19.   

Road Traffic Data, Geographic and

Spatial Data

 

 

 

spatial.png

 

 

19.0   Overview of domain

 

Road traffic data and geographic data for ITS do not form one of the identified ITS domains as defined by the different ITS architectures. However, it is a fuel for a lot of ITS services and besides considering data itself it is necessary to also deal with data management and distribution activities and tools.

 

When studying a framework architecture for ITS such as the US DoT “ ARC-IT” the following areas and service packages are identified as related to geographic data and road data:

  • ITS data warehouse (DM01);

  • Data distribution (SU03);

  • Map management (SU04);

  • Traffic code dissemination (VS17);

  • Weather data collection (WX01).

 

Besides, it is important to concentrate on the data itself as it is an essential part of these areas and services. The following data types will be subsequently presented:

  • Geographic data (also named spatial or geospatial data);

  • Road traffic data (either historical or active);

  • Road weather data (either historical or active).

 

Another distinction is frequently introduced between static data (as defined in the delegated regulation 2015/962 (of 18 December 2014 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services) as "road data that do not change often or on a regular basis") and dynamic data. However, the limit between these two categories remains unprecise.

 

 

19.1   Considerations on data

19.1.1 Introduction

 

According to ISO IEC 11179-1:2015 data can be understood as a “reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing”. It is the fuel of a lot of ITS services and applications.

 

19.1.2   Geographic data

19.1.2.1    Overall introduction

 

Geographic data can be defined as “data with implicit or explicit reference to a location relative to the Earth” (source: EN ISO 19109:2015). Geographic information is also used as a term for information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth. Location is defined as an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112:2019). Spatial data can be seen a synonym of geographic data but it is not adopted by standardisation.

 

Two main streams of standardisation can be considered for geographic data:

  • One is operated by ISO/TC 211 “Geographic information/geomatics”, most of them in association with CEN/TC 287 “Geographic Information” under the Vienna Agreement. This latter has also issued a few European standards in relation with the 2007/2/CE directive (“INSPIRE directive”).

 

  • The second is operated by CEN/TC 278 “Intelligent transport systems” and ISO/TC 204 “Intelligent transport systems”. Currently besides GDF (see below) there is no standard developed under the Vienna Agreement.

 

 

 

19.1.2.2              CEN/TC 278 geographic data standards

19.1.2.2.1           General presentation and scope

 

Currently there is only one technical specification strictly dealing with geographic data prepared by CEN/TC 278: CEN TS 17268 “Intelligent transport systems - ITS spatial data - Data exchange on changes in road attributes

Besides, one can mention several standards and technical specifications for public transports that contain provisions for geographic features linked with public transports like the one on "Identification of Fixed Objects in Public Object" (IFOPT). This specification has been included in the global model for public transport "Transmodel" (EN 12896-2:2016) (see section 17).

 

19.1.2.2.2           EN ISO 17268   Intelligent transport systems - ITS spatial data - Data exchange on changes in road attributes

 

The scope of EN ISO 17268 “Intelligent transport systems - ITS spatial data - Data exchange on changes in road attributes is to “define the content specification for the exchange of road-related spatial data, and especially updates thereof. Based on the content specification, this document defines also a physical exchange format (structure and encoding) for the actual data exchange. In addition, it defines web services that are needed to make the coded data on updates available. Exchange of dynamic information is not in the scope of this document.”

Although the road infrastructure has a rather permanent character, changes of the road network and related attributes do actually occur at a significant scale. There is a need for timely and comprehensive propagation of information on such changes to digital maps used in ITS applications.

The specification in this document aims to enable another mechanism for provision of static road data, with a focus on changes, directly from the source of the changes: the public road authorities and/or (public/private) road operators, who build and maintain the roads, and decide on and implement the day-to-day changes that are relevant for inclusion in ITS digital maps.

 

The following figure 19.1 explains how the exchanged data are organised:

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.1: The road features package

(source: CEN TS 17268 )

 

 

This class diagram turns around the concept of road feature: a feature is the abstraction of a real-world phenomenon, i.e. a distinctive object or attribute that defines this phenomenon.

 

 

Different possibilities are proposed to define the corresponding location referencing of such features (point, linear or area):

 

  • Using pre-coded location references (either by external reference – e.g. postal addresses – or using a system based on EN ISO 19148 on linear referencing);

 

  • Using dynamic location references (either using the Agora-C system as in ISO 17572-3 – binary – or OpenLR™ as in ISO TS 21219-22 – binary or in XML);

 

  • Using geometry references (i.e. geometry primitives in the source road data base as defined in EN ISO 19107).

CEN TS 17268  was based on the TN-ITS specification concepts for data exchange developed during the EU-funded projects PReVENT/MAPS&ADAS (2004/2007) and SpeedAlert (2004/2005), and was further elaborated and tested in the EU-funded ROSATTE project (Road Safety Attributes Exchange Infrastructure in Europe; 2008-2010) and Transportation Pilot (2011/2013), on which the basis for this specification was laid.

It is also well aligned with Directive 2007/2/EU establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE). Under this directive, public authorities provide road network geospatial data sets in an INSPIRE-compliant way. Linear location referencing enabled by this document’s specification establishes a direct (and INSPIRE-compliant) connection between the exchanged road features and the originating geospatial data set of the public authority. This will provide users with easy access to the specific location of the road feature in the originating database for inspection, in case decoding of the dynamic location reference, used for automated processing of the data, fails.

