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s11   eSafety / eCall

 

11.1    Overview of the eCall service

 

The scale of death and injury on roads in Europe needs to be fully comprehended to understand the need for 'Emergency Call' (eCall). In 2008 there were 38 900 fatalities in EU-27. The figure for 2009 is around 34 500 fatalities. The trend 2001 to 2008 is around 5 % reduction annually. Road accident injuries are in the region of 1,7 million (2008). Roads remain unsafe and further efforts are needed. The pan-European in-vehicle emergency call, eCall, is estimated to have the potential to save up to 2 500 fatalities annually in EU-28 when fully deployed and furthermore to reduce the severity of injuries, to bring significant savings to the society in and to reduce human suffering.

 

Emergency calls made from vehicles or mobile telephones using wireless technologies can assist with the objectives of significantly reducing road deaths and injuries, but drivers often have poor (imprecise) location- awareness, especially on interurban roads or abroad. Additionally, in many situations, the car occupants may not be in a position to call using a normal mobile phone.

 

The situation is worse for those travelling abroad: A high (and increasing) number of vehicles travelling outside their home country is thus also contributing to the need for automated emergency call system in vehicles. In EU there are over 100 million trips to another EU country per year (EU-15). 65 % people feel less protected while abroad and most do not know which number to call in an emergency (in some countries over 60 %). Language problems are pertinent and may render proper communication difficult. Yet, in the most crucial cases, the victim(s) may not be able to call because they have been injured/trapped, do not know the local number to call and in many cases, particularly in rural situations and late at night, there may be no witnesses, who happen to have a mobile phone and a sense of community.

 

eCall, in the context of 'Road Traffic and Transport Telematics' (otherwise known as 'Intelligent Transport Systems' or 'ITS'), can be described as an 'automatic or user instigated system to provide notification to Public Safety Answering Points (PSAP), by means of wireless communications, that a vehicle has crashed, and to provide coordinates, a defined Minimum Set of Data, and where possible a voice link to the PSAP'.

 

The objective of implementing the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system (eCall) is to automate the notification of a traffic accident, wherever in the European Union and associated countries, with the same technical standards and the same quality of services objectives of other emergency (TS12) services.

 

NOTE     The term PSAP, which is most widely used in the eCall documentation, European Commission documents etc., equates to the term emergency call response centre.

 

 

11.2    Benefits

 

The pan-European in-vehicle emergency call, 'eCall', is estimated to have the potential to save up to 2 500 fatalities annually in the EU when fully deployed, and furthermore to reduce the severity of injuries, to bring significant savings to the society in and to reduce human suffering.

 

Emergency calls made from vehicles or mobile telephones using wireless technologies, can assist with the objectives of significantly reducing road deaths and injuries, but drivers often have poor (imprecise) location awareness, especially on interurban roads or abroad. Additionally, in many situations, and mainly because of the incident, the car occupants may not be in a position to call using a normal mobile phone, or even if they can, do not know their exact location..

 

The situation is worse for those travelling abroad. A high (and increasing) number of vehicles travelling outside their home country is thus also contributing to the need for automated emergency call system in vehicles. In EU there are over 100 million trips to another EU country per year, 65 % of the people feel less protected while abroad and most do not know which number to call in an emergency (in some countries over 60 %). Language problems are pertinent and may render proper communication difficult. Yet, in the most crucial cases, the victim(s) may not be able to call because they have been injured/trapped, do not know the local number to call, and in many cases, particularly in rural situations and late at night, there may be no witnesses who happen to have a mobile phone and a sense of community.

 

eCall, in the context of "Intelligent Transport Systems" or "ITS", (previously known as "Road Traffic and Transport Telematics") can be described as a "user instigated or automatic system to provide notification to public safety answering points, by means of wireless communications, that a vehicle has crashed, and to provide coordinates and a defined minimum set of data, and where possible a voice link to the PSAP”.

 

The objective of implementing the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system (eCall) is to automate the notification of a traffic accident, wherever in the European Union and associated countries, with the same technical standards and the same quality of services objectives of other emergency services (for example the TS12 emergency call of GSM/UMTS).

 

11.3    eCall for different 'categories' of vehicle

 

While the concept of eCall is suitable for any vehicle, it has evolved into various ‘categories’, each with a different path to instantiation

These categories can be grouped as:

  1. 112-eCall for cars and small vans (mandated)

  2. Third party service provider eCall

  3. 112-eCall for other categories of vehicle

  4. 112-eCall for Category L vehicles (motorcycles)

  5.  Aftermarket eCall

 

11.4    ECall for cars and small vans (Mandatory)

 

Without compromising the privacy of the vehicle occupants in normal driving conditions, in the event of a serious crash (and only then), the 112-eCall system in the vehicle automatically contacts the 112 emergency services, establishes a mobile telephone connection and immediately provides the public service answering point with a standardised ‘minimum set of data’.

 

This data identifies the vehicle, the location of the incident, the direction of travel, and may provide  additional relevant data (such as the number of occupants at the time of the crash). The emergency services can then talk directly with the occupants of the vehicle. Of course, this has to be undertaken consistently and CEN Standards underpin, and are referenced by, the European eCall Regulations for Category M1 and N1 vehicles.( Standards also have an important role to play in expanding eCall to cover all categories of vehicle, and standardising the information exchanged with and between emergency responders. CEN TC278 WG15 ITS - eSafety is the focus and driving point for the development of standards to support the eCall paradigm. (See below).

 

As from April 2018, all new models category M1 and N1 (cars and light vans) sold in Europe are required to be fitted with eCall. If the in-vehicle system detects a significant crash (possibly because the airbags have triggered, or some other sensor identifies a crash) the eCall system connects to the mobile phone network identifying that it is about to establish an eCall.

 

A 112-eCall is technically a ‘112 emergency call with data’ and is given priority on the network and automatically connected to the most appropriate Public Service Answering Point (PSAP) by the mobile network operator (MNO). As soon as the call is established, the vehicle transmits a Minimum Set of Data (MSD) to the PSAP. This data provides the vehicle identification, location, and direction of travel immediately before the incident. It may also provide the number of passengers, and other vehicle related (non-personal) data.

 

The system then connects the vehicle internal audio systems and the PSAP, and the occupants of the vehicle can speak to each other.  CEN Standards underpin the behaviour required by the in-vehicle system, the MNO service, and the PSAP service, and are directly referenced by the European Regulation to determine the requirements on the actors involved.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.5    Co-existence of 112-eCall and ‘third-party’ assistance provider eCall

 

112-eCall is a free safety system providing support in the case of a serious crash. Car manufacturers, car clubs, and insurers also offer subscription-based “third party” services that provide a wide range of driver support services, including emergency call support. This is allowed by the Regulation so long as the system defaults to 112-eCall in event of failure of the third-party system, or at any time at the decision of the vehicle keeper.  The standards support the interaction between the third party service provider and the PSAP so that it is compatible with eCall.

 

 

 

11.6    eCall for other categories of vehicle

 

The regulated 112-eCall is mandated for Category M1 and N1 vehicles ( as new models are introduced post March 2018. eCall standards have subsequently been developed for other categories of vehicle. There are eCall standards a variety of vehicle classes:

  • 112-eCall for powered two-wheeled vehicles

  • 112-eCall for commercial vehicles,

  • 112-eCall for coaches, and buses

  • eCall for Agricultural vehicles

 

These standards address the particular challenges that these vehicles pose and what additional and different data the emergency services would find useful when responding to an incident.

 

 

11.7    eCall for powered two-wheeled vehicles and other vehicle categories

 

Powered two-wheeled vehicles come in many shapes and sizes. They account for just 2% of road vehicles, but about 20% of road deaths and serious injuries. The challenges to protect riders with eCall are significantly different from those for cars and vans. In a crash the rider is usually separated from the vehicle, often by a significant distance, so talking to him/her is not possible. While identifying a crash in a car or van is relatively simple, like it or not, motor bikes get driven in extreme ways, at acute angles, or tend to fall over: for this reason, it is essential that such situations do not cause false calls to the emergency services. Furthermore, since eCall lasts for the whole life of the vehicle, the equipment has to be protected and rugged enough to survive the harsh realities of being mounted externally, in all weather conditions, for the whole life of the motorcycle (with motorcycles having a life significantly longer than that of a car or van). CEN Standards provide a variant of eCall especially designed for motorcycles, and specialised conformance test Standards are developed for powered two wheeled vehicles.

 

For tricycles and quadricycles – the odd categories of vehicle – which come in many shapes and sizes, appropriate CEN Standards are now available to cover them all, and where appropriate, specialised conformance test standards are also being developed.

 

 

 

11.8     eCall for commercial vehicles

 

In the circumstances of the crash of a heavy goods vehicle (HGV), it is of great assistance to the emergency responders in planning their response if they know what cargo is being carried by the HGV. CEN Standards provide the opportunity for the ‘Minimum Set of Data’ of a commercial vehicle either to identify its load, or to provide a pointer as to where that information may be quickly obtained.

 

 

11.9     eCall for coaches and buses

 

When a coach or bus crashes, the emergency responder will want to know at least if it was carrying  passengers or not, and preferably have some idea of the number of passengers aboard. Clearly, the response will need to be larger in the case of a coach with passengers on-board. CEN TC278 WG15 has drawn up standards to provide the opportunity for the MSD of a coach or bus to provide optional additional data to the public safety answering point to provide such key information.

 

 

11.10    eCall for agricultural vehicles

 

Being used off-road, in remote places, by an unaccompanied driver, agricultural vehicles are special. With pre-set accelerators and power take off (PTO) linkages to rotating machinery, accidents are often very serious. CEN Standards provide the opportunity for the MSD of an agricultural vehicle to send key additional data to the emergency responder.

 

 

11.11     Aftermarket 112-eCall

 

For new model vehicles, the in-vehicle 112-eCall system is certified during the vehicle type approval tests. But, of course, this only applies to new model introductions. Now that MNO’s and PSAPs are equipped for eCall, in the coming years there is a huge market opportunity for aftermarket systems.

 

Retrofitting vehicles already on the road, or to fit into new vehicles of existing models, brings the benefit of eCall to all vehicles.  Standards are in development for minimum requirements for these devices in order to ensure that they trigger when they should, and also importantly, do not trigger when they shouldn’t.

 

11.12    eCall for C-ITS Equipped vehicles

 

Recognising that “connected vehicles” are now rolling out onto our roads, CEN TC278 WG15 has developed a standardised variant of 112-eCall that can use a Cooperative ITS  station (C-ITS-station) communication channel to create an eCall.

 

11.13   eCall for automated and autonomous vehicles

 

Looking forward to the introduction of automated vehicles, the PSAP needs additional information. For example there may be no-one at all in the vehicle at the time of the incident, which should affect the resource prioritisation that a PSAP sends in response; but of course the unmanned vehicle may have hit a pedestrian which would change the resource prioritisation in a different direction. CEN TC278 WG15 has therefore developed a deliverable for AVs to supply additional data.

 

11.14    Migrating to new wireless communications technologies

 

eCall currently uses Circuit Switched cell phone communications.   Standards deliverables have been developed and approved to support eCall over 4G / 5G communications using IP Multimedia Subsystem (IS). The standards regress to a 2G/3G circuit switched in the event there is no 4G/5G networks are not available. Packet switched eCall is simpler and much faster to connect and is more robust tan circuit switched eCall.

 

 

11.15    eCall via Satellite communications

 

Satellite networks are geared for handling emergency calls – in terms of prioritization and handling. In the maritime sector, the use of satellite networks is mandated and regulated for ships above a certain size. Similar emergency call services have existed for decades on satellite networks for personal safety.

 

Most current satellite telephone systems support access to the internet through the use of IP protocol, and therefore support IP-addressing. These systems are technically able to support IMS-112-eCall. This of course requires a satellite communications transceiver in the vehicle, but modern satellite communications systems can now usually be accessed by a standard-sized sharks-fin or flat panel antenna. CEN TC278 WG15 have developed a specification to enable this.

 

Satellite eCall is particularly useful for vehicles operating in remote areas such as trucks hauling timber in Scandinavia; tractors operating where there is no 2G/3G/4G/5G signal, off-roading vehicles in mountainous areas.

 

11.16    Links to other ITS services

 

eCall regulations prevent eCall from being linked to other ITS services.   eCall may share data sources (e.g. location determination) with other ITS services but may not share its own data with any other system than the destination PSAP.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

11.17   ECall architecture

11.17.1   Purpose & Scope

There is no single eCall architecture document, but its architecture is defined, and reproduced in various technology specific standards. The simple, High level architecture (shown in EN 16062 and EN 16072, and in most documents from the European Commission is Figure 11.1.

 

 

Figure 11.1 112-eCall Architecture (Source European Commission)

 

eCall is defined in a raft of EU regulations each targeted to particular actor groups

it is best summarised in COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) No 305/2013, DECISION No 585/2014/EU, and REGULATION (EU) 2015/758.

 

In REGULATION (EU) 2015/758.eCall is defined as “(1) ‘112-based eCall in-vehicle system’ means an emergency system, comprising in-vehicle equipment and the means to trigger, manage and enact the eCall transmission, that is activated either automatically via in-vehicle sensors or manually, which carries, by means of public mobile wireless communications networks, a minimum set of data and establishes a 112-based audio channel between the occupants of the vehicle and an eCall PSAP”

 

“‘eCall’ means an in-vehicle emergency call to 112, made either automatically by means of the activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually, which carries a minimum set of data and establishes an audio channel between the vehicle and the eCall PSAP via public mobile wireless communications networks“.

