, the data lengths are reduced to an absolute minimum.
20.8.4 EN 15213-4:2013 Intelligent transport systems — After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles — Part 4: Interface and system requirements in terms of long range communication system
LINK: EN 15213-4:2013
This part of the Standard specifies the characteristics required to operate the Long Range ATSVR Architecture.
An ATSVR system consists of various elements that communicate and interact through a range of interfaces in accordance with standard procedures and protocols in order to facilitate the recovery of stolen vehicles. These processes may involve a human operator.
ATSVR elements include an OBE installed in the vehicles, a range of Detecting Equipment and one or more System Operating Centres. One or more supporting Infrastructure Networks provide communications to support the ATSVR. The ATSVR location function may also include one or more supporting Position Reference Sources.
LR systems use an interface that allows the Detection Equipment to operate some ATSVR Functions at distances greater than the direct line of sight. These LR systems are generally operated with ATSVR Location Functions using long-range communications. This permits existing proprietary systems to operate using these interface specifications at ATSVR application level.
20.8.5 EN 15213-5:2013, Intelligent transport systems — After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles — Part 5: Messaging interface
LINK: EN 15213-5:2013
This standard specifies guidelines for co-operation and the procedures to be followed between the LEA and ATSVR System Operating Centres (SOC) in response to alarm signals by ATSVR systems; for purpose of optimum mutual communication, it also includes suggestions and a format for the electronic exchange of information.
Systems may be short range or long range and may use different technology to achieve results. Systems may identify the vehicle from on-board data or via reference to data held externally to the vehicle. Nevertheless, the standards of data and speed of communication should be compliant with requirements in this set of standards. System reliability and good, consistent procedures are extremely important.
System operators and users will remain aware that the level and timing of any response ultimately remains the responsibility of the LEA where the vehicle is currently located by an ATSVR system. It is implicit that there should be a uniform way of dealing internationally with these systems when a stolen vehicle is in a country other than where the originating SOC is located.
The potential for widespread adoption of ATSVR and the possibility of false or malicious calls requires an agreed process at local and national level. To ensure this the standard recommends five steps which are as follows:
1) SOC notifies the Vehicle Owner or Authorised User of unauthorised use of the Target Vehicle/OR, the owner notifies SOC of the theft starting the process where the system is activated by the SOC.
2) Vehicle Owner or Authorised User confirms that the Target Vehicle has been stolen.
3) SOC and/or owner/authorised user reports the vehicle as a Confirmed Stolen Vehicle to LEA. When a car jacking is confirmed by other, possibly technical means, the SOC is not obliged to confirm the emergency call to the owner/authorised user who is with the vehicle.
4) SOC gives the location, speed, direction, and other data to LEA and provides continuous commentary or regular updates at defined intervals of time or distance. This data is system dependent.
e) LEA decides on the level of response and advises SOC.
This part of the standard recommends the procedures for interactions between the SOC and the LEA both at national and international level. A set of qualifying attributes for the SOC is given to enable a SOC to have the confidence of the LEA.
A full description of the conditions for use and issues arising from remote degradation of the vehicle performance is discussed, with advice on liability.
Models of the various connections between the SOC and the LEA are suggested along with forms which contain the data (as defined in EN 15253-6).
20.8.6 CEN TS 15213-6:2011: 2011 Road transport and traffic telematics — After-theft services for the recovery of stolen vehicles — Part 6: Test procedures
LINK: CEN TS 15213-6:2011
Part 6 specifies the Test Criteria for after-theft services for the recovery of stolen vehicles (ATSVR), and their control and use with electronic and electromechanical inhibitor control equipment utilising both conventional switched outputs and/or soft-coded outputs of setting and unsetting devices, detectors, warning devices and ancillary equipment, for fitting to vehicles operating on 12/24 V negative earth electrical systems.
The requirements and tests specified enable reasonable assessment of components’ performance with regard to safety, reliability, functionality, security and documentation.
This part references a number of testing standards in the: EN 60068 series (environmental testing); EN 60529 (degrees of protection provided by enclosures); EN 7637 (Road vehicles - Electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling); ISO 10605 (Road vehicles -- Test methods for electrical disturbances from electrostatic discharge); ISO 11452-4 ) Road vehicles - Component test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy - Part 4: Bulk current injection).
20.9 Links to regulations
All data shall be accurate, up to date and secure, particularly where this relates to personal data. All data shall be kept in accordance with the data protection principles set out by the Council of Europe Convention on 28th January 1981 and shall take account of Recommendation R(87)15 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe 17th September 1987 concerning the use of personal data in the police sector. There are some variations in requirements across EU member states. Therefore, the data shall also be kept in accordance with the national data protection requirements of the country where the data originates and the country where the data is stored .
IB20.1] International Convention for the Recovery of Stolen Vehicles (ICRV): 2006
IB20.4] EN 15213-3:2013 Intelligent transport systems- After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles - Part 3: Interface and system requirements in terms of short range communication system;
IB20.5] EN 15213-4:2013 Intelligent transport systems- After-theft systems for the recovery of stolen vehicles - Part 4: Interface and system requirements in terms of long range communication system;
IB20.10] Stolen Vehicle Tracking - ACPO and Home Office Guidance to Companies on Police Policy, Michelle Gardner and Richard Hartley, Police Scientific Development Branch, 2014.