The following standards are necessary to apply this technical specification:

EN ISO 14823, Intelligent transport systems - Graphic data dictionary (ISO 14823)

EN ISO 14825, Intelligent transport systems - Geographic Data Files (GDF) - GDF5.0 (ISO 14825)[1]

EN ISO 19107, Geographic information - Spatial schema (ISO 19107)

EN ISO 19108, Geographic information - Temporal schema (ISO 19108)

EN ISO 19109, Geographic information - Rules for application schema (ISO 19109)

EN ISO 19111, Geographic information - Spatial referencing by coordinates (ISO 19111)

EN ISO 19115 (all parts), Geographic information – Metadata 

EN ISO 19136, Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML) (ISO 19136)[2]

EN ISO 19148, Geographic information - Linear referencing (ISO 19148)

ISO 17572‑3, Intelligent transport systems (ITS) - Location referencing for geographic databases - Part 3: Dynamic location references (dynamic profile)

[1] Note: this standard was superseded in 2020 by ISO 20524-1.

[2] Note: this standard was superseded in 2020 by ISO 19136-1

.

This technical specification is not cited in any European text (directive or regulation) but it is a good candidate to be included in a future revision of the  COMMISSION DELEGATED REGULATION (EU) 2015/962 of 18 December 2014 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services

 

 

19.1.2.3     ISO/TC 204 standards: the ISO 20524 series

 

Several standards and technical specifications have been prepared by ISO/TC 204 that deal with geographic information for ITS. The ISO 20524 series is the major standard developed to specify a “conceptual and logical data model in addition to the physical encoding formats for geographic databases for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications and services”. It “includes a specification of potential contents of such databases (data dictionaries for Features, Attributes and Relationships), a specification of how these contents need to be represented, and how relevant information about the database itself can be specified (metadata)”. It is composed of two parts, both being published by ISO in 2020:

  • ISO 20524-1:2020 : Part 1 that deals with the data used by ITS applications and services such as in-vehicle or portable navigation systems, traffic management centres, or services linked with road management systems. (ISO 20524-1:2020);

  • ISO 20524-2:2020 :Part 2 that deals with the specific data used in automated driving systems, cooperative ITS, and multimodal transport (in relation with Transmodel – EN 12896-1 and EN 12896-2). It includes an innovative model describing roads, carriageways and lanes and relevant information on these roads, carriageways and lanes that are modelled as surfaces and no longer as linear features as it is common in road databases (ISO 20524-2:2020).

The conceptual data model however has a broader focus than the only ITS applications and services. It is indeed application-independent, allowing for future harmonization with other geographic database standards.

The different themes that are covered by this standard are the following:

  • Road and ferries

  • Administrative areas

  • Named areas

  • Land cover and use

  • Terrain elevation

  • Structures

  • Railways

  • Waterways

  • Road furniture (part 2)

  • Services

  • Public transport (part 2)

  • Abstract belt features (part 2)

  • Linear referencing features

  • Linear datum features

  • General features (common elements to all the features)

 

It supersedes the previous version 5 that was published in 2011 as EN ISO 14825.

 

It allows for three underlying topologic graphs:

  • Planar topology: Topological relations are explicitly defined; objects shall not coincide either fully or partially, and those objects shall not intersect or overlap each other.

 

  • Non-planar topology: Topological relations are explicitly defined; objects may fully or partially coincide, intersect, or overlap each other.

 

  • Non-explicit topology: No topological relations between objects are explicitly defined; topological relations are only defined via coordinate values

 

(source: ISO 20524-1:2020, § 5.2.2)

A belt can be defined as a "configuration concept for specifying an area bounded by side lines and terminal lines, characterized by directions and represented as one or more linear axes when skeletonized". It can be applied to a linear element of a carriageway ("RoadBeltElement") or a lane ("LaneBeltElement") as well as to intersections ("IntersectionBelt"). The following (Figure 19.2) depicts a combination of the features applying these concepts.

 

 

 

Key

IntersectionBelt: orange area

RoadBeltElement: beige area

LaneBeltElement: green area

BeltRepresentativeLine (RoadBeltElement): orange line

BeltRepresentativeLine (IntersectionBelt): orange dotted line

BeltRepresentativeLine (LaneBeltElement): blue line

InterSectionConnectionPoint: orange circle

LaneConnectionPoint: blue circle

BeltPartitionLine: black dotted line

BeltOptionalPoint: black circle

Figure 19.2 — Example of belts

(source: ISO 20524-2:2020)

One issue that is currently raised is about the partial compliance with the ISO/TC 211 standards (see below). Preliminary works are on-going to try to tackle this issue.

The following standards are necessary to apply this standard:

ISO 639-2, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code.

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country codes.

EN 12896-1, Public transport – Reference data model – Part 1: Common concepts

EN 12896-2, Public transport – Reference data model – Part 2: Public transport network

 

This standard is not cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation).

 

 

19.1.2.4 ISO/TC 204 standards: other standards on geographic information

 

Among the standards and technical specifications prepared by ISO/TC 204 that deal with geographic information for ITS another standard is to mention: ISO 14296:2016: "Intelligent transport systems — Extension of map database specifications for applications of cooperative ITS". Its scope is to "provide the map-related functional requirements, data model (logical data model/logical data organization), and data elements for those applications of cooperative ITS that require information derived from map databases".

It can be seen as an application of GDF (currently the version of 2011) to support applications belonging to the Basic Set of Applications for Cooperative ITS (see section 8. They cover the following six categories of functions:

  • Map display (for the set of geographic features of a determined geographic area),

  • Positioning (to determine the location of a mobile entity like a vehicle in terms of geographic coordinates or element of the transport network),

  • Route planning (between two locations),

  • Route guidance (which is used to generate instructions for following an itinerary),

  • Service and points-of-interest (POI) access (used as origin or destination for a route and which can be considered as interesting for a driver or a traveller),

  • Address location (based e.g. on a postal address or a crossroads).

 

It also contains provisions for supporting multi-modal travel information applications, like information on the connection data for modal transfers.

 

The information is organised in five different packages according to the following figure:

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ICIP_Figure19.1.jpg
ICIP_Figure19.2.jpg
ICIP_Figure19.3.jpg
 
 
 
 

Figure 19.3: Overall logical data model

(source: ISO 14296)

It is to note external dynamic information (on traffic, travel or weather) like the one received through RDS-TMC or TPEG2 services can relate to road element entities or place entities. 