 

It is important to understand that A 112-eCall is an incident alert system, specified in Regulation (EU) No 305/2013 and Regulation (EU) 2015/758. that specify that the 112-based eCall in-vehicle system “ ‘ eCall’  means  an  in-vehicle emergency call to 112,  made  either automatically by means  of  the  activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually, which establishes a 112-based audio channel between the occupants of the vehicle and a PSAP over which it sends a minimum set of data as defined in EN 15722 to the PSAP and subsequently opens the audio channel for dialogue between the PSAP and the occupants of the vehicle”. The PSAP instigates response by sending emergency responders to the scene, talks with the occupants of the vehicle if possible, and at some point at the PSAP’s choosing, terminates the eCall.

 

A 112-eCall is described as an incident alert system, because:

 

  1. It is a call between a vehicle and a Public Service Answering Point

  2. Regulation (EU) 2015/758. specifies (Article 6 (8)) that “The MSD sent by the 112-based eCall in-vehicle system shall include only the minimum information as referred to in the standard EN 15722:  ‘Intelligent  transport  systems — eSafety — eCall minimum  set of data (MSD)’.  No additional data shall be transmitted by the 112-based eCall in-vehicle system, “and

  3. Regulation (EU) 2015/758. further specifies (whereas (15)) Manufacturers shall ensure that the 112-based eCall in-vehicle system and any additional system providing TPS eCall or an added-value service are designed in such a way that no exchange of personal data between them is possible.

 

eCall therefore, by Regulatory definition, terminates once emergency responders have been activated and the PSAP elects to terminate the call (in some circumstances that may only be when the responders arrive on the scene of the incident, but in most cases, well before).

 

Systems that subsequently support emergency responders at the scene are currently (November 2020) being specified.

 

While the Regulations specify 112-eCall, they also permit “third party service provider” eCall so long as it reverts to 112-eCall in the case where a user selects to revert to 112-eCall or the TPSP system fails , and the system is compliant to EN 16102 .

 

The simple, European Commission equivalent of the 112-eCall high-level architecture for TPSP eCall is shown in Figure 11.2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 11.2 TPSP eCall Architecture (Source European Commission)

 

11.18    Actors and elements

11.18.1    eCall PSAP

The most appropriate PSAP determined in advance by the authorities to first receive and handle eCalls.

 

11.18.2   eCall transaction

 

Establishment of a mobile wireless communications session across a public wireless communications network and the transmission of the MSD from a vehicle to an eCall PSAP and the establishment of an audio channel between the vehicle and the same eCall PSAP.

 

11.18.3   Emergency responder

 

A party called on by PSAP to attend scene of the incident to deal with the situation on-site.

 

11.18.4   in-vehicle equipment/ in-vehicle system or ‘IVS’

 

Equipment permanently installed within the vehicle that provides or has access to the in-vehicle data required to perform the eCall transaction via a public mobile wireless communications network.

 

11.18.5   Minimum set of data or ‘MSD’

Information defined by the standard ‘Intelligent transport systems — eSafety — eCall minimum set of data (MSD)’ (EN 15722) which is sent to the eCall PSAP.

 

11.18.6   Most appropriate PSAP

 

A PSAP determined beforehand by the responsible authorities to cover emergency calls from a certain area or for emergency calls of a certain type.

 

11.18.7   Optional additional data

 

Optional but defined data elements in the ‘minimum set of data’ that provide additional relevant (non- personal) data to the PSAP

11.18.8    Public mobile wireless communications network

 

 

Mobile wireless communications network available to the public in accordance with Directives 2002/21/EC (b11.1) and 2002/22/EC (b11.2) of the European Parliament and of the Council.

 

11.18.9    Public safety answering point or ‘PSAP’

The physical location where emergency calls are first received and responded; under the responsibility of a public authority or a private organisation appointed by the Member State.

 

11.18.10    Third party services eCall in-vehicle system or ‘TPS eCall in-vehicle system’

 

 

A system activated either automatically via in-vehicle sensors or manually, which carries, by means of public mobile wireless communications networks, the MSD and establishes an audio channel between the vehicle and the third-party service provider.

 

11.18.11   Third party service provider

 

 

An organisation recognised by national authorities as being allowed to receive a TPS eCall and to forward the MSD and other relevant information to the eCall PSAP.

11.18.12   Third party services supported eCall or ‘TPS eCall’

 

in-vehicle emergency call to a third party service provider, made either automatically by means of the activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually, which carries, by means of public mobile wireless communications networks, the MSD and establishes an audio channel between the vehicle and the third party service provider.

11.18.13   User  

 

The occupants of a vehicle equipped to support eCall service provision.

11.19    eCall Standards

11 1 eCall   Archtitecture.jpg
11 2 ecall TPSP Architecture.tif
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are a multitude of standards that concern and contribute to eCall.  They are listed in the following clauses.

Figure 11.3 demonstrates how the standards are interrelated and reference existing CEN and ETSI standards.

 

 

Figure 11.3 Matrix of eCall standards – November 2020

11.19.1   EN 16072:2015 Intelligent transport systems - ESafety - Pan-European eCall operating requirements

 

LINK: EN 16072:2015

The objective of implementing the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system (eCall) is to automate the notification of a traffic accident, wherever in Europe, with the same technical standards and the same quality of services objectives by using 'Public Land Mobile Networks'(PLMN) (such as GSM and UMTS), which supports the European pre-assigned emergency destination address (see normative references) and to provide a means of manually triggering the notification of an incident.

This European Standard specifies the general operating requirements and intrinsic procedures for in-vehicle emergency call (eCall) services in order to transfer an emergency message from a vehicle to a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) in the event of a crash or emergency, via an eCall communication session and to establish a voice channel between the in-vehicle equipment and the PSAP.

Private third party in-vehicle emergency supporting services may also provide a similar eCall function by other means. The provision of such services are defined in EN 16102, and are outside the scope of this European Standard.

The communications protocols and methods for the transmission of the eCall message are not specified in this European Standard.

This European Standard specifies the operating requirements for an eCall service. An important part of the eCall service is a Minimum Set of Data (MSD). The operating requirements for the MSD are determined in this European Standard, but the form and data content of the MSD is not defined herein. A common European MSD is determined in EN 15722.

This European Standard does not specify whether eCall is provided using embedded equipment or other means (for example in the case of aftermarket equipment).

 

11.19.2   EN 15722:2020 - Intelligent transport systems - ESafety - ECall minimum set of data

 

LINK: EN 15722:2020

 

This document specifies the standard data concepts that comprise the "Minimum Set of Data" (MSD) to be transferred from a vehicle to a 'Public Safety Answering Point' (PSAP) in the event of a crash or emergency via an 'eCall' communication transaction.

Optional additional data concepts may also be transferred as part of the MSD.

The communications media protocols and methods for the transmission of the eCall message are not specified in this document.

 

11.19.3   CEN TS 17358:2020 Intelligent transport systems - ESafety - eCall OAD for multiple Optional Additional Datasets

 

LINK: TS 17358:2020

 

This document defines an additional data concept that may be transferred as an ‘optional additional data concept’ as defined in EN 15722, eCall MSD, that may be transferred from a vehicle to a PSAP in the event of a crash or emergency via an eCall communication session.

 

The purpose of this document is simply to enable the existing MSD to house multiple OADs. This is achieved by providing a short optional additional data concept, which facilitates the inclusion of multiple additional data sets within the currently defined MSD of 140 bytes (every OAD still requires its own specification).

 

This document should be seen as an addendum to EN 15722; it contains as little redundancy as possible.

 

NOTE 1 The communications media protocols and methods for the transmission of the eCall message are not specified in this document.

 

NOTE 2 Additional data concepts can also be transferred, and it is advised to register any such data concepts using a data registry as defined in EN ISO 24978 [1]. See www.esafetydata.com for an example.

 

11.19.3.1   Context        

 

This document complements EN 15722:2015, Intelligent transport systems — ESafety — ECall minimum set of data and provides an "Optional Additional Data" concept to be transmitted as part of the MSD transmission in accordance with EN 15722:2015.

 

In the event that a vehicle triggers a 112 eCall, The MSD is sent to a " public safety answering point" (PSAP).

 

The PSAP operator decodes the MSD data (usually, but not necessarily, automatically and placed on the operator's screen). The operator is put in wireless communication (via a mobile phone connection) with the occupants of the vehicle.

 

However, sometimes the operator does not receive any response from the vehicle. This may be due to one of three reasons:

  1. The equipment has failed/has a fault

  2. The occupants are dead, unconscious otherwise unable to speak

  3. The occupants have left the vehicle and moved to a place of safety (for example behind a crash barrier or well away from the road [this would often be the advice given by a PSAP in any event]).

 

NOTE        The communications media and means of transferring the eCall MSD are not defined in this European Standard. See list of referenced Standards.

 

As, by this stage, the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) has already been successfully sent, it is usually relatively easy to detect an in-vehicle system problem (the line has gone totally silent indicating a dropped call, or there is some interference noise etc.).

 

If the line appears to be operational, the responding PSAP has a dilemma. He/she has no way to determine whether the cause is (b), where it is essential to quickly get emergency response to the scene, or (c), in which case it may not even be necessary to send an emergency response to the scene.

 

Based on experience with pre eCall emergency call systems using cellular telephone links, experience is that more than 90% of the time the reason is (c), but without further information the PSAP cannot take that risk and must send emergency response to the site.

 

However, current generation vehicles generally now provide the possibility for a 'Bluetooth' link between the mobile phone of the occupants and the car. Thus when the registered phone user enters, or is in close proximity, to the vehicle (usually but not always activated when the ignition is turned on) his/her mobile phone connects via Bluetooth to the vehicle audio system. No information about the user itself, or her/his phone number are exchanged, as this information is neither known to the mobile phone, nor part of any Bluetooth exchange mechanism. That said, the vehicle does know, at any time, which registered user phones are in or near the vehicle and linked to it at the time of the incident.

 

If, by means of prior consent, the user who registers his/her phone with the vehicle system, enters his/her phone number, it is possible to provide the PSAP with that phone number as an "Optional Additional Data" (OAD) concept as part of the MSD.

 

In the event of a 'silent' call, the PSAP is therefore able to telephone the mobile phone number that was linked to the vehicle at the time of the incident. It is expected that this will significantly reduce the number of ‘silent’ calls.

 

This addition does not enable the vehicle to be tracked or logged in any way other than any other linked mobile telephone, and, of course, in 112 eCall, the eCall phone connection to the network does not occur at all until after the event (triggering of eCall)

 

 

11.19.4   EN 16062:2015 Intelligent transport systems - ESafety - eCall high level application requirements (HLAP) using GSM/UMTS circuit switched networks

LINK: EN 16062:2015

In respect of pan-European eCall (operating requirements defined in EN 16072), this European Standard defines the high level application protocols, procedures and processes required to provide the eCall service using a TS12 emergency call over a mobile communications network.

 

NOTE 1 The objective of implementing the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system (eCall) is to automate the notification of a traffic accident, wherever in Europe, with the same technical standards and the same quality of services objectives by using a PLMN (such as ETSI prime medium) which supports the European harmonized 112/E112 emergency number (TS12 ETSI/TS 122 003) and to provide a means of manually triggering the notification of an emergency incident.

 

NOTE 2 HLAP requirements for third-party services supporting eCall can be found in EN 16102, and have been developed in conjunction with the development of this work item, and is consistent in respect of the interface to the PSAP. This deliverable makes reference to those provisions but does not duplicate them.

 

NOTE 3 At the time of writing (2020) a new version of the EN is under enquiry.

 

11.19.4.1   Context 

 

An eCall is an emergency call generated either automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually by the vehicle occupants; when activated, to provide notification and relevant location information to the most appropriate Public Safety Answering Points (PSAP), by means of mobile wireless communications networks and carries a defined standardized minimum set of data, notifying that there has been an incident that requires response from the emergency services and establishes an audio channel between the occupants of the vehicle and the most appropriate PSAP.

 

EN 15722 specifies a standardized MSD for eCall, and EN 16072 specifies pan-European eCall operating requirements. (For third-party systems, EN 16102 specifies third-party services supporting eCall operating requirements. See EC Communication on eCall Implementation 2009 [COM(2009) 434 final] and Official Journal eCall Recommendation EC_2011_6269, for more information).

 

The operating requirements for pan-European eCall are made using Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) (such as GSM and 3G), as specified in a number of ETSI standards and technical specifications.

 

In order to provide the eCall service across a wireless network, high level application protocols are required as an important essential element to effect this service provision. This European Standard specifies the protocols to put into effect the pan-European eCall operating requirements using PLMNs, and also identifies common elements that can be used in the link between third-party services supporting eCall and PSAPs.

 

NOTE The term PSAP, which is most widely used in the eCall documentation, European Commission documents etc., is used throughout this document and equates to the term emergency call response centre used in the ITS Implementation Directive.

 

11.19.5   EN 16454:2015 Intelligent transport systems - ESafety - ECall end to end conformance testing

 

LINK: EN 16454:2015

 

This European Standard defines the key actors in the eCall chain of service provision as:

 

  1. In-Vehicle System (IVS)/vehicle,

  2. Mobile network Operator (MNO),

  3. Public safety assistance point [provider](PSAP),

 

in some circumstances may also involve:

  1. Third Party Service Provider (TPSP),

 

and to provide conformance tests for actor groups 1) – 4).

 

NOTE 1       Conformance tests are not appropriate nor required for vehicle occupants, although they are the recipient of the service.

 

NOTE 2       This European Standard covers conformance testing (and approval) of new engineering developments, products and systems, and does not imply testing associated with individual installations in vehicles or locations.

 

11.19.5.1   Context        

 

An eCall is an emergency call generated either automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually by the vehicle occupants; when activated, to provide notification and relevant location information to the most appropriate Public Safety Answering points (PSAP), by means of mobile wireless communications networks and carries a defined standardized minimum set of data, notifying that there has been an incident that requires response from the emergency services and establishes an audio channel between the occupants of the vehicle and the most appropriate PSAP.