 

The following standards are necessary to apply this standard:

 

ISO 14825:2011, Intelligent transport systems — Geographic Data Files (GDF) — GDF5.0 [3]

 

This standard is not cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation).

 

[3] Note: this standard was superseded in 2020 by ISO 20524-1.

 

19.1.2.5 ISO/TC 211 standards

19.1.2.5.1           Introduction

 

ISO/TC 211 is responsible to prepare standards and other documents for geographic information and geomatics in general. It does not target specific application domains. The catalogue of documents currently published includes 82 standards, mainly referenced as ISO 191xx. A significant number of them are developed together with CEN/TC 287 under the Vienna Agreement. The following paragraphs shortly describe the most significant standards and specifications that are relevant for ITS.

 

Most of these standards are cited in the regulations adopted in application of  2007/2/CE Directive (“INSPIRE directive”) . (see 19.1.2.8.2).

 

 

19.1.2.5.2          ISO 19103   Geographic information - Conceptual schema language

 

The title of ISO 19103 is "Geographic information - Conceptual schema language" and was published by ISO in 2015.

Its scope is defined as follows: It 'provides rules and guidelines for the use of a conceptual schema language within the context of geographic information. The chosen conceptual schema language is the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

 

This International Standard provides a profile of the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The standardization target type of this standard is UML schemas describing geographic information."

 

 

19.1.2.5.3          EN ISO 19107   Geographic information - Spatial schema

 

The title of EN ISO 19107 is "Geographic information - Spatial schema" and was published by ISO and by CEN in 2019.

 

Its scope is defined as follows: "This document specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic entities, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats "vector" geometry and topology. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects. Because of the nature of geographic information, these geometric coordinate spaces will normally have up to three spatial dimensions, one temporal dimension and any number of other spatially dependent parameters as needed by the applications. In general, the topological dimension of the spatial projections of the geometric objects will be at most three."

 

19.1.2.5.4           EN ISO 19108   Geographic information - Temporal schema

 

The title of is "Geographic information - Temporal schema" and was published respectively by ISO in 2002 and by CEN in 2005.

 

Its scope is defined as follows: It "defines concepts for describing temporal characteristics of geographic information. It depends upon existing information technology standards for the interchange of temporal information. It provides a basis for defining temporal feature attributes, feature operations, and feature associations, and for defining the temporal aspects of metadata about geographic information. Since this International Standard is concerned with the temporal characteristics of geographic information as they are abstracted from the real world, it emphasizes valid time rather than transaction time."

19.1.2.5.5           EN ISO 19109  Geographic information - Rules for application schema

 

EN ISO 19109  "Geographic information - Rules for application schema" was published by ISO and by CEN in 2015.

The Scope of EN ISO 19109 is defined as follows: It "defines rules for creating and documenting application schemas, including principles for the definition of features. The scope of this International Standard includes the following:

  • conceptual modelling of features and their properties from a universe of discourse;

  • definition of application schemas;

  • use of the conceptual schema language for application schemas;

  • transition from the concepts in the conceptual model to the data types in the application schema;

  • integration of standardized schemas from other ISO geographic information standards with the application schema.

 

The following are outside the scope:

  • choice of one particular conceptual schema language for application schemas;

  • definition of any particular application schema;

  • representation of feature types and their properties in a feature catalogue;

  • representation of metadata;

  • rules for mapping one application schema to another;

  • implementation of the application schema in a computer environment;

  • computer system and application software design; - programming."

 
 
 
19.1.2.5.6           EN ISO 19111  Geographic information - Spatial referencing by coordinates

 

EN ISO 19111  "Geographic information - Spatial referencing by coordinates" was published by ISO and by CEN in 2015.

The title of is defined as follows: It " defines the conceptual schema for the description of referencing by coordinates. It describes the minimum data required to define coordinate reference systems.

 

This document supports the definition of:

  • spatial coordinate reference systems where coordinate values do not change with time. The system may:

  • be geodetic and apply on a national or regional basis, or

  • apply locally such as for a building or construction site, or

  • apply locally to an image or image sensor;

  • be referenced to a moving platform such as a car, a ship, an aircraft or a spacecraft. Such a coordinate reference system can be related to a second coordinate reference system which is referenced to the Earth through a transformation that includes a time element;

 

  • spatial coordinate reference systems in which coordinate values of points on or near the surface of the earth change with time due to tectonic plate motion or other crustal deformation. Such dynamic systems include time evolution, however they remain spatial in nature;

 

  • parametric coordinate reference systems which use a non-spatial parameter that varies monotonically with height or depth;

 

  • temporal coordinate reference systems which use dateTime, temporal count or temporal measure quantities that vary monotonically with time;

 

  • mixed spatial, parametric or temporal coordinate reference systems.

 

 

The definition of a coordinate reference system does not change with time, although in some cases some of the defining parameters can include a rate of change of the parameter. The coordinate values within a dynamic and in a temporal coordinate reference system can change with time.

 

This document also describes the conceptual schema for defining the information required to describe operations that change coordinate values. In addition to the minimum data required for the definition of the coordinate reference system or coordinate operation, the conceptual schema allows additional descriptive information - coordinate reference system metadata - to be provided. This document is applicable to producers and users of geographic information. Although it is applicable to digital geographic data, the principles described in this document can be extended to many other forms of spatial data such as maps, charts and text documents."

 

 

19.1.2.5.7           EN ISO 19115   Geographic information – Metadata

 

EN ISO 19115   "Geographic information – Metadata" is composed of three parts:

 

  • Part 1: Fundamentals. It was published by ISO and by CEN in 2014. The scope is defined as follows: It " defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services by means of metadata. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal aspects, the content, the spatial reference, the portrayal, distribution, and other properties of digital geographic data and services.

      ISO 19115 :2014 is applicable to:

 

 

  • the cataloguing of all types of resources, clearinghouse activities, and the full description of datasets and services;

 

  • geographic services, geographic datasets, dataset series, and individual geographic features and feature properties.

 

 

ISO 19115-1:2014 defines:

 

  • mandatory and conditional metadata sections, metadata entities, and metadata elements;

  • the minimum set of metadata required to serve most metadata applications (data discovery, determining data fitness for use, data access, data transfer, and use of digital data and services);

  • optional metadata elements to allow for a more extensive standard description of resources, if required;

  • a method for extending metadata to fit specialized needs.

 

Though ISO 19115-1:2014 is applicable to digital data and services, its principles can be extended to many other types of resources such as maps, charts, and textual documents as well as non-geographic data. Certain conditional metadata elements might not apply to these other forms of data."

 

  • Part 2: ISO 19115-2:2019: Extensions for acquisition and processing. It was published by ISO and by CEN in 2019. The scope is defined as follows: "This document extends ISO 19115-1:2014 by defining the schema required for an enhanced description of the acquisition and processing of geographic information, including imagery. Included are the properties of measuring systems and the numerical methods and computational procedures used to derive geographic information from the data acquired by them. This document also provides the XML encoding for acquisition and processing metadata thereby extending the XML schemas defined in ISO TS 19115-3."

 

[4] Note: This Technical Specification is being superseded by CEN and ISO with prEN ISO 19115-3.

This document describes the procedure used to generate XML schema from ISO geographic information conceptual models related to metadata. The procedure includes creation of an UML model for XML implementation derived from the conceptual UML model.

 

 

This implementation model does not alter the semantics of the target conceptual model, but adds abstract classes that remove dependencies between model packages, tagged values and stereotypes required by the UML to XML transformation software, and refactors the packaging of a few elements into XML namespaces. The XML schema has been generated systematically from the UML model for XML implementation according to the rules defined in ISO/TS 19139 or ISO 19118."

 

 

19.1.2.5.8           EN ISO 19136   Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML)

 

 EN ISO 19136 "Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML)" and is composed of two parts:

  • EN ISO 19136 Part 1: Fundamentals. It was published by ISO and by CEN in 2020. The scope is defined as follows: "The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in accordance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features. This document defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:

 

  • provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML;

 

  • allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities;

 

  • support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities;

 

  • enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets;

 

  • support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets;

 

  • increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.

 

Implementers can decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they can decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport.

 

NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this document provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema.

 

  • EN ISO 19136 Part 2: Extended schemas and encoding rules. It was published respectively by ISO in 2015 and by CEN in 2018. The scope is defined as follows: " The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in compliance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100‑ series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features. ISO 19136-2:2015 defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:

 

  • provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial application schemas for the transport and storage of geographic information in XML;

  • allow profiles that support proper subsets of GML framework descriptive capabilities;

  • support the description of geospatial application schemas for specialized domains and information communities;

  • enable the creation and maintenance of linked geographic application schemas and datasets;

  • support the storage and transport of application schemas and datasets;

  • increase the ability of organizations to share geographic application schemas and the information they describe.

 

Implementers may decide to store geographic application schemas and information in GML, or they may decide to convert from some other storage format on demand and use GML only for schema and data transport. ISO 19136-2:2015 builds on ISO 19136:2007 (GML 3.2), and extends it with additional schema components and requirements.

 

NOTE If an ISO 19109 conformant application schema described in UML is used as the basis for the storage and transportation of geographic information, this part of ISO 19136  provides normative rules for the mapping of such an application schema to a GML application schema in XML Schema and, as such, to an XML encoding for data with a logical structure in accordance with the ISO 19109 conformant application schema."

 

19.1.2.5.9           EN ISO 19157   Geographic information – Data quality

 

EN ISO 19157 "Geographic information – Data quality" and was published by ISO and by CEN in 2013. [5]

The scope of EN ISO 19157 is defined as follows: It "establishes the principles for describing the quality of geographic data. It:

 

  • defines components for describing data quality;

  • specifies components and content structure of a register for data quality measures;

  • describes general procedures for evaluating the quality of geographic data;

  • establishes principles for reporting data quality.

 

This International Standard also defines a set of data quality measures for use in evaluating and reporting data quality. It is applicable to data producers providing quality information to describe and assess how well a data set conforms to its product specification and to data users attempting to determine whether or not specific geographic data are of sufficient quality for their particular application.

 

This International Standard does not attempt to define minimum acceptable levels of quality for geographic data."

 

This standard is completed by ISO TS 19157-2:2016 the title of which is “Geographic information — Data quality — Part 2: XML schema implementation” and its scope consists in defining “an XML schema implementation derived from ISO 19157:2013 and the data quality related concepts from ISO 19115‑2.” 

[5] Note: This standard is being superseded by CEN and ISO with prEN ISO 19157-1.

 

19.1.2.6     CEN/TC 287 standards

19.1.2.6.1           Overall

 

CEN/TC 287 "Geographic Information" is the fellow committee of ISO/TC 211. As such, it has either endorsed 20 standardisation documents already developed by ISO/TC 211 or collaborated under the Vienna Agreement (with ISO lead) for 24 other standardisation documents. Some of these documents were presented in this section (see 19.1.2.5 and 19.1.3.4). The specific CEN/TC 287 production is only composed of CEN TR 15449 presented below.

 

 

19.1.2.6.2           CEN TR 15449

 

CEN TR 15449 is a technical report of 5 parts published between 2012 and 2015 under the general title "Geographic information - Spatial data infrastructures". It targets the application of the 2007/2/CE directive (“INSPIRE directive”) .) to serve the concept of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Therefore, it is of interest for the actors that must apply this directive, among others local authorities.

 

The scope of the different parts is defined as follows:

  • CEN TR 15449-1 "Reference model" (2012): "This part of the Technical Report provides a reference model for a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). It covers framework standards and identifies the relevant standards, technical specifications, technical reports and guidelines.