 

NOTE 1       EN 15722 specifies a standardized MSD for eCall, EN 16062 specifies high level application protocols for eCall and EN 16072 specifies pan-European eCall operating requirements. For third party systems, EN 16102 specifies third party services supporting eCall operating requirements. (See EC Communication on eCall Implementation 2009 [COM(2009) 434 final] for more information.)

 

The operating requirements for pan-European eCall are made using Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) (such as GSM and 3G), as specified in a number of ETSI Standards and Technical Specifications.

 

This deliverable provides tests to enable actors in the eCall chain to be able to claim conformance to the eCall Standards, even though they are unable to control the behaviour of systems of other actors in the eCall chain.

 

NOTE 2       Conformance tests in this document allow demonstration that a system complies with the eCall Standards. Compliance to Standards is a prerequisite to providing an interoperable compliant system, but do not by themselves demonstrate that a system will function nor guarantee the quality of service.

 

NOTE 3       The term PSAP (Public Safety Assistance Point), which is most widely used in the eCall documentation, European Commission documents etc., is used throughout this document and equates to the term emergency call response centre used in the ITS Implementation Directive.

 

11.19.6    CEN TS 17363:2019 Intelligent transport systems - ECall optional additional data - Linked mobile phone number data concept

 

 

LINK: CEN TS 17363:2019

 

 

This document defines an eCall “Optional Additional Data" concept for the “Minimum Set of Data” (MSD) to be transferred from a vehicle to a 'Public Safety Answering Point' (PSAP) in the event of a crash or emergency via an 'eCall' communication transaction.

 

This document defines:

  1. Protocol requirements to ensure phone user consent to the provision of the linked 'phone number to the PSAP in the event of an eCall triggering incident;

  2. Definition of the OAD concept “Linked mobile Telephone Number” (LTN);

  3. Privacy provisions;

  4. Advice to PSAPs on the use of the eCall OAD LTN;

  5. Example of an in-vehicle sequence generating the LTN OAD and forwarding it as part of the MSD.

 

For clarity, the communications media protocols and methods for the transmission of the eCall message are not specified in this document.

 

11.19.6.1   Context

 

This document complements EN 15722:2015, Intelligent transport systems — ESafety — ECall minimum set of data and provides an “Optional Additional Data” concept to be transmitted as part of the MSD transmission in accordance with EN 15722:2015.

 

In the event that a vehicle triggers a 112 eCall, the MSD is sent to a “public safety answering point” (PSAP).

 

The PSAP operator decodes the MSD data (usually, but not necessarily, automatically placed on the operator's screen). The operator is put in wireless communication (via a mobile phone connection) with the occupants of the vehicle.

 

However, sometimes, the operator does not receive any response from the vehicle. This may be due to one of three reasons:

  1. The equipment has failed/has a fault;

  2. The occupants are dead, unconscious or otherwise unable to speak;

  3. The occupants have left the vehicle and moved to a place of safety (for example behind a crash barrier or well away from the road [this would often be the advice given by a PSAP in any event]).

 

NOTE           The communications media and means of transferring the eCall MSD are not defined in this document. See the list of referenced Standards.

 

As, by this stage, the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) has already been successfully sent; it is usually relatively easy to detect an in-vehicle system problem (the line has gone totally silent, indicating a dropped call, or there is some interference noise etc.).

 

If the line appears to be operational, the responding PSAP has a dilemma. He/she has no way to determine whether the cause is (b), where it is essential to quickly get emergency response to the scene, or (c), in which case it may not even be necessary to send an emergency response to the scene.

 

Based on experience with pre-eCall emergency call systems using cellular telephone links, experience is that more than 90 % of the time, the reason is (c), but without further information, the PSAP cannot take that risk and is to send emergency response to the site.

 

However, current generation vehicles generally now provide the possibility for a 'Bluetooth' link between the mobile phone of the occupants and the car. Thus, when the registered phone user enters, or is in close proximity, to the vehicle (usually, but not always, activated when the ignition is turned on) his/her mobile phone connects via Bluetooth to the vehicle's audio system No information about the user itself, or her/his phone number is exchanged, as this information is neither known to the mobile phone nor is it part of any Bluetooth exchange mechanism. That said, the vehicle does know, at any time, which registered user phones are in or near the vehicle and linked to it at the time of the incident.

If, by means of prior consent, the user who registers his/her phone with the vehicle system enters his/her phone number, it is possible to provide the PSAP with that phone number as an “Optional Additional Data” (OAD) concept as part of the MSD.

 

In the event of a 'silent' call, the PSAP is therefore able to telephone the mobile phone number that was linked to the vehicle at the time of the incident. It is expected that this will significantly reduce the number of ‘silent’ calls.

 

This addition does not enable the vehicle to be tracked or logged in any way other than any other linked mobile telephone, and, of course, in 112 eCall, the eCall phone connection to the network does not occur at all until after the event (triggering of eCall).

 

NOTE: This specification provides an optional additional concept as part of the MSD sent to the PSAP, it does not involve making any direct connection with the telephone number provided, but simply makes that number available to the PSAP to call if available and required. This document defines the OAD concept, requirements to ensure the user's consent to the provision of the linked phone number, any provisions to be made regarding privacy and advice to PSAPs on the use of the extra information.

11.19.7   ETSI TS 102 936-1 eCall Network Access Device (NAD) conformance specification; Part 1: Protocol test specification

 

 

LINK:    ETSI TS 102 936-1

 

This document specifies the eCall applicable tests required to ensure eCall NAD conformance when accessing Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) and Universal Telecommunication System (UMTS) mobile networks. This document includes references to existing ETSI technical specifications including ETSI TS 151 010-1 and ETSI TS 134 123-1 that contain the necessary detailed eCall and generic UE (user equipment) conformance tests.

 

11.19.7.1   Context

 

This is a document specifically related to eCall.

 

Sections 5.1 and 6.1 specify “eCall Emergency Call Procedures”.

Section 6.2 tabulates Applicability of eCall NAD tests for GSM network access including emergency issues.

 

Following a decision of the European Parliament, and a request by the European Commission to ETSI, ETSI TC MSG was tasked with managing the technical specification and creation of open standards for the Pan-European eCall emergency service.

 

An eCall is an emergency voice call, initiated manually or automatically from a vehicle to a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), supplemented by up to 140 bytes of incident related data. The Minimum Set of Data (MSD) has been defined by CEN Technical Committee 278 and includes the GNSS derived location and direction of travel of the vehicle, the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and other information to enable the emergency response teams to quickly locate and provide medical and other life saving assistance to the accident victims.

 

eCall has been designed to operate over any PLMN that supports emergency voice calls, specifically TeleService 12. Should the MSD not be transmitted or received for any reason, or if the PSAP is not equipped with the necessary eCall equipment (eCall modem / server), the accident victims and PSAP operator may still converse using the In-Vehicle System (IVS) audio equipment.

 

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has specified the eCall service requirements, data transmission protocols and network signalling aspects for Release 8. The in-band modem used to transfer the MSD from the vehicle to the PSAP, following the establishment of a TS12 emergency voice call, has been specified by 3GPP TSG SA WG 4. 

 

Once an eCall is invoked, initiated manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically as the result of an accident, the eCall call set-up and clear-down procedures (RR, CC, and MM) are automatically controlled by the eCall in-vehicle system (IVS) and its associated network access device (NAD). Once initiated the system requires no MMI intervention and does not permit the user to intervene at any stage during call management. It is important, therefore, that the eCall system works autonomously and reliably when faced with a wide range of probable network access events.

 

This document specifies the eCall applicable tests required to ensure eCall NAD conformance when accessing Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile networks. This document includes references to existing ETSI technical specifications including ETSI TS 151 010-1 and ETSI TS 134 123-1 that contain the necessary detailed eCall and generic UE conformance tests. 

 

The eCall in-band modem conformance test protocols are as specified in ETSI TS 126 269.

 

A guide to the applicability of ETSI GSM and UMTS mobile station harmonised standards EN 301 908 parts 1 and 2 and EN 301 511 to the ETSI specified eCall NAD, for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with R&TTE Directive 1999/5/EC  article 3.2, can be found in ETSI  TR 102 937.

 

 

11.19.8   ETSI TS 102 936-2 eCall Network Access Device (NAD) conformance specification; Part 2: Test Suites

 

 

LINK: ETSI TS 102 936-2

 

This document specifies the protocol conformance testing in TTCN to ensure eCall NAD conformance when accessing a Universal Telecommunication System (UMTS) mobile network. 

 

The following TTCN test specification and design considerations can be found in This document:

 

  • the testing architecture;

  • the test methods and PCO definitions;

  • the test configurations;

  • the design principles, assumptions, and used interfaces to the TTCN tester (System Simulator);

  • TTCN styles and conventions;

  • the partial PIXIT proforma;

  • the TTCN.MP form for the mentioned protocols tests.

 

The Abstract Test Suites designed in this document are based on the test cases specified in prose  (ETSI TS 102 936-1).

 

           

11.19.8.1   Context

 

 

The document is specifically related to eCall.

 

Following a decision of the European Parliament, and a request by the European Commission to ETSI, ETSI TC MSG was tasked with managing the technical specification and creation of open standards for the Pan-European eCall emergency service. 

 

An eCall is an emergency voice call, initiated manually or automatically from a vehicle to a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), supplemented by 140 bytes of incident related data. The Minimum Set of Data (MSD) has been defined by CEN Technical Committee 278 and includes the GNSS derived location and direction of travel of the vehicle, the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and other information to enable the emergency response teams to quickly location and provide medical and other life saving assistance to the accident victims. 

 

eCall has been designed to operate over any PLMN that supports emergency voice calls, specifically TeleService 12. Should the MSD not be transmitted or received for any reason, or if the PSAP is not equipped with the necessary eCall equipment (eCall modem / server), the accident victims and PSAP operator may still converse using the In-Vehicle System (IVS) audio equipment.

 

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has specified the eCall service requirements, data transmission protocols and network signaling aspects for Release 8

                

NOTE: Early implementation of eCall in Release-7 is certifiable.

 

The in-band modem used to transfer the MSD from the vehicle to the PSAP, following the establishment of a 112 or other emergency voice call, has been specified by 3GPP TSG SA4. 

 

Once an eCall is invoked - initiated manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically as the result of an accident, the eCall call set-up and clear-down procedures (RR, CC, and MM) are automatically controlled by the eCall in-vehicle system (IVS) and network access device (NAD). Once initiated the system requires no MMI intervention and does not permit the user to intervene at any stage during call management. It is important, therefore, that the eCall system works autonomously and reliable when faced with a wide range of probable network access events.

 

An eCall NAD may be used to access other non-emergency subscription services or for the purpose of making emergency calls only. In the latter case the eCall NAD is referred to an ‘eCall only' device and there are specific network access restrictions placed on these devices in order to avoid the generation of large volumes of unnecessary MM signaling, when not engaged in an eCall, test or reconfiguration call ETSI TS 122 101. The eCall NAD is permitted to make calls to a non-emergency number for the purpose of testing, or requesting the reconfiguration of the NAD to lift the network access restriction so as to allow the NAD to register on power-up and to access subscribed to commercial services.

 

The eCall in-band modem conformance test protocols are as specified in ETSI TS 126 269.

 

A vademecum on the applicability of ETSI GSM and UMTS mobile station harmonised standards EN 301 908 parts 1 and 2  and EN 301 511 to the ETSI specified eCall NAD, for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with R&TTE Directive 1999/5/EC  article 3.2, can be found in ETSI TR 102 937

 

11.19.9   ETSI TR 102 937 eCall communications equipment; Conformance to EU vehicle regulations, R&TTE, EMC & LV Directives, and EU regulations for eCall implementation 

 

LINK:    ETSI TR 102 937

 

This document provides information and guidance to establishing conformance of eCall Network Access Devices (NADs) to the relevant technical and regulatory requirements, including:

 

  • eCall network access conformance testing 

  • EU/ UNECE regulation framework for motor vehicles

  • R&TTE Directive 

  • EMC & LV Directives

  • EU regulation framework for eCall implementation

 

11.19.9.1   Context        

 

This document is specifically related to eCall.

 

Following a decision of the European Parliament, and a request by the European Commission to ETSI, ETSI TC MSG was tasked with managing the technical specification and creation of open standards for the Pan-European eCall emergency service.

 

An eCall is an emergency voice call, initiated manually or automatically from a vehicle to a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), supplemented by 140 bytes of incident related data. The Minimum Set of Data (MSD) has been defined by CEN Technical Committee 278 and includes the GNSS derived location and direction of travel of the vehicle, the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and other information to enable the emergency response teams to quickly location and provide medical and other life saving assistance to the accident victims. 

 

eCall has been designed to operate over any PLMN that supports emergency voice calls, specifically TeleService 12. Should the MSD not be transmitted or received for any reason, or if the PSAP is not equipped with the necessary eCall equipment (eCall modem / server), the accident victims and PSAP operator may still converse using the In-Vehicle System (IVS) audio equipment.

 

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has specified the eCall service telecommunications requirements, data transmission protocols and network signalling aspects for Release 8. The in-band modem used to transfer the MSD from the vehicle to the PSAP, following the establishment of a 112 or other emergency voice call, has been specified by 3GPP TSG SA4. 

 

Once an eCall is invoked - initiated manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically as the result of an accident, -the eCall call set-up and clear-down procedures (RR, CC, and MM) are automatically controlled by the eCall in-vehicle system (IVS) and network access device (NAD). Once initiated the system requires no MMI intervention and does not permit the user to intervene at any stage during call management. It is important, therefore, that the eCall system works autonomously and reliable when faced with a wide range of probable network access events.