 

This part of the Technical Report provides a context model for the other parts of this Technical Report applying general architecture standards. The intended readership of this Technical Report are those people who are responsible for creating frameworks for SDIs, experts contributing to INSPIRE, experts in information and communication technologies and e-government that need to familiarise themselves with geographic information and SDI concepts, and standards developers and writers."

 

  • CEN TR 15449-2 "Best practices" (2012): "This part of the Technical Report provides best practices regarding Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs), referencing to the outcomes of the projects in the frame of the European Union funding programmes.

 

It summarises the deliverables of projects, structured according to the reference model defined in Part 1 of this Technical Report, to be made available in an on-line repository where the relevant outcomes are collected and classified in order to provide a structured sets of recommendations for implementing SDIs at the European, national and sub-national levels.

This collection refers mainly to the projects funded by the European Union funding programmes: this choice is driven by the wide vision and analysis which such kind of projects can provide and the wide numbers of stakeholders which have been involved. The outcomes delivered by these relevant practices are collected into a document registry available through the CEN/TC 287 web site.

This part of the Technical Report defines the processes and the content of these projects and documents registries, which will help making them more accessible and re-usable. It provides the relevant project deliverables addressing the main SDI issues as described in the other parts of this Technical Report. The intended readership of this Technical Report are those people who are responsible for creating frameworks for SDI, experts contributing to INSPIRE, experts in information and communication technologies and e-government that need to familiarise themselves with geographic information and SDI concepts, and standards developers and writers.

 

  • CEN TR 15449-3 "Data centric view" (2012): "Part 3 of the Technical Report describes a data-centric view of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). The Data Centric view addresses the concepts of semantic interoperability, the methodology for developing data specifications through the application of the relevant International Standards, and the content of such specifications including Application Schemas, Feature Catalogues, General Feature Model, Data Lifecycle Management and Data Quality, Data Access and Data Transformation.

 

The intended readership of this Technical Report are those people who are responsible for creating frameworks for SDI, experts contributing to INSPIRE, experts in information and communication technologies and e-government that need to familiarise themselves with geographic information and SDI concepts, and standards developers and writers."

 

  • CEN TR 15449-4 "Service centric view" (2013): "This Technical Report describes a service-centric view of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). The Service Centric view addresses the concepts of service specifications, the methodology for developing service specifications through the application of the relevant International Standards, and the content of such service specifications described from the perspective of the five Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) viewpoints:

 

     - the enterprise viewpoint addresses service aspects from an organisational, business and user               perspective; - the computational viewpoint addresses service aspects from a system architect                 perspective;

     - the information viewpoint addresses service aspects from a geospatial information expert                        perspective;

     -  the engineering viewpoint addresses service aspects from a system designer perspective;

     - the technology viewpoint addresses service aspects from a system builder and implementer                   perspective.

 

The intended readership of this Technical Report is those people who are responsible for creating frameworks for SDI, experts contributing to INSPIRE experts in information and communication technologies and e-government that need to familiarise themselves with geographic information and SDI concepts, and standards developers and writers."

 

  • CEN TR 15449-5 "Validation and testing" (2015): "This part of the Technical Report provides guidance for validation and testing of data, metadata and services, as the main Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) components defined in other parts of CEN TR 15449. The guidance is given by means of examples of the validation and testing process required to assure conformance with the requirements existing in the relevant standards and guidelines."

 

 

19.1.2.7    Other specifications

 

Besides the standards and technical specifications developed and published by the different standardisation organisations recognised by the European Union (see Regulation 1025/2012/EU of 25/10/2012 on European standardisation), i.e. CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, ISO, IEC and ITU ("de jure standards") there are others specification by various technical organisations and for a ("de facto standards"). Among them one can mention a specification developed by the NDS eV association the scope of which is similar to GDF.

 

19.1.2.8    Regulations

19.1.2.8.1          Overall

 

The European legislation about data definition, production and publication is various. It also evolves through years.

 

A first group of regulatory documents are of general purpose and cover transversal aspects like IPR, public data re-use or privacy. Their impact is mainly on services and operations on data rather than on data themselves. Without being exhaustive one can mention:

  • Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (GDPR).

 

They will be presented more in detail in various subsections of 19.2 below.

 

  • A second group of documents are focused on specific domains. These build the legislation about data definition itself. One can mention:

 

 

  • Directive 2010/40/EU on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport (ITS Directive) and its supplementing delegated regulations.

 

Albeit partly dealing with data both directives are to consider and will be presented in a more detailed way in the following subsection.

 

 

 

19.1.2.8.2           The INSPIRE directive and its regulations on data

 

The Directive "2007/2/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE)" aims "to lay down general rules aimed at the establishment of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (hereinafter referred to as Inspire), for the purposes of Community environmental policies and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment" (Art. 1). Article 4-1 stipulates that are "cover(ed) spatial data sets which fulfil the following conditions:

  1. they relate to an area where a Member State has and/or exercises jurisdictional rights;

  2. they are in electronic format;

  3. they are held by or on behalf of any of the following :i)a public authority, having been produced or received by:

    1. :a public authority, or being managed or updated by that authority and falling within the scope of its public tasks;

    2. a third party to whom the network has been made available in accordance with Article 12;

  4. they relate to one or more of the themes listed in Annex I, II or III."

 

The Directive " also cover(s) the spatial data services relating to the data contained in the spatial data sets referred to in paragraph 1" and "does not require collection of new spatial data". Its main objective is to ensure interoperability of spatial data sets and services. The aspects about services will be presented more in details in 19.2.3.5 and 19.2.4.5.