 

An eCall NAD may be used to access other non-emergency subscription services or for the purpose of making emergency calls only. In the latter case the eCall NAD is referred to as an 'eCall only' device and there are specific network access restrictions placed on these devices in order to avoid the generation of large volumes of unnecessary MM signalling, when not engaged in an eCall, test or reconfiguration call TS 122 101 . The eCall NAD is permitted to make calls to a non-emergency number for the purpose of testing, or requesting the reconfiguration of the NAD to lift the network access restriction so as to allow the NAD to register on power-up and to access subscribed to commercial services. 

 

Documents ETSI TS 102 936-1 and ETSI TS 102 936-2 specify the eCall applicable tests required to ensure eCall NAD conformance when accessing a digital cellular telecommunications system using Phase 2+ and 3G networks. These specifications includes references to existing ETSI technical specifications including ETSI TS 151 010 and ETSI TS 134 123 that contain the necessary detailed eCall and generic UE/MS conformance tests. 

 

The eCall in-band modem conformance test protocols are as specified in ETSI TS 126 269.

 

This document, which is produced as an advisory ETSI Technical Report, provides guidance in respect of ensuring compliance to the R&TTE Directive; the ETSI series of ETSI TS 102 936 in respect of conformance tests for the operation of the NAD; the regulatory framework for the implementation of eCall, and the EU framework of regulations for motor vehicles.

 

The informative annexes of this document include text from publicly and freely available documents, together with website references of their source which grant or permit that the contents of these documents may be freely used and in some cases provide any conditions or limitations to further reproduction. The texts of these documents, or extracts from these texts, are therefore reproduced verbatim and conform to the editorial policy of the issuer and not the editorial policy of ETSI.

 

 

11.19.10   ETSI TS 122 001 (Release 8) Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Principles of circuit telecommunication services supported by a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)

 

 

 

LINK: ETSI TS 122 001 Release 8

 

This document covers the definition of the circuit telecommunication services supported by a PLMN. The purpose of This document is to provide a method for the characterization and the description of these telecommunication services.

 

ETSI TS 122.101 describes overall service principles of a PLMN.

 

11.19.10.1   Context        

 

 

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document:

 

Section 4.1 specifies “Teleservices” which include “Emergency Calls”,  TS12.

And Annex D.2 also references emergency calls.

 

11.19.11   ETSI TS 122 002 Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); Circuit Bearer Services (BS) supported  by a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)  (3GPP TS 22.002 version 13.0.0 Release 13)

 

 

LINK: ETSI TS 122 002

 

This document defines a set of Circuit Bearer Services to be provided to PLMN subscribers by a PLMN itself and in connection with other networks. This TS should also be used as a reference for defining the corresponding required mobile network capabilities.

 

11.19.11.1   Context

 

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

In this document there are no specific references to eCall or emergency calls, but this specification is an underlying enabling standard for teleservices provision.

eCall Standards Matrix 210331 v3.png
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

11.19.12   CEN TS 17184:2018 Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - eCall High level application Protocols (HLAP) using IMS packet switched networks

 

 

LINK: CEN TS 17184:2018

 

In respect of 112-eCall (pan-European eCall) (operating requirements defined in EN 16072), this document defines the high level application protocols, procedures and processes required to provide the eCall service via a packet switched wireless communications network using IMS (Internet protocol Multimedia System) and LTE/ 4G/E-UTRAN wireless access.

 

NOTE 1       The objective of implementing the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system (eCall) is to automate the notification of a traffic accident, wherever in Europe, with the same technical standards and the same quality of services objectives by using a PLMN (such as ETSI prime medium) which supports the European harmonized 112/E112 emergency number (TS12 ETSI TS 122 003 or IMS packet switched network) and to provide a means of manually triggering the notification of an emergency incident.

 

NOTE 2       HLAP requirements for third party services supporting eCall can be found in EN 16102, and have been developed in conjunction with the development of this work item, and are consistent in respect of the interface to the PSAP. This document makes reference to those provisions but does not duplicate them.

 

11.19.12.1   Context        

 

An eCall is an emergency call generated either automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually by the vehicle occupants; when activated, to provide notification and relevant location information to the most appropriate Public Safety Answering Points (PSAP), by means of mobile wireless communications networks and carries a defined standardized minimum set of data, notifying that there has been an incident that requires response from the emergency services and establishes an audio channel between the occupants of the vehicle and the most appropriate PSAP.

 

EN 15722 specifies a standardized MSD for eCall, and EN 16072 specifies pan-European eCall operating requirements (for third party systems, EN 16102 specifies third party services supporting eCall operating requirements; see EC Communication on eCall Implementation 2009 [COM(2009) 434 final] and Official Journal eCall Recommendation EC_2011_6269, for more information) and EN 16062 specifies High Level Application Protocols for eCall using GSM/UMTS.

 

The operating requirements for pan-European eCall are made using Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) (such as GSM and 3G, and latterly LTE/4G/E-UTRAN), as specified in a number of ETSI standards and technical specifications.

 

In order to provide the eCall service across a wireless network, high level application protocols are required as an important essential element to affect this service provision.

 

NOTE     The term PSAP, which is most widely used in the eCall documentation, European Commission documents, etc., is used throughout this document and equates to the term emergency call response centre used in the ITS Implementation Directive.

 

Subsequent to the publication of the suite of eCall standards which support the eCall Regulations, EN 16072, EN 16062 and EN 16454, new communications technologies have become available. Over the course of time, these networks (such as LTE/4G and in turn their successors) are expected to complement and eventually replace the circuit switched GSM/UMTS networks. These technologies use so called ‘packet switched’ technologies using Internet protocols (IP). Particularly, 3GPP have evolved a communication management system called IMS (Internet protocol Multimedia System) which is suitable to operate over a number of bearer technologies, including LTE/ 4G/E-UTRAN.

 

In circuit switched networks the eCall is identified as an emergency call and specifically an eCall in the telecircuit switching (TS) process. The long number is not dialled as the TS identifiers inform the MNO that the call is an emergency call/eCall and the MNO has procedures to direct these calls to “the most appropriate” PSAP. Having established a voice channel, GSM/UMTS eCall then mutes microphones and speakers and uses a modem to transfer the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) to the PSAP before opening up the line to enable conversation between the PSAP operator and the occupants of the vehicle.

In a ‘packet switched’ network, packets of data (including voice) are sent through an internet protocol (IP) communication system, using SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) which is managed, most popularly using IMS.

 

This document provides High Level Application Protocols (HLAP) for eCall using IMS. It therefore provides the LTE/4G E-UTRAN equivalent of EN 16062 for GSM/UMTS and should be suitable for all/any packet switched networks that support IMS and LTE/ 4G/E-UTRAN wireless access.

 

This document specifies the protocols to put into effect the pan-European eCall operating requirements, and also identifies common elements that can be used in the link between third party services supporting eCall and PSAPs.

 

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) draws attention to the fact that, while no direct patents are known in express regard to the content of these specifications, the underlying ETSI communications Standards may involve patents and the reader is directed to the referenced ETSI standards in these respects. Similarly, there is a default option to circuit switched eCall in the specifications below which may involve the use of patents specified in EN 16062 , and the reader is directed to EN 16062 in respect of these aspects.

 

11.19.13   CEN TS 17240:2018 Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - eCall High level application Protocols (HLAP) using IMS packet switched networks

 

 

 

LINK: CEN TS 17240:2018

 

This document defines the key actors in the eCall chain of service provision using IMS over packet switched networks (such as LTE/4G) as:

 

  1. In-vehicle system) (IVS)/vehicle,

  2. Mobile network Operator (MNO),

  3. Public safety answering point (PSAP), and to provide conformance tests for actor groups 1) – 3).

 

NOTE 1       Conformance tests are not appropriate nor required for vehicle occupants), although they are the recipient of the service.

 

NOTE 2       Third party eCall systems (TPS eCall) are not within the scope of this deliverable. This is because the core TPS-eCall  standard (EN 16102 does not specify the communications link between the vehicle and the TPS service provider.

 

NOTE 3       These conformance tests are based on the appropriate conformance tests from EN 16454 which was published before Internet Protocol multimedia Systems (IMS) packet switched networks were available. This deliverable therefore replicates the appropriate tests from EEN 16454 (and acknowledge their source); adapt and revise Conformance Test Protocols (CTP) from EN 16454 to an IMS paradigm; or provide new additional tests that are required for the IMS paradigm. Some 14 112-eCall (Pan European eCall) tests provided in EN 16454 are specific to GSM/UMTS circuit switched communications and not appropriate for the IMS paradigm and are therefore excluded from this deliverable.

This document therefore provides a suite of ALL conformance tests for IVS equipment, MNO’s, and PSAPS, required to ensure and demonstrate compliance to CEN/TS 17184.

 

NOTE 4       Because in the event of non-viability or non-existence of an IMS supporting network at any particular time/location, IMS-eCall systems revert to CS networked eCall systems eCall via GSM/UMTS, IVS and PSAPs need to support, and prove compliance to both IMS and CS switched networks.

The Scope covers conformance testing (and approval) of new engineering developments, products and systems, and does not imply testing associated with individual installations in vehicles or locations.

 

11.19.13.1   Context

 

An eCall is an emergency call generated either automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually by the vehicle occupants); when activated, to provide notification and relevant location information to the most appropriate Public Safety Answering points (PSAP), by means of mobile wireless communications networks and carries a defined standardized minimum set of data, notifying that there has been an incident that requires response from the emergency services and establishes an audio channel between the occupants of the vehicle and the most appropriate PSAP.

 

NOTE 1       EN 15722 specifies a standardized MSD for eCall, EN 16062 specifies high level application protocols for eCall and EN 16072 specifies pan-European eCall operating requirements. For third party systems, EN 16102 specifies third party services supporting eCall operating requirements. (See EC Communication on eCall Implementation 2009 [COM(2009) 434 final] for more information.)

The operating requirements for pan-European eCall are made using Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMN) (such as GSM and 3G), as specified in a number of ETSI standards and technical specifications.

 

Whilst EN 16062 provided high level application protocols (HLAP) for eCall using GSM/UMTS circuit switched networks, a new Standards Deliverable CEN.TS 17184 has been developed for the provision of eCall using IMS packet switched networks.

European Regulations require support of eCall by vehicle manufacturers, other eCall IVS manufacturers, MNO’s and PSAPs. (See Clause, Normative References).

This Standards Deliverable provides a complete suite for the support of IMS-eCall and may be used to test IMS-eCall aspects of eCall service provision. Where appropriate, the tests of EN 16454 are replicated, revised or replaced. EN 16454 Conformance Tests that are required in a GSM/UMTS environment but not appropriate in an IMS environment are removed. Where new conformance tests are required for IMS, they have been added as new tests. The reference numbering of conformance tests in this environment are consistent with those in EN 16454 with the addition of the letters “IMS”.

This deliverable provides tests to enable actors in the eCall chain to be able to claim conformance to the IMS-eCall standards, even though they are unable to control the behaviour of systems of other actors in the eCall chain

NOTE 2     Conformance tests in this document allow demonstration that a system complies with the IMS-eCall Standards. Compliance to Standards is a prerequisite to providing an interoperable compliant system, but do not by themselves demonstrate that a system will function nor guarantee the quality of service.

NOTE 3     The term PSAP (Public Safety Assistance Point), which is most widely used in the eCall documentation, European Commission documents, etc., is used throughout this document and equates to the term emergency call response centre used in the ITS Implementation Directive.

11.19.14   IETF rfc 8147 Next-Generation Pan-European eCall

 

 

LINK: IETF rfc 8147

 

This document describes how to use IP-based emergency services mechanisms to support the next generation of the Pan-European in-vehicle emergency call service defined under the eSafety initiative of the European Commission (generally referred to as "eCall"). eCall is a standardized and mandated system for a special form of emergency calls placed by vehicles, providing real-time communications and an integrated set of related data.

 

This document also registers MIME media types and an Emergency Call Data Type for the eCall vehicle data and metadata/control data, and an INFO package to enable carrying this data in SIP INFO requests.

 

Although this specification is designed to meet the requirements of next-generation Pan-European eCall (NG-eCall), it is specified generically such that the technology can be reused or extended to suit requirements across jurisdictions.

 

11.19.15   ETSI TS 122 003 Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Circuit Teleservices supported by a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) (3GPP TS 22.003 version 14.0.0 Release 14)

 

LINK: ETSI TS 122 003

 

This Technical Specification (TS) describes and defines a recommended set of Circuit Teleservices to be supported by a PLMN in connection with other networks as a basis for defining the network capabilities required.

 

11.19.15.1   Context

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document:

 

Section 5 and Annex A.1.2 specify the Emergency Call Teleservice TS12.

 

 

11.19.16   ETSI TS 122 11 (Release 14) Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Service accessibility (3GPP TS 22.011 version 14.7.0 Release 14)

 

 

LINK: ETSI TS 122 11 (Release 14)

The purpose of this TS is to describe the service access procedures as presented to the user.

 

Definitions and procedures are provided in this TS for international roaming, national roaming and regionally provided service. These are mandatory in relation to the technical realization of the Mobile Station (UE).

 

11.19.16.1   Context

 

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document:

 

Section 4.4 specifies Emergency Call.

 

The following general aspects include specific reference to Emergency Call:

4.1 Purpose

4.2 Allocation

4.3.4.1 Access barring

4.3.5.2.1 Congestion control

4.5 User Equipment (UE) capabilities control

5.3 LS Access

5.4 Exclusive access

 

11.19.17   ETS TS 123 122 (Release 14) Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode (3GPP TS 23.122 version 14.2.0 Release 14)

 

 

 

LINK: ETS TS 123 122 (Release 14)

 

 

This document gives an overview of the tasks undertaken by the Core network protocols of a Mobile Station (MS) when in idle mode, that is, switched on but typically not having a dedicated channel allocated. It also describes the corresponding network functions. The idle mode functions are also performed by a GPRS MS as long as no dedicated channel is allocated to the MS. The conditions when the idle mode functions are performed by an MS in the UTRA RRC connected mode states are specified in 3GPP TS 25.331. The conditions when the idle mode functions are performed by an MS in the E-UTRAN are specified in 3GPP TS 36.304. The conditions when the idle mode functions are performed by an MS in the NG-RAN are specified in 3GPP TS 38.304.

This document defines the PLMN selection for a multi mode MS that supports both 3GPP and 3GPP2 systems. The common PLMN selection logic covers also PLMNs that are available in 3GPP2 system, but This document makes no changes on the cdma2000® signalling towards networks that are available via 3GPP2 system.

 

This document gives procedures for using the CSG cells, whenever such use is permitted.

 

This 3GPP TS outlines how the requirements of the 22 series Technical Specifications (especially 3GPP TS 22.011) on idle mode operation shall be implemented. Further details are given in 3GPP TS 24.008.

 

Clause 2 of this 3GPP TS gives a general description of the idle mode process. Clause 3 outlines the main requirements and technical solutions of those requirements. Clause 4 describes the processes used in idle mode. There is inevitably some overlap between these clauses.

 

NOTE:                                cdma2000® is a registered trademark of the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA-USA).

 

This document describes the procedures for control plane solution of steering of roaming in 5GS in annex C.

 

Annex C is applicable to the MS, the AMF and the UDM in the 5GS.

 

This document does not consider GERAN Iu mode.

 

11.19.17.1   Context

 

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document specific specification references are made to Emergency Call in Sections:

S.2; 3.1; 3.4.1;3 .4.2; 3.5; 4.4.3; 4.4.3.1.2; 4.4.3.1.3.1; 4.4.3.3.1; 4.4.4; 4.5.2; 4.5.3; 5 (Table 2).

 

11.19.18   ETSI TS 124 008 Release 8 Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Mobile radio interface Layer 3 specification; Core network protocols; Stage 3 (3GPP TS 24.008 version 8.6.0 Release 8)

 

 

LINK:  ETSI TS 124 008 Release 8

 

 

This document specifies the procedures used at the radio interface core network protocols within the 3rd generation mobile telecommunications system and the digital cellular telecommunications system.

It specifies the procedures used at the radio interface (Reference Point Um or Uu, see 3GPP TS 24.002 or 3GPP TS 23.002) for Call Control (CC), Mobility Management (MM), and Session Management (SM).

 

When the notations for "further study" or "FS" or "FFS" are present in this TS they mean that the indicated text is not a normative portion of This document.

These procedures are defined in terms of messages exchanged over the control channels of the radio interface. The control channels are described in 3GPP TS 44.003  and 3GPP TS 25.301.

 

The structured functions and procedures of this protocol and the relationship with other layers and entities are described in general terms in 3GPP TS 24.007.

 

This document specifies functions, procedures and information which apply to GERAN Iu mode. However, functionality related to GERAN Iu mode is neither maintained nor enhanced.

 

Scope of the Technical Specification

 

The procedures currently described in this TS are for the call control of circuit-switched connections, session management for GPRS services, mobility management and radio resource management for circuit-switched and GPRS services.

 

3GPP TS 24.010 contains functional procedures for support of supplementary services.

 

3GPP TS 24.011 contains functional procedures for support of point-to-point short message services.

 

3GPP TS 24.012 contains functional description of short message - cell broadcast.

 

3GPP TS 44.060 contains procedures for radio link control and medium access control (RLC/MAC) of packet data physical channels.

 

3GPP TS 44.071 contains functional descriptions and procedures for support of location services.

 

NOTE:    "layer 3" includes the functions and protocols described in this document.

 

11.19.18.1   Context

 

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document there are specific references to emergency calls/services in sections:

1.8; 4.1.1.1.1; 4.5.1.5 (CS fallback); 4.7.3.1.4; 4.7.13.4; 9.2.11.2; 9.3.8; 9.3.8.4; 9.4.2.10; 9.4.15.12; 20.5.7.13; and to eCall specifically in 4.2.2.9 and 4.4.7 (although eCall is cited in over 140 places interspersed throughout the document.

 

This document includes references to features which are not part of the Phase 2+ Release 96 of the GSM Technical specifications. All subclauses which were changed as a result of these features contain a marker (see table below) relevant to the particular feature. 

 

The following table lists all features that were introduced after GSM Release 96.

 

 

Feature

Designator

BA Range IE handling

$(impr-BA-range-handling)$

Advanced Speech Call Item

$(ASCI)$

Call Completion Busy Subscriber

$(CCBS)$

Mobile Assisted Frequency Allocation

$(MAFA)$

Network Indication of Alerting in MS

$(NIA)$

 

 

11.19.19   ETSI TS 131 102 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Characteristics of the Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) application (3GPP TS 31.102 version 14.2.0 Release 14)

 

 

LINK: ETSI TS 131 102 Release 14

 

 

This document defines the USIM application for 3G telecom network operation.

 

This document specifies:

  • specific command parameters;

  • file structures;

  • contents of Efs (Elementary Files);

  • security functions;

  • application protocol to be used on the interface between UICC (USIM) and ME.

 

This is to ensure interoperability between a USIM and an ME independently of the respective manufacturer, card issuer or operator.

 

This document does not define any aspects related to the administrative management phase of the USIM. Any internal technical realisation of either the USIM or the ME is only specified where these are reflected over the interface. This document does not specify any of the security algorithms which may be used.

 

11.19.19.1   Context

 

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document eCall is cited extensively in section 5.3.40.

 

This document defines the Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) application. This application resides on the UICC, an IC card specified in TS 31.101. In particular, TS 31.101 specifies the application independent properties of the UICC/terminal interface such as the physical characteristics and the logical structure. 

 

TS 31.101 is one of the core documents for this specification and is therefore referenced in many places in this document. 

 

 

11.19.20   ETSI TS134 123-1 (Release 14) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); User Equipment (UE) conformance specification; Part 1: Protocol conformance specification (3GPP TS 34.123-1 version 14.0.0 Release 14)

 

 

LINK: ETSI TS134 123-1 (Release 14)

 

This document provides the Implementation Conformance Statement (ICS) proforma for 3rd Generation User Equipment (UE), in compliance with the relevant requirements, and in accordance with the relevant guidance given in ISO/IEC 9646-7 and ETS 300 406.

 

This document also specifies a recommended applicability statement for the test cases included in TS 34.123-1. These applicability statements are based on the features implemented in the UE.

 

Special conformance testing functions can be found in 3GPP TS 34.109 and the common test environments are included in 3GPP TS 34.108.

 

This document is valid for UE implemented according to 3GPP releases starting from Release 1999 up to the Release indicated on the cover page of this document.

 

 

11.19.20.1   Context

 

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document Section 13 General Tests specifies eCall aspects.

 

To evaluate conformance of a particular implementation, it is necessary to have a statement of which capabilities and options have been implemented for a telecommunication specification. Such a statement is called an Implementation Conformance Statement (ICS).

 

This document is part 2 of a multi-part conformance test specification for UE.

 

3GPP TS 34.123-1 : "User Equipment (UE) conformance specification; Part 1: Protocol conformance specification".

3GPP TS 34.123-2: "User Equipment (UE) conformance specification; Part 2: Implementation Conformance Statement (ICS) proforma specification". (the current document)

  3GPP TS 34.123-3: "Abstract Test Suite (ATS)".

 

 

11.19.21   ETSI TS 124 229 (Release 15) Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE;IP multimedia call control protocol based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP); Stage 3 (3GPP TS 24.229 version 14.3.1 Release 14)

 

 

LINK: ETSI TS 124 229 (Release 15)

 

 

This document provides the Implementation Conformance Statement (ICS) proforma for 3rd Generation User Equipment (UE), in compliance with the relevant requirements, and in accordance with the relevant guidance given in ISO/IEC 9646-7 and ETS 300 406.

 

This document also specifies a recommended applicability statement for the test cases included in TS 34.123-1. These applicability statements are based on the features implemented in the UE.

 

Special conformance testing functions can be found in 3GPP TS 34.109 and the common test environments are included in 3GPP TS 34.108.

 

This document is valid for UE implemented according to 3GPP releases starting from Release 1999 up to the Release indicated on the cover page of This document.

 

11.19.21.1   Context

This is a general cellular mobile telephone service in which some subsections specify emergency call aspect.

 

Particularly, in this document:

Section 5.4.7 specifies “Emergency Call”.;Reference to eCall is made in Sectiom 4.7.6; 5.1.6.11; B.2.2.6.2; E.2.2.6.2; H.2.2.6.2; L.2.2.6.2; M.2.2.6.2; O.2.2.6.2; Q.2.2.6.2; R.2.2.6.2; S.2.2.6.2.

 

There are over 1000 references to Emergency, and over 250 references to emergency call throughout this document.

 

 

11.19.22   CEN TS 17182:2018 Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - eCall via an ITS-station

 

 

LINK: CEN TS 17182:2018

In respect of 112-eCall (operating requirements defined in EN 16072:2015), this Technical Specification defines the high level application protocols, procedures and processes required to provide the eCall service via an ISO 21217 compliant “ITS station unit”.

 

NOTE 1       The objective of implementing the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system (eCall) is to automate the notification of a traffic accident, wherever in Europe, with the same technical standards and the same quality of services objectives by using a 'Public Land Mobile Network' (PLMN) (such as ETSI prime medium) which supports the European harmonized 112/E112 emergency number and to provide a means of manually triggering the notification of an emergency incident.

 

NOTE 2       Requirements for third party services supporting eCall can be found in EN 16102, and have been developed in conjunction with the development of EN 16072:2015 and EN 16062:2015, and are consistent in respect of the interface to the PSAP. This technical specification applies only to 112-eCall  service provision and makes no specifications in respect of third party eCall service provision, and the reader is referred to EN 16102 for any third party eCall specifications.

 

11.19.22.1   Context

As a result of European Regulation, from 2018, all new model Class M1/N1 vehicles will be equipped with112-eCall. Other model class M1/N1 vehicles may be voluntarily equipped with 112-eCall , and work is underway to provide the benefit of eCall to other classes of vehicle, including commercial vehicles, busses and coaches.

In the event of an incident, in-vehicle sensors will automatically trigger a 112-eCall, or it may be manually triggered by the vehicle occupants. A voice connection is established with the European emergency number 112 and routed to the most appropriate Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). As soon as the connection is established, in the case of a GSM/UMTS connection, using circuit switched networks, a “Minimum set of data”  (as defined in EN 15722), providing information such as the time, location, vehicle VIN number, and driving direction, is sent as data via the voice channel. With the advent of packet switched, IP addressed, networks, a variant has been developed, that establishes an IMS connection (IMS supports IP multimedia applications  via IP multimedia sessions over a multitude of IP Connectivity Access Networks, such as E-UTRAN, UTRAN, GERAN, LAN, DOCSIS®, WiMAX™, cdma2000® and DVB-RCS2 access) in which the MSD is part of the SIP message header, so is already available to the PSAP as soon as the communication link is established.

The cooperative ITS (C-ITS) environment is one where ITS station units (ITS-SUs) (e.g. in vehicles, at the roadside,...) securely cooperate to exchange data with other ITS-SUs using wireless communications technologies. The C-ITS approach provides for hybrid communications, i.e. simultaneous availability of multiple wireless communications technologies. There is already provision for such networks at 5,8 GHz (widely already used for road tolling and soon to be used for tachograph monitoring and weigh in motion monitoring), 5,9 GHz for road safety applications, and of course the packet switched cellular networks mentioned above. In the future, 60 GHz and other wireless networks may be employed.

ISO 21217:2014 also describes the various communication modes for peer-to-peer communications over various networks between ITS communication nodes. These nodes may be ITS station units as described in ISO 21217:2014 or any other reachable nodes.

ISO 21217:2014 also specifies the minimum set of normative requirements for a physical instantiation of the ITS station based on the principles of a bounded secured managed domain.”

Within vehicles equipped to support this context, it is appropriate to consider eCall as a priority ITS application that can use this in-vehicle functionality, rather than duplicate the in-vehicle equipment.

This Technical Specification provides the specifications enabling 112-eCall to function via an ISO 21217:2014 complaint “ITS-station unit”. (ITS-SU).

11.19.23   CEN/TS 17312:2019 Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - eCall via satellite

 

 

LINK: CEN/TS 17312:2019

 

In respect of 112-eCall (operating requirements defined in EN 16072), this document defines specifications for the provision of eCall via satellite communications networks (Satellite-IMS-112-eCall and Satellite-TPS-eCall).

 

As with the existing provisions for eCall for Classes M1/N1 vehicles, these are specified within the paradigm of OEM fit equipment at the point of manufacture.

 

This document includes only the requirements for the provision of Satellite IMS-112-eCall using satellite telecommunications and Satellite-TPS-eCall.

 

NOTE     The 112-eCall paradigm involves a direct call from the vehicle to the most appropriate PSAP. (Third party service provision by comparison, involves the support of an intermediary third party service provider (TPSP) before the call is forwarded to the PSAP.

 

11.19.23.1   Context

 

In accordance with a European Regulation, from March 2018, all new model Class M1/N1 vehicles will be equipped with 112-eCall. Other model class M1/N1 vehicles may be voluntarily equipped with 112-eCall and eCall support for other classes of vehicles will be enabled in the near future.