The data that are covered by this Directive and listed in three annexes. The interest of creating three annexes was to establish a progressive deployment in the time. In the Annex I besides transversal data like coordinate reference systems, administrative units or addresses, an important theme of it is about "Transport Networks" including "road, rail, air and water transport networks and related infrastructure". It also "includes links between different networks" and the trans-European transport network. The technical specification applying to these annexes is contained in the regulation "(EU) 1089/2010 of 23 November 2010 implementing Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards interoperability of spatial data sets and services" amended by the regulation "(EU) 1253/2013 of 21 October 2013 amending Regulation EU) 1089/2010 implementing Directive 2007/2/EC as regards interoperability of spatial data sets and services". Albeit being a legal text it contains detailed technical data definitions and massively refers to ISO/TC 211 standards. The road network is specified in § 7.7 of Annex II. The referencing system is based on distance markers and curvilinear distances.

Another important aspect implied by this Directive is the obligation to systematically associate metadata with proposed data sets. The legal provisions are contained in the regulation "(EC) 1205/2008 of 3 December 2008 implementing Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards metadata". This regulation relies on EN ISO 19115 on metadata and also mentions ISO 639-2 on language codification.

There are active communities working to implement the Directive and the implementing regulations. One can mention the JRC website that contains Technical guidelines and other non-paper that can be of high interest for developers.

(https://inspire.ec.europa.eu/portfolio/document-library )

19.1.2.8.3           The ITS Directive and its regulations

The Directive "2010/40/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport" aims to "establish() a framework in support of the coordinated and coherent deployment and use of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) within the Union, in particular across the borders between the Member States, and sets out the general conditions necessary for that purpose" (Art. 1-1). This Directive defines a framework "for the development of specifications for actions within the priority areas referred to in Article 2, as well as for the development, where appropriate, of necessary standards" (Art. 1-2). It defines 4 priority areas including " Optimal use of road, traffic and travel data" (Area I) and 6 priority actions that are:

(a)   the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services;

(b)   the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services;

(c)   data and procedures for the provision, where possible, of road safety related minimum universal traffic information free of charge to users;

(d)   the harmonised provision for an interoperable EU-wide eCall;

(e)   the provision of information services for safe and secure parking places for trucks and commercial vehicles;

(f)   the provision of reservation services for safe and secure parking places for trucks and commercial vehicles.

 

NOTE: action "f" is currently delayed.

 

For the priority actions in bold above, the delegated acts adopted by the European Commission specifying them contains provisions on data definition. It is important to consider this Directive does not impose any deployment of service by Member States but imposes compatibility, interoperability and continuity of deployed services (new or existing). Article 8 contains provisions for developing the necessary standards through standardisation requests (former mandates).

The Commission delegated regulation "(EU) 2015/962 of 18 December 2014 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services" "establishes the specifications necessary in order to ensure the accessibility, exchange, re-use and update of road and traffic data by road authorities, road operators and service providers for the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services". It defines three categories of relevant data for this priority action. Only static road data (Art. 4) are mentioned here because of their geographic definition. No standardisation references are given in this article but it states in (6) of the recital the necessary "compatibility with specifications established by Directive 2007/2/EC and its implementing acts".

 

NOTE: CEN TS 17268:2018 has been developed to fulfil this specification and therefore could be referenced in the future if the regulation were revised.

19.1.3       Location referencing

19.1.3.1              Introduction

A Location Reference (LR) is a unique identification of a geographic object. In a digital world, a real-world geographic object can be represented by a feature in a geographic database. An example of a commonly known Location Reference is the postal address of a house (source: CEN TR 17297-1:2019).

Referencing the location of a geographic feature like a road element, a junction, a piece of equipment, a traffic event or a point of interest means to describe the place on the Earth or in its surroundings where this feature is located. It is fundamental to provide this definition together with the temporal dimension. Different technics have been created to allow for this need in relation integrating the constraints of the services using them. Two concepts are to distinguish:

  • The location referencing method (LRM) that can be defined as a " methodology of assigning location references to locations" (source: ISO 17572-1:2015);

  • The location referencing system (LRS) that can be defined as a " complete system by which location references are generated, according to a location referencing method, and communicated, including standards, definitions, software, hardware, and databases".

 

Roughly there are two great families of solutions to solve this issue:

  • The direct referencing methods based on geometric considerations of the Earth surface representation (as a plane for two-dimensional location referencing or as a volume i.e. an ellipsoid for three-dimensional location referencing). As an example, one can mention a popular direct method that is based on geographic coordinates like latitudes and longitudes and potentially ellipsoidal height;

  • The indirect referencing methods that consist is using already defined elements and evaluating distances or shifts between what is to locate and what is used as reference. As an example, one can mention a very common indirect referencing method for road networks based on predefined points use as referents (systems based on kilometre-posts or mileposts e.g.);

 

No ideal solution exists and several of these systems have been standardised by different standardisation organisations. Two examples:

  • The location referencing system (ALERT-C) used for the traffic information systems named RDS-TMC has been defined together with the service itself (EN ISO 14819-3:2021).

  • ISO/TC 211 has published a standard (EN ISO 19148:2021) encompassing different systems based on measurement along the longitudinal dimension of transport network elements.

 

Considering the multitude of methods and systems one of the challenges is the conversion of location references from one location referencing system into another location referencing system.

19.1.3.2      The CEN/TC 278 standards

19.1.3.2.1           Overall

Currently there is no standard developed by CEN/TC 278 specifically about location referencing methods and systems. However, CEN/TC 278 has published in 2019 EN 16157-2 in the DATEX II series dealing with location referencing for DATEX II exchanges and in 2019 a specification in two parts dealing with location referencing harmonisation.

19.1.3.2.2           EN 16157-2

The DATEX II standard published by CEN under the reference EN 16157 is composed of several parts the number of which is rapidly increasing.

The part dealing with location referencing is the following:

EN 16157-2: Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 2: Location referencing (2019): "This document specifies and defines component facets supporting the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for exchanges, the modelling approach, data content, data structure and relationships. This European Standard series is applicable to:

  • traffic and travel information which is of relevance to road networks (non-urban and urban),

  • public transport information that is of direct relevance to the use of a road network (e.g. road link via train or ferry service),

  • traffic and travel information in the case of Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS).

 

This European Standard series establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors:

  • Traffic Information Centres (TICs),

  • Traffic Control Centres (TCCs),

  • Service Providers (SPs).

 

Use of this European Standard series may be applicable for use by other actors. This European Standard series covers, at least, the following types of informational content:

  • road traffic event information - planned and unplanned occurrences both on the road network and in the surrounding environment,

  • operator-initiated actions,

  • road traffic measurement data, status data, and travel time data,

  • travel information relevant to road users, including weather and environmental information,

  • road traffic management information and instructions relating to use of the road network.

 

This part of EN 16157 specifies the informational structures, relationships, roles, attributes and associated data types, for the implementation of the location referencing systems used in association with the different publications defined in the Datex II framework. It also defines a DATEX II publication for exchanging predefined locations. This is part of the DATEX II platform independent data model."

The document contains provisions for accommodating different types of location references:

  • Point

  • Linear

  • Area

 

In the model, different location referencing systems are proposed for one or several types. It is to note DATEX II has not defined any proper location referencing system but has chosen to only adopt already specified location systems. This choice has been made since the very beginning in the nineties when DATEX adopted the then new born ALERT-C location referencing system. Since, new LRSs have regularly been added. Today in version 3, one can find inside:

  • ALERT-C (area, linear, point),

  • GML (area, linear),

  • Linear referencing (linear, point),

  • OpenLR™ (area, linear, points),

  • Point by coordinates (point),

  • TpegLoc (area, linear, points),

  • Named area (area).

 

Most of these LRS are defined in this section throughout.

 

For coordinates, DATEX II has chosen as "Coordinate reference system" (CRS) ETRS89[1] with geodetic latitude, geodetic longitude and height (ellipsoidal or gravity-related).

 

NOTE     This is the European implementation of ITRS, but unlike ITRS and WGS84 it is fixed on the Eurasian plate (to remove the effects of continental drift). ETRS89 is the EU-recommended reference frame for geodata in Europe.

Moreover, supplementary descriptions can be added to linear or point location references: length, position on the carriageway, position descriptor (at rest area, in tunnel…), etc.

 

The following standards are necessary to apply this part of the standard:

EN 16157-7, Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 7: Common data elements

EN 16803-1, Space – Use of GNSS-based positioning for road Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) – Part 1: Definitions and system engineering procedures for the establishment and assessment of performances

 

EN ISO 14819-3:2013, [6] Intelligent transport systems – Traffic and travel information messages via traffic message coding – Part 3: Location referencing for Radio Data System – Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) using ALERT-C (ISO 14819-3:2013)

 

[6] Note: Superseded by EN ISO 14819-3:2021.

EN ISO 14825:2011, [7] Intelligent transport systems – Geographic Data Files (GDF) – GDF5.0 (ISO 14825:2011)

 

[7] Note: This standard was superseded in 2020 by ISO 20524-1.

CEN ISO TS 18234-6, Traffic and Travel Information (TTI) – TTI via Transport Protocol Expert Group (TPEG) data-streams – Part 6: Location referencing applications (ISO/TS 18234-6)

 

EN ISO 19136-1:2020, Geographic information – Geography Markup Language (GML) (ISO 19136:2007)

 

EN ISO 19148:2012, Geographic information Linear referencing (ISO 19148:2012)

 

CEN ISO TS 24530-2, Traffic and Travel Information (TTI) – TTI via Transport Protocol Experts Group (TPEG) Extensible Markup Language (XML) – Part 2: tpeg-locML (ISO/TS 24530-2)
 

ISO TS 21219-22, Intelligent transport systems – Traffic and travel information (TTI) via transport protocol experts group, generation 2 (TPEG2) – Part 22: OpenLR location referencing (TPEG2-OLR)

 

This document is not directly cited in any European regulatory text (Directive or regulation) but globally through the mention of DATEX II in several European regulations implementing the Directive 2010/40/EU ("ITS Directive"), i.e. (EU) 885/2013, (EU) 886/2013, (EU) 2015/962 and (EU) 2017/1926.

NOTE: Indeed, the commission regulations cite CEN TS 16157 as DATEX II specification that is now superseded by EN 16157.

More information can be found on this standard and more generally on DATEX II on the following website: https://www.datex2.eu/.

 

 

 
19.1.3.2.2           CEN 17297 series

This series is composed of the following two parts:

CEN TR 17297-1: Intelligent transport systems - Location referencing harmonization for Urban ITS - Part 1: State of the art and guidelines (2019)

CEN TS 17297-2: Intelligent transport systems - Location Referencing Harmonisation for Urban-ITS - Part 2: Transformation methods (2019)

The first part (which is a technical report) aims at "presenting:

  • a concise tutorial on location referencing methods;

  • applicable location referencing specifications, standards and Directives;

  • an introduction into challenges given by a multiplicity of different location referencing systems."

 

The second part (which is a technical specification strictly speaking) has as scope to "specif(y) requirements, recommendations, and permissions related to translations between location referencing methods applicable in the urban transport environment." Despite the limitation introduced in its scope to observe the initial development context it is fully applicable to any transport environment. In particular, it introduces the concept of "preferred location referencing method" (that can be defined as "a common LRS that both LRSs can refer to") and of "preferred method for transformation" (that can be defined as "a LRM that all LRMs can relate to") that practically is " location referencing by coordinates".

The following figure 19.4 illustrates the notions of LRM, LRS and of transformation between two LRS:

 

Figure 19.4: Basic concepts of location referencing and transformation

(source; CEN/TS 17297-2:2019)

The following standards are necessary to apply this standard:

EN ISO 14819 3:2013, Intelligent transport systems — Traffic and travel information messages via traffic message coding — Part 3: Location referencing for Radio Data System — Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) using ALERT-C [8]

[8] Note: Now superseded by EN ISO 14819:2021.

 

ISO 19157:2013, Geographic information — Data quality

 

One can also mention this deliverable prepared by the European Commission/JRC:

INSPIRE Technical Guidelines, INSPIRE Data Specification on Coordinate Reference Systems — Technical Guidelines (2014)

 

These documents are not cited in any European regulatory text (Directive or regulation).

19.1.3.3              The ISO/TC 204 standards

19.1.3.3.1          ISO 17572 series

Currently there is one standard developed by ISO/TC 204 about location referencing methods and systems: ISO 17572 under the general title "Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Location referencing for geographic databases". It is composed of 4 parts and the common scope definition is as follows: "This International Standard specifies location referencing methods (LRMs) that describe locations in the context of geographic databases and will be used to locate transport-related phenomena in an encoder system as well as in the decoder side. This International Standard defines what is meant by such objects and describes the reference in detail, including whether or not components of the reference are mandatory or optional, and their characteristics.

This International Standard specifies two different LRMs:

  • pre-coded location references (pre-coded profile);

  • dynamic location references (dynamic profile).

 

This International Standard does not define a physical format for implementing the LRM. However, the requirements for physical formats are defined.

 

This International Standard does not define details of the Location Referencing System (LRS), i.e. how the LRMs are to be implemented in software, hardware, or processes.

It is consistent with other International Standards developed by ISO/TC 204 such as ISO 14825.

 

For each part the specific additional scope definition is as follows:

  • ISO 17572 Part 1:"General requirements and conceptual model" (2015) [9]: it "specifies the following general LRM-related sections:

  • requirements of a location referencing method;

  • conceptual data model for location referencing methods;

  • inventory location referencing methods (see Annex A);

  • examples of conceptual model use (see Annex B);

  • description of selected UML elements (see Annex C);

  • comparison of definitions with ISO/TC 211 (see Annex D);

  • introduction to the TPEG physical format (see Annex E and Annex F)."

[1] Note : to be superseded in 2022 by ISO 17572-1 (2022)

  • ISO 17572 Part 2: "Pre-coded location references (pre-coded profile)" (2018): it "specifies the pre-coded LRM, comprising:

  • specification of pre-coded location references (pre-coded profile);

  • logical format for VICS link location (Annex A);

  • TPEG physical format for ALERT-C (TMC) location references (Annex B, C & D);

  • TPEG physical format for ETLs (Annex E, F & G);

  • TPEG physical format for Korean node-link ID references (Annex H, I & J).

  • logical format for Road Section Identification Data set (Annex K)."

  • ISO 17572 Part 3 "Dynam:ic location references (dynamic profile)" (2015): it "specifies the dynamic location referencing method, comprising:

  • attributes and encoding rules

  • logical data modelling

  • TPEG physical format specification for dynamic location references,

  • coding guidelines for dynamic location references;

  • compressed data format specification.

NOTE: The attention of potential developers and users is draw on the fact "that it is claimed that compliance with this part of ISO 17572 can involve the use of a patent concerning procedures, methods and/or formats given in this part". Therefore, as the patent holders have decided the use of these is not for free, it does not seem used intensively, since a free alternative does exist (see below).

  • ISO 17572 Part 4: "Precise relative location references (precise relative profile)" (2020): it "describes and lists the characteristics of the Precise Relative Location Referencing Method (PRLRM) which describes precise relative locations in the context of geographic databases and is used to locate transport-related objects in an encoder system as well as in the decoder side.

 

This document does not define a physical format for implementing the PRLRM. However, the requirements for physical formats are defined. This document does not define details of the Precise Relative Location Referencing System (PRLRS), i.e. how the PRLRM is to be implemented in software, hardware or processes.

This document specifies PRLRM, comprising:

  • conceptual data model for Location Referencing Methods (LFMs);

  • specification of location referencing for precise relative information;

  • use cases for Precise Relative Location References (informative Annex C);

  • use cases for elements of Precise Relative Location References (informative Annex D);

  • implementation of Precise Relative Location References (Japanese example) (informative Annex E).

 

This document defines methods that enable exchange location information of the object to be referenced in the lane or the lane junction.

 

This document does not specify the road (link) on which the object of reference exists."

 

The following standards are necessary to apply this part of the standard:

 

EN ISO 19148:2012 Geographic information - Linear referencing (ISO 19148) [10]

[10] Note: Now superseded by EN ISO 19148:2021.

This document is not cited in any European regulatory text (Directive or regulation).

 
 
 
 
19.1.3.3.2           EN ISO 14819-3

In ISO/TC 204 its WG 10 deals with standards specifying different broadcast systems for publishing traffic information like RDS-TMC or TPEG. It was induced to specify tailor-made location reference systems for them. The following standard belongs to the ALERT-C series published under the reference EN ISO 14819.

EN ISO 14819-3 "Intelligent transport systems — Traffic and travel information messages via traffic message coding — Part 3: Location referencing for Radio Data System — Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) using ALERT-C" (2013): its scope states it  "specifies location referencing rules to address the specific requirements of Traffic Message Channel (TMC) systems, which use abbreviated coding formats to provide traffic and travel information (TTI) messages over mobile bearers (e.g. GMS, DAB) or via exchange protocols like DATEX II. In particular, the rules address the Radio Data System-Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC), a means of providing digitally-coded TTI to travellers using a silent data channel on FM radio stations, based on the ALERT-C protocol.”

 

It is the reason why it has been adopted by others standards like e.g. DATEX II as it was the first standardised LRS in the nineties at an international level and is still prominently used across countries in Europe and elsewhere.

It is based on prominent road network landmarks that can be easily recognised by drivers. Locations are identified and referenced by their location code. A given RDS-TMC service uses a pre-defined location table, containing the pre-stored details of the locations that can be referenced in messages from that service.

A location code in such a message refers