 

In its study CEN/TR 17249-1, the report observed that where a satellite telecommunications service provider supports IMS, this means that 112-eCall over IMS can be supported, in accordance with CEN/TS 17184, via the satellite telephone network, because IMS is an IP based service which is radio agnostic. Generally, this means IMS eCall can be supported by any IP network and so will enable eCall via satellite in IMS supporting satellite networks. (However, there is no fall-back to circuit switched eCall.) Satellite communications that support internet protocol, but do not support IMS, may be able to provide the service using an agreed CeIMS.

 

Satellite networks are geared for handling emergency calls – in terms of prioritization and handling. In the maritime sector, the use of satellite networks is mandated and regulated for ships above a certain size. Similar emergency call services have existed for decades on satellite networks for personal safety.

 

Most current satellite telephone systems support access to the internet through the use of IP protocol, and therefore support IP-addressing. These systems are technically able to support IMS-112-eCall. This of course requires a satellite communications transceiver in the vehicle, but modern satellite communications systems can now usually be accessed by a standard-sized sharks-fin or flat panel antenna.

As with other existing eCall provision, this specification is based on OEM fit equipment. The provision of eCall for aftermarket vehicles will be the subject of other work.

 

It should also be noted that there will be no fall-back provision to circuit switched eCall in the event that there is no local PSAP equipped to handle IMS (as provided for in 3GPP release 14), but this is not required (see below).

 

As the ‘cell’ for a satellite system covers the entire continent, an eCall via satellite cannot identify the “most appropriate” PSAP from the location of a cell tower, and so an alternative system is bound to be specified.

 

Modern satellite telecommunications systems have the advantage that most (but not all) systems provide the GNSS location of the source as part of the call establishment (in order to align signals between source and satellite) and can therefore identify the location of the vehicle to a 1st level reception point PSAP. The GNSS location information is not usually available outside of the network, except for certain types of services, but can be made so for safety services.

 

This means that, in countries where the Administration is prepared to provide the satellite telecommunications service provider with a single central level 1 PSAP IP address for satellite eCalls, eCalls can be provided and supported in remote locations where there is limited or no 2G/3G/LTE/4G coverage available. As, in this paradigm, the call is always made over IMS to an IMS capable level 1 PSAP address, there is no requirement for fall-back to circuit switched eCall.

 

The central 1st level PSAP can then identify the GNSS location of the source of the eCall and redirect the IMS VOIP call to the “most appropriate PSAP” on the basis of the GNSS location information provided in the call establishment, or, where the GNSS location is not available in the call establishment, can read the MSD to find the location of the vehicle and similarly redirect the IMS VOIP call to the “most appropriate PSAP”. As the communication session is packet switched, call forwarding to the most appropriate PSAP is a simple exercise and the MSD will be provided in the call setup (and therefore available in any call forwarding).

 

Where the Administration is not prepared to offer a central 1st level PSAP address to the satellite telecommunications service provider, satellite eCall can be provided via a TPSP.

 

Note, however, that eCalls over satellite (and certainly TPSP calls via satellite) are unlikely to be provided free of carrier network charges and require satellite communication transceiver equipment in the vehicle.

 

Satellite-IMS-112-eCall is likely to be of particular interest to Administrations where there are users for categories of vehicle that have to cross areas of intermittent cellular coverage and across multiple countries and road networks. This may also be of interest for agricultural and forestry vehicles in locations where low population density (such as rural areas, Northern Scandinavia and mountainous regions) does not justify the provision of land based cellular telephone networks.

 

NOTE           Support for Satellite-IMS-112-eCall is probably not needed in countries where there is good mobile network coverage across the length and breadth of the land.

For vehicles known to spend significant time in areas that do not have the benefit from good GSM/UMTS/LTE/4G coverage, Satellite-IMS-112-eCall can provide the benefit of eCall to vehicle users.

This document provides specifications for the provision of eCall via satellite telecommunications.

 

11.19.24   EN 16102:2011 Intelligent transport systems - eCall - Operating requirements for third party support

 

 

LINK:  EN 16102:2011

 

 

The objective of implementing a 'Third Party' emergency call is to provide emergency assistance and an automated notification of a traffic accident, using 'Third Party Services' packages where such services are supported between the vehicle and a Third Party Service Provider in countries where such notification of an emergency are supported by PSAPs.

 

The first objective of this TPS-eCall is to transfer an emergency message from a vehicle to a Third Party Service Provider (TPSP) in the event of a crash or an emergency, and to establish a voice channel between the in-vehicle equipment and the TPSP.

 

The second objective of this TPS-eCall is, in case of an emergency likely to require assistance from the emergency services, for the TPSP to transfer an emergency message including the data of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD) (as defined in EN 15722) from the TPSP to the most appropriate PSAP and to make best efforts to establish a direct voice contact between that PSAP and the occupants of the vehicle if required by the PSAP.

 

This European Standard specifies the general operating requirements and intrinsic procedures for an in-vehicle eCall via the services of a Third Party Service Provider (TPSP).

 

This European Standard also provides definition of the service(s) provided to the PSAP and the method and form of service delivery.

 

NOTE           An important part of the TPS-eCall is the Minimum Set of Data (MSD). The operating requirements for the MSD are determined in this European Standard, but the form and data content of the MSD is not defined herein. The common European MSD for eCall is determined in EN 15722. Additional data concepts may also be transferred, and it is recommended that any such data concepts be registered using a data registry as defined in EN ISO 24978 to ensure that they can be understood by the recipient.

 

 

11.19.24.1   Context

 

The scale of death and injury on roads in Europe needs to be fully comprehended to understand the need for an automated method to alert about accidents. In 2008, there were 38 900 fatalities in the EU-27. The figure for 2009 is around 34 500 fatalities. The trend for 2001 to 2008 is around a 5 % annual reduction. Road accident Injuries are in the region of 1,7 million (2008). An automated method of accident notification has been estimated to have the potential to save up to 2 500 fatalities annually in the EU-27 when fully deployed, and reduce the severity of injuries in order to bring significant savings to society in terms of reduced costs and human suffering.

 

Emergency calls made from vehicles can assist with the objectives of significantly reducing road deaths and injuries, but drivers often have poor (imprecise) location awareness, especially on interurban roads or abroad. Additionally, in many situations, the car occupants may not be in a position to call using a normal mobile phone.

 

The situation is worse for those travelling abroad: a high (and increasing) number of vehicles travelling outside their home country and this is therefore also contributing to the need for an automated emergency call system in vehicles. In the EU there are over 100 million trips to another EU country per year (EU-15). 65 % of people feel less protected while abroad and most do not know which number to call in an emergency (in some countries over 60 %). Language problems are pertinent and may render communication difficult.

 

In the most crucial cases, the victim(s) may not be able to call because they have been injured and/or trapped, do not know the local number to call, and in many cases, particularly in rural situations and late at night, there may be no witnesses who happen to have a mobile phone or a sense of community.

 

The objective of implementing an in-vehicle emergency call system is to automate the notification of a traffic accident. One major benefit is to transmit data from the vehicle.

 

There are two means to provide an eCall from a vehicle:

 

One method is to use the pan-European eCall, which sends the voice call and the data directly to the PSAP, using the emergency number 112.

 

Another method consists of using a ‘third party services supported eCall’, referred to as TPS-eCall in this document. This is an eCall variant which includes the transmission of data to a Third Party Service Provider or TPSP, and the establishment of a voice call with this TPSP. In the case of an emergency likely to require assistance from the emergency services, the TPSP establishes a voice connection with the most appropriate PSAP. The TPSP also forwards all relevant information concerning the event, including the information specified as mandatory by the MSD standard (EN 15722) as a minimum, to the most appropriate PSAP. The TPSP also provides voice communication between the PSAP and the vehicle occupants by setting up a conference call for example, if this is required by any of the parties involved and allowed by the PSAP.

 

This European Standard specifies the generic operational requirements for the TPS-eCall.

 

 

 

11.19.25   CEN TS 17148:2018 Intelligent Transport Systems - eSafety - ProForma eCall Agreement between TPSP and PARES

 

 

LINK: CEN TS 17148:2018

 

 

This document provides a pro-forma template “Operational Support Agreement” (OSA) for guidance of “Public Authorities responsible for Emergency Services” (PARES) and Third Party Service Providers (TPSP) of third party assisted eCalls who are considering a formal agreement to accept eCall messages from a TPSP.

 

While the decision as to whether or not to accept eCall from a particular TPSP, and the terms under which such calls are accepted from any particular TPSP remain firmly in the hands of the PARES and the jurisdiction under which it operates, it is considered to be advantageous to start such negotiations from a standard template. This document provides a pro-forma template which a PARES can require from any applicant TPSP, or an applicant TPSP can offer to any PARES that it approaches to request an agreement to accept their eCalls.

 

NOTE           This pro-forma template is presented as a start point to a formal agreement between a PARES and a TPSP, not the format of the conditions of a final agreement.

 

CAVEAT: The template that is the subject of this deliverable is advisory, and any agreement between a TPSP and a PARES should be checked by someone legally competent in the jurisdiction that the agreement covers. This document does not claim to be a statement or interpretation of EU law or the national law of any EU Member State. This document is entirely without prejudice to the views of relevant national statutory authorities and their legal functions and powers, whether under EU law or the national law of their Member State.

 

11.19.25.1   Context

 

An eCall is an emergency call generated either automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually by the vehicle occupants; when activated, it provides notification and relevant location information to the most appropriate 'public safety answering points (PSAP)’, by means of ‘mobile wireless communications networks’, carries a defined standardized ’minimum set of data’, notifying that there has been an incident that requires response from the emergency services and establishes a voice channel between the occupants of the vehicle and the ‘most appropriate PSAP'.

 

There are two variants of eCalls:

a)          112-eCalls;

b)          Third Party Service supported eCalls (TPS eCalls).

 

112-eCalls progress automatically from the vehicle to the “Public Safety Answering Point” (PSAP).

 

Third Party Service Provider (TPS) involve the services and support of a “Third Party Assistance Provider” (TPSP) who may filter out false calls, determine if an emergency call requires the emergency services or other services (such as breakdown assistance), and may provide additional information requested by the owner of the vehicle to be passed to emergency services in the event of an emergency Call, or where the vehicle does not have the capability to send the full set of MSD data, may add data and consolidate the MSD before forwarding it to the PSAP.

 

TPS assisted eCalls are therefore more complex to manage and require an agreement between each TPSP and each “Public Authority responsible for Emergency Services” (PARES). Up till the development of this document there has been no ‘standard’ agreement, nor guidance, and it is left to the TPSP to work out what information it provides to the PARES when requesting an agreement, and to the PARES to work out what information it needs from the TPSP.

 

While the decision as to whether or not to accept an eCall from a particular TPSP, and the terms under which such calls are accepted from any particular TPSP remain firmly in the hands of the PARES and the jurisdiction under which it operates, it is considered to be advantageous to start such negotiations from a standard template. This document provides a pro-forma template which a PARES can require from any applicant TPSP, or an applicant TPSP can offer to any PARES that it approaches to request an agreement to accept their eCalls.

 

 

11.19.26   CEN TS 17313:2019 Intelligent transport systems - ESafety - Interoperability and user choice in eCall aftermarket and third party eCall services

 

 

LINK: CEN TS 17313:2019

 

 

This document provides a description for voluntarily consenting vendors (subsequently referred to as 'participating service providers’), who wish to provide TPS-eCall service in an open market environment, where users can select and change the service provider. It focusses on the use case 'TPS-eCall service', as standardized in EN 16102, only (and for clarification, does not apply in respect of 112-eCall, where no TPS provider is involved.)

 

The document determines the preconditions, requirements and functional means needed in order that users of a TPS-eCall service can choose and change her/his preferred service provider (TPSP) out of a range of available TPSPs, who are participating in the open market provisions determined in this specification.

 

Outside the scope of this document are:

 

a)    any commercial considerations (e.g. whether the service is offered for free or a charged service or part of a commercial service package offer),

b)    any contractual considerations (e.g. how a service contract between an user and a TPSP is established),

c)    any IT-security related issues in conjunction with the TPS in-vehicle system,

d)    any considerations regarding communication costs (for voice and data) related to the TPS-eCall service

e)    any PSAP related considerations (towards the PSAPs there is no impact related to provider change, since any TPSP needs to negotiate acceptance of its service offering with the PSAPs in the countries where the service is provided, before such service can be provided).

 

 

11.19.26.1   Context

 

An eCall is an emergency call generated either automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually by the vehicle occupants. When activated, it provides notification and relevant location information to the most appropriate 'Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)’ by means of ‘mobile wireless communications networks’, carries a defined standardized ’minimum set of data’, notifying that there has been an incident that requires response from the emergency services and establishes a voice channel between the occupants of the vehicle and the ‘most appropriate PSAP’.

 

There are two principal variants of eCall:

a)    112-eCall (also known as Pan-European eCall);

b)    Third Party Service supported eCall (TPS-eCall ; also known as Third Party eCall).

 

112-eCalls progress automatically from the vehicle directly to the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP).

 

Third Party Service supported eCall involves the service and the support of a Third Party Service provider (TPSP) as an intermediary entity, who may filter out false calls, determine if an emergency call requires the emergency service or other services (such as breakdown assistance), and may provide additional information requested by the owner of the vehicle to be passed to emergency services in the event of an emergency call, or where the vehicle does not have the capability to send the full MSD data set, may add data and consolidate the MSD before forwarding it to the PSAP. A TPSP may typically offer TPS-eCall as a part of a bundle of wider support services.

 

The deployment of 112-eCall service in Europe is mandatory for all new models (classes M1, N1) as of 31 March 2018. According to Regulation (EU) 2015/758 a TPS-eCall service can co-exist provided that the measures necessary to ensure continuity in the provision of the service to the consumer are adopted; according to Regulation (EU) 2015/758 (3 c), the vehicle user must have the option to elect to use a 112-based eCall in-vehicle system at any time.

 

Third Party eCall service is a private commercial service which may be offered optionally and supplementary to 112-eCall service.

 

However, the possibility to choose and to change third party eCall service provider has not so far been defined regarding

in-vehicle systems for third party eCall service, although interoperability and user choice are significant aspects for fair competition in the European Service Market.

 

According to Regulation (EU) 2015/758, open choice for users and fair competition should be ensured, as well as innovation should be encouraged, in order to boost the competitiveness of the European Union's information technology industry in the global market.

 

This document provides specification for such interoperability.

 

NOTE           It is recognized that some vehicle manufacturers and service providers may not want or are unable to participate in such an open market. This document is therefore developed for voluntary use by parties who may wish to participate in an open market for service provision.

 

 

11.19.27   CEN TS 17395:2019 Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - eCall for automated and autonomous vehicles

 

 

LINK: CEN TS 17395:2019

 

 

This document defines additional data to be sent in the event that an eCall is triggered, as part of the MSD, in the case where the vehicle is an automated vehicle or an autonomous vehicle, to identify:

 

1)    The vehicle is an automated/autonomous vehicle

2)    The number of persons on board at the time of the incident

3)    Whether or not the vehicle has rolled over

4)    Whether the pedestrian airbag has been deployed

5)    Whether it is (a) driver initiated automation or (b) centrally controlled automation

6)    And if (b) telephone number or internet contact coordinates to contact the vehicle controller.

 

 

11.19.27.1   Context

 

eCall (an emergency call generated either automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors or manually by the vehicle occupants; which, when activated provides notification and relevant location information to the most appropriate Public Safety Answering Point, by means of mobile wireless communications networks, and carrying a defined standardized minimum set of data (MSD) notifying that there has been an incident), as defined in EN 16072, EN 16062, EN 15722 and EN 16454, became a regulated requirement (for new model vehicles of Category M1 and N1 [cars and light vans]) under EN regulation as from April 2018.

 

CEN/TS 17184 further enables eCall using IMS packet switched networks, and CEN/TS 17182 enables eCall using an ITS-station in a C-ITS equipped vehicle. CEN/TS 17249 parts 2 – 6 extend eCall support to all other categories of vehicle. CEN/TS 17312 enables eCall using satellite. eCall support is now therefore possible for all categories of vehicle and via a wide range of communication media.

 

However, the advent of automated and autonomous vehicles presents a new challenge to the ‘Public Service Answering Point’ (PSAP). Traditional eCall is predicated on the paradigm of a dialogue involving the driver of the vehicle / vehicle occupants and a PSAP. In the case of an automated or autonomous vehicle there may be, at the time of the crash, no person on board the vehicle (as it moves between picking up clients in a CCAM paradigm), or there may be persons on board but the vehicle is not under their control, but may be controlled by a centralized system.

 

When a PSAP receives an eCall from a vehicle, the PSAP attempts to talk to the occupants of the vehicle. At the moment, if it is an automated or autonomous vehicle that is empty as it moves between picking up clients, this will result in a so-called ‘silent’ call, where the PSAP does not know if the occupants are unconscious, dead, or have left the vehicle, or in this case, that no-one was in the vehicle at the time of the incident. This makes it very difficult for the PSAP to determine what resources to send to the incident. Clearly, a PSAP will want to be able accord a different priority to an empty vehicle than to one carrying people.

 

Additionally, a PSAP, in dialogue with the driver of an affected vehicle, will often ask the driver (who is the controller of the vehicle) for information about the status of the vehicle, or instruct the driver to switch the car power off, or switch hazard lights on, etc. But if a CCAM vehicle is under the control of a central operator, and not the occupants of the vehicle, the PSAP cannot expect the occupants of the vehicle to have the knowledge or control to be able to respond appropriately.

 

Therefore, in the case of an automated or autonomous vehicle, the MSD needs to provide additional data to identify that it is an automated/autonomous vehicle, and whether or not it is under the control of an on-board driver or a CCAM operation centre (and if the latter how to contact the operator), the number of persons on board at the time of the incident, and whether or not the vehicle has rolled over.

This document defines an ‘Optional Additional Data’ (OAD) concept to be sent in the event that an eCall is triggered, as part of the MSD, in the case where the vehicle is an automated vehicle or an autonomous vehicle,

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

11.19.28   CEN TR 17249-1 Intelligent transport systems — eSafety — Extending eCall to other categories of vehicle

 

 

LINK: CEN TR 17249-1

The objective of CEN TR 17249-1 was to assess the overall context of the widening of scope of eCall from cars and light vans to all categories of vehicles, and in a paradigm of fast developing cellular communications, particularly the evolution from 'circuit switched' systems to 'packet switched' technology supporting IP protocols.

The EU ICT “Rolling Plan” issued each year by DG MOVE has for some years recognized that eCall, as currently regulated, services only new model vehicles of Categories M1 and N1 (cars and light vans) and should be extended to cover other categories of vehicles.

 

The 2017 ICT Rolling Plan states:

“Standards for next generation networks are also expected in 2017 for eCall, as well as standards for other users than M1 and N1 vehicles (lightweight vehicles for the carriage of goods or passengers)…”

“ACTION 1 SDOs to develop technical specification and standards for the implementation of eCall in-vehicles of categories other than M1 and N1 and for other user types, taking into account requirements included within type-approval regulation and ongoing activities in this area (pilots, the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF), etc).”

“The next generation of standards on eCall service should take into account future developments in mobile communication networks and the IP environment, in particular LTE and IPv6 networks. Standards for the extension to other vehicles types and services should also be developed — such as heavy duty vehicles, power two wheelers or hazardous goods tracking, and other classes of vulnerable road users, taking into account requirements from type-approval regulation and the results of other initiatives in this area (pilots, the CEF, etc).”

In order to achieve its objectives, the European Commission has funded a CEN Project team, PT 0278 1507, to further this objective:

“This call for experts applies to the preparation of deliverable(s) associated with the following task(s) as defined in the Project Plan:

–      A Technical Report discussing the desirability, feasibility and problems associated with eCall for a particular class of road user

–      A Technical Specification of parameters that can provide eCall High Level operating requirements and application protocols to support service for other classes of user…“

This project addresses the EC “Rolling Plan” for ITS implementation in respect of eCall, notably:

“It is also required to analyse the need and develop standards if needed for the extension to other vehicles types and services”

Some of these additional classes are listed in article 12 of the eCall type-approval regulation, “REGULATION (EU) 2015/758 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2015 concerning type-approval requirements for the deployment of the eCall”, while other potential users have not yet been classified

The additional classes of road user included in this project include:

–      heavy goods vehicles

–      busses and coaches

–      agricultural tractors

–      P2WV (Moped/motorcycle drivers/passengers)

 

This document addresses the requirement of the remit to CEN TC278 PT1507 for a “Technical Report discussing the desirability, feasibility and problems associated with eCall for a particular category of road user” and the content of this deliverable is the first of 6 associated documents parts. This Technical Report discusses the desirability, feasibility and problems associated with eCall for the identified additional categories of vehicle and provides the context and base assumption for CEN/TS 17249-2, CEN/TS 17249-3, CEN/TS 17249-4, CEN/TS 17249-5 and CEN/TS 17249-6 which provide technical specifications to support eCall for these additional categories of vehicles over both circuit switched and packet switched networks.

Scope

TR 17249-1 discusses the desirability, feasibility and problems associated with eCall for the following categories of road user:

a)    HGV/commercial vehicles;

b)    coaches and busses;

c)    agricultural and forestry vehicles;

d)    powered 2 wheeled vehicles;

e)    tricycles and quadricycles.

NOTE         Regulation issues are outside the scope of this document and the associated Technical Specification (although, where appropriate regulation(s) may reference the requirements of this deliverable).

 

Recommendation 1507-1: It is recommended that, in order to help future proof eCall, EN 15722 is revised so that all of the UNECE principle categories and first level sub-categories of vehicle can be accommodated in the MSD. This will not require any change to the structure of the MSD, and because the ASN.1 definition is ENUM, only requires adding additional references to the ENUM elaboration. See Clause 6 below.

(Examples: Category L3, M1, M2, M3, etc)

Recommendation 1507-2: If additional information concerning the vehicle to that provided in Recommendation 1507-1 is considered useful in a particular use case, it should be provided as part of an additional “Optional Additional Data” concept for that use case.

Recommendation 1507-3: PT1507 recommends that all future eCall standards, and particularly within its remit, new additional categories of vehicle that have the benefit of eCall, should be primarily based on the IMS communication subsystem. Specifically, the Standards deliverables to be produced by PT1507 should use packet switched IMS-eCall as their prime medium, defaulting to CS eCall as specified in 3GPP release 14 where IMS is not available.

Recommendation 1507-4: PT1507 recommends that PSAPs should adapt eCall receiving systems to accommodate and handle IMS-112-eCall at the earliest opportunity, because this will provide better alignment and call forwarding capabilities and will lessen delay time in receiving eCall MSD data, and will increase the ease and flexibility of call forwarding.

Recommendation 1507-5: It is recommended that 5 linked TS (one for each additional category of vehicle) are developed and approved. Thus the structure will be:

CEN/TR 17249-1, ITS – eSafety- Extending eCall to additional categories of vehicle

CEN/TS 17249-2, ITS – eSafety- eCall for HGV/commercial vehicles (UNECE Categories N1, N2, N3)

CEN/TS 17249-3, ITS – eSafety- eCall for Coaches and busses (UNECE Categories M1, M2, M3)

CEN/TS 17249-4, ITS – eSafety- eCall for Agricultural and forestry vehicles (UNECE Categories T,R,S)

CEN/TS 17249-5, ITS – eSafety- eCall for Powered 2 Wheeled vehicles (UNECE Categories L1, L3)

CEN/TS 17249-6, ITS – eSafety- eCall for Tricycles and Quadricycles (UNECE Categories L2, L4, L5, L6, L7)

 

Recommendation 1507-6: A common approach is recommended for widening eCall support for HGVs, coaches / busses, agricultural/forestry vehicles, and a similar but not identical approach is recommended for eCall vehicle based systems for P2WVs, tricycles and quadricycles.

 

Recommendation 1507-7: There is a base assumption, that, in line with EN 16072, all eCall equipped vehicles have a means for both automatic and manual eCall triggering. It is recommended that manufacturers of agricultural/forestry vehicles additionally provide a manual eCall trigger device (button/switch voice activated device etc., to the vehicle manufacturers design and discretion) within easy reach of any PTO potential contact point, and that in the case of major connected equipment (such as log handler or processor, muck spreader, attached harvester, etc.) either provide a stand-alone eCall IVS with manual trigger, or provide data via the CAN bus to the agricultural/forestry vehicle that enables an eCall triggering to be reported to and cause an eCall triggering event in the vehicle eCall IVS.

 

Recommendation 1507-8: It is recommended that agricultural vehicle manufacturers, and particularly tractor manufacturers, install equipment to disable the vehicle from being driven (as opposed to operated) if there is no vehicle operator detected present on the driver’s seat.

 

Recommendation 1507-9: IMS-112-eCall can provide eCall via satellite communications. It is recommended that resources are provided to develop and approve a separate Technical Specification specifically to support eCall using satellite communications.

 

Recommendation 1507-10: Aftermarket eCall will be particularly significant in the years 2018-2032. It is recommended that resources are provided to develop and approve Technical Specification specifically to support aftermarket eCall with variants for all of the supported categories of vehicle covered by OEM eCall. Further, real design work and practical in situ testing is required and a regulatory framework will be required.

Recommendation 1507-11: It is recommended that the practicality and benefit of equipping trailers with eCall capabilities is revisited within the 2020 −2025 timespan, after there has been some rollout of eCall for commercial vehicles, and the powering of such devices may be in a different paradigm.

Recommendation 1507-12: It is recommended that, until a new 3GPP Release removes the 140 byte length limit from IMS eCall, any referenced site address in the MSD should be a URI unless the referenced URL is below 30 characters.

Recommendation 1507-13: It is recommended that the ongoing reliability of operation of OEM fitted eCall systems should be ensured through periodic inspection testing.

Recommendation 1507-14: It is recommended that a project or project team is supported to consider the benefit and viability of further extending eCall to other classes of vulnerable road users, persons with identified risk medical conditions, cyclists, defibrillators, other medical and emergency equipment.

Recommendation 1507-15: It is recommended that in addition to extending the benefits of eCall to UNECE Category L1 and L3 road users, a Technical Specification is developed for powered tricycles and quadricycles (UNECE categories L2, L4, L5, L6, L7).

 

Recommendation 1507-16: It is recommended that the Technical Specification recommended in Recommendation 1507-15 is extended to include the benefit of eCall for vulnerable road users using mobility scooters.

 

Recommendation 1507-17: It is recommended that CEN/TC 278/WG 15, in its planned revision of EN 15722, amend the text to enable an MSD of more than 140 bytes when sent using IMS

 

Recommendation 1507-18: It is recommended that CEN TC278 WG15 issue a Liaison Statement to 3GPP and ETSI requesting that in the next Release of 3GPP protocols remove the 140 byte limitation of the MSD transmitted in the SIP header when the MSD is transmitted using IMS.

 

Recommendation 1507-19; Where the 140 byte length limit applies (for CS eCall, and IMS eCall before Release 15 hopefully removes the length restriction for IMS-eCall), it is recommended to remain with the current CEN/TS 16405 Schema A and Schema B data concepts.

 

Recommendation 1507-20: When the 140 byte MSD length restriction in 3GPP Release 14 is removed, it is recommended a new Schema C (Schema A with some additional vehicle data) without MSD data length limitation, and a Schema D (Schema B with some additional vehicle data) and without the URI/URL length restriction, for vehicles using IMS-eCall, are an option that may be presented by the IVS.

 

Recommendation 1507-21: Within the limits of recommendations 1507-19 and 1507-20, OEMs are recommended to provide Schema C or D data wherever possible.

 
 

11.19.29:  CEN TS 17249-2  Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - Part 2 : eCall for HGVs and other commercial vehicles

 

 

LINK:  CEN TS 17249-2

 

The Scope of this document is limited to the provision of eCall from a commercial vehicle prime mover /rigid body truck designed for conveying cargo (UNECE Category N).

 

Within the context of 112-eCall (operating requirements defined in EN 16072), this document defines specifications for the provision of 112-eCall for regulated commercial vehicles, including rigid body trucks and variants thereof, prime mover and trailer combinations (sometimes called “semi’s”, road trains [one prime mover with multiple trailers]) and other regulated commercial vehicles (for example vans carrying medical supplies or radioactive material).

 

As with the existing provisions for 112-eCall for Category M1/N1 vehicles, these are specified within the paradigm of being OEM fit equipment supplied with new vehicles.

 

The work of CEN/TS 16405 is adopted and extended in this document. (A revised edition of CEN/TS 16405 will remain the principal reference document for the content and definition of the commercial vehicle optional additional data set.)

 

This document specifies the requirements for the use of 112-eCall by a commercial vehicle prime mover /rigid body truck and determines circumstances where it is appropriate to additionally provide new optional additional data as determined in CEN/TS 16405:2018 or later) as Schema C for use in a packet switched environment which is not constrained by the 140 byte limit.

 

Unless superseded by European Regulation on some future date, all data schemas specified in CEN TS 16405 are “Optional Additional Data” (OAD) concepts, as enabled in accordance with EN 15722 as part of the minimum set of data. As OAD they, and the elements within them, are, by definition, “optional” with use at the discretion of the operator of the vehicle.

 

NOTE 1       The provision of eCall from IVS located within trailers is not included in this document.

 

NOTE 2       The provision of eCall for vehicles via the aftermarket (post sale and registration) will be the subject of other work, and in respect of the operational requirements for any such aftermarket solutions for commercial vehicles, will use this document as a principle reference point.

 

NOTE 3       The 112-eCall paradigm involves a direct call from the vehicle to the most appropriate PSAP. (Third party service provision by comparison, involves the support of an intermediary third party service provider before the call is forwarded to the PSAP). The specifications herein relate only to the provision of 112-eCall or IMS-112-eCall, and do not provide specifications for third party service provision of eCall, although in the case of 112-eCall for commercial vehicles, links to third party provision of service aspects (such as cargo contents) may be required.

 

11.19.29.1  Context

 

As a result of European Regulation, from 2018, all new model Category M1/N1 vehicles will be equipped with 112-eCall. Other model Category M1/N1 vehicles may be voluntarily equipped with 112-eCall.

 

The current eCall Regulation covers only M1 and N1 Category vehicles (cars and vans). The European Commission’s “ICT Rolling Plan (2017) states the objective “Action 1 Develop technical specification/standards for the implementation of eCall in vehicles of categories other than M1 and N1 and for other user types, taking into account requirements included within type approval regulation as well as ongoing activities in this area (pilots, CEF,…).” And it goes on to explain “...for the extension to other vehicles types and services, such as Heavy Duty Vehicles, Power Two Wheelers or Hazardous Goods tracking, and other classes of vulnerable road users”.

See CEN TR 17249-1 for context.

 

The EC CEF project I_HeERO has also addressed the issues relating to eCall for HGVs, coaches and busses and vehicle centric solutions for powered two wheel vehicles (P2WV) and have passed these results to CEN/TC 278 PT1507 who are charged to provide specifications for the provision of eCall for Heavy Goods Vehicles, coaches and busses, agricultural tractors, and powered two-wheel vehicles.

 

Unlike other additional Categories of vehicles, considerable and substantive work has already been undertaken both in Standards Deliverables and practical testing of those deliverables in respect of HGVs and other commercial vehicles, leading to the publication of CEN TS 16405:2018:. This document takes this work further, and will cause CEN TS 16405 to be revised.

Consistent with CEN TS 16405, CEN PT 1507 have interpreted the loosely used term HGV´s to include all commercial vehicles, including rigid body trucks and variants thereof, prime mover and trailer combinations (sometimes called “semi’s”) road trains (one prime mover with multiple trailers) and others. The term includes any regulated commercial vehicles. As with the existing provisions for eCall for Category M1/N1 vehicles, these are specified within the paradigm of being OEM fit equipment supplied with new vehicles.

The work of CEN PT1507 has provided CEN/TC 278/WG 15 with identification of data to be specified in a revision of CEN TS 16405 for an additional Schema C, which may be additionally sent in an eCall that is not limited to 140 bytes. A revision of CEN TS 16405 will provide the ASN.1 data definitions for Schema C, and will revise the data elements in the next edition of CEN TS 16405.

 

 

11.19.30   CEN TS 17249-3:2018 Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - Part 3: eCall for Coaches and buses

 

LINK: CEN TS 17249-3:2018

 

 

In respect of 112-eCall (operating requirements defined in EN 16072), this document defines additional specifications for the provision of eCall for coaches and buses.

As with the existing provisions for eCall for Category M1/N1 vehicles, these are specified within the paradigm of being OEM fit equipment supplied with new vehicles.

 

NOTE 1       The provision of eCall for vehicles via the aftermarket (post sale and registration) will be the subject of other work, and in respect of the operational requirements for any such aftermarket solutions for coaches and buses, will use the specifications of this document as a reference point.

 

NOTE 2       The 112-eCall paradigm involves a direct call from the vehicle to the most appropriate PSAP. (Third party service provision by comparison, involves the support of an intermediary third party service provider before the call is forwarded to the PSAP.) The specifications herein relate only to the provision of 112-eCall or IMS-112-eCall, and do not provide specifications for third party service provision of eCall, although in the case of 112-eCall or IMS-112-eCall for coaches, links to third party provision of service aspects (such as passenger lists) may be required.

 

 

11.19.30.1   Context

 

As a result of European Regulation, from 2018, all new model Category M1/N1 vehicles will be equipped with112- eCall. Other model Category M1/N1 vehicles may be voluntarily equipped with 112-eCall.

 

The current eCall Regulation covers only M1 and N1 Category vehicles (cars and vans). The European Commission’s “ICT Rolling Plan (2017) states the objective “Action 1 Develop technical specification/standards for the implementation of eCall in vehicles of categories other than M1 and N1 and for other user types, taking into account requirements included within type approval regulation as well as ongoing activities in this area (pilots, CEF,…).” And goes on to explain “…for the extension to other vehicles types and services, such as Heavy Duty Vehicles, Power Two Wheelers or Hazardous Goods tracking, and other classes of vulnerable road users”.

 

See CEN TR 17249-1 for context.

 

The EC CEF project I_HeERO has also addressed the issues relating to eCall for HGVs, coaches and buses and vehicle centric solutions for powered two wheel vehicles (P2W) and have passed these results to CEN/TC 278 PT1507 who are charged to provide specifications for the provision of eCall for Heavy Goods Vehicles, coaches and buses, agricultural tractors, and powered two-wheel vehicles.

 

Coaches and buses present two different challenges for eCall, and, despite the fact that the same vehicle model could be used either as a coach or a bus, require different information. In the case of long distance coaches, European regulations require that passengers use seat belts, so it is possible to establish the number of seats in use, which will approximate to the number of passengers on board. Coach trips are usually booked in advance, and the coach operator therefore also has a passenger list with information that could be very valuable to the emergency responders, especially for coaches operating abroad, but must respect privacy regulations. Bus trips, by comparison, involve semi-random unplanned Hop-on/hop-off characteristics, with little or no use of seat belts.

 

This document provides determination for the provision of eCall to coaches and buses. As with the existing provisions for eCall for Category M1/N1 vehicles, these are specified within the paradigm of being OEM fit equipment supplied with new vehicles.

 

The provision of eCall for vehicles via the aftermarket (post sale and registration) will be the subject of other work, and in respect of the operational requirements for any such aftermarket solutions for coaches and buses, will use the specifications of this document as a principle reference point.

 

 

11.19.31   CEN TS 17249-4:2019 Intelligent transport systems - eSafety - Part 4: eCall for UNECE Category T, R, S agricultural/forestry vehicles

 

LINK: CEN TS 17249-4:2019

In respect of 112-eCall (operating requirements defined in EN 16072), this document defines additional specifications for the provision of eCall for agricultural/forestry vehicles.

 

As with the existing provisions for eCall for Category M1/N1 vehicles, these systems are specified within the paradigm of being OEM fit equipment supplied with new vehicles.

 

NOTE 1       The provision of eCall for vehicles via the aftermarket (post sale and registration) will be the subject of other work, and in respect of the operational requirements for any such aftermarket solutions for agricultural/forestry vehicles, will use the specifications of this Technical Specification as a principle reference point.

 

NOTE 2       The 112-eCall paradigm involves a direct call from the vehicle to the most appropriate PSAP. (Third party service provision by comparison, involves the support of an intermediary third party service provider before the call is forwarded to the PSAP). The specifications herein relate only to the provision of 112-eCall or IMS-112-eCall, and do not provide specifications for third party service provision of eCall.

 

11.19.31.1   Context

 

As a result of European Regulation, from 2018, all new model Category M1/N1 vehicles will be equipped with112-eCall. Other model Category M1/N1 vehicles may be voluntarily equipped with 112-eCall.

 

The current eCall Regulation covers only M1 and N1 Category vehicles (cars and vans). The European Commission’s “ICT Rolling Plan (2017) states the objective “Action 1 Develop technical specification/standards for the implementation of eCall in vehicles of categories other than M1 and N1 and for other user types, taking into account requirements included within type approval regulation as well as ongoing activities in this area (pilots, CEF,…).” And goes on to explain “……..for the extension to other vehicles types and services, such as Heavy Duty Vehicles, Power Two Wheelers or Hazardous Goods tracking, and other classes of vulnerable road users”.

 

The CEN Project TC 278 PT1507 has addressed the issues relating to eCall for HGVs, coaches and busses, Powered two wheel vehicles and agricultural/forestry vehicles. See CEN TR 17249-1 for context (especially Section 12 in respect of agricultural/forestry vehicles).

 

The UNECE category T defines an agricultural/forestry vehicle as “a power-driven vehicle, either wheeled or track laying, which has at least two-axles, whose function depends essentially on its tractive power, and which is specially designed to pull, push, carry or actuate certain implements, machines or trailers intended for use in agriculture or forestry. Such a vehicle may be arranged to carry a load (E.g.: Forwarder) and attendants.”

 

When on the road, accidents involving agricultural/forestry vehicles can cause serious problems, largely because of what they are towing (muck spreaders, equipment with metal spikes, large round bales, livestock, etc.) and while it may be impractical to know the cargo, it is important to know that it is an agricultural/forestry vehicle and that such related problems may arise.

 

However, in the case of agricultural/forestry vehicles of most types, the benefit of eCall off the roadway is of even greater value. The agricultural/forestry vehicle driver is normally working alone, with no passing traffic or onlookers, frequently in a remote location. If there is a serious incident and the agricultural/forestry vehicle driver is injured, this is often not noticed for some considerable time. It is already well recognized that eCall is of greatest benefit to speed assistance to those who have incidents in remote locations. (That said, it is recognized that eCall, as currently supported, will only work where there is cellular network coverage, however, < WI 00278476 > is addressing this issue to additionally provide eCall support via satellite communications for those who elect to add this capability, and TS 17184 provides the means to support eCall via IMS (4G/LTE) communications where this capability is supported by the nearest PSAP and the vehicle is suitably equipped).

 

This Technical Specification provides determination for the provision of 112-eCall to agricultural/forestry vehicles. As with the existing provisions for eCall for Category M1/N1 vehicles, these systems are specified within the paradigm of being OEM fit equipment supplied with new vehicles.

The provision of eCall for the aftermarket will be the subject of other work, and in respect of the operational requirements for any such aftermarket solutions for agricultural and forestry vehicles will use the specifications of this Technical Specification as a principle reference point.

 

This document is complementary to EN 16072 and EN 15722 and presents adaptation requirements for the provision of eCall for Agricultural and Forestry vehicles.

 

As a result of European Regulation, from 2018, all new model Category M1/N1 vehicles will be equipped with112-eCall. Other model Category M1/N1 vehicles may be voluntarily equipped with 112-eCall.

 

The current eCall Regulation covers only M1 and N1 Category vehicles (cars and vans). The European Commission’s “ICT Rolling Plan (2017) states the objective “Action 1 Develop technical specification/standards for the implementation of eCall in vehicles of categories other than M1 and N1 and for other user types, taking into account requirements included within type approval regulation as well as ongoing activities in this area (pilots, CEF,…).” And goes on to explain “……..for the extension to other vehicles types and services, such as Heavy Duty Vehicles, Power Two Wheelers or Hazardous Goods tracking, and other classes of vulnerable road users”.

 

The CEN Project TC 278 PT1507 has addressed the issues relating to eCall for HGVs, coaches and busses, Powered two wheel vehicles and agricultural/forestry vehicles. See CEN/TR 17249-1;2018 for context (especially Section 12 in respect of agricultural/forestry vehicles).

 

The UNECE category T defines an agricultural/forestry vehicle as “a power-driven vehicle, either wheeled or track laying, which has at least two-axles, whose function depends essentially on its tractive power, and which is specially designed to pull, push, carry or actuate certain implements, machines or trailers intended for use in agriculture or forestry. Such a vehicle may be arranged to carry a load (E.g.: Forwarder) and attendants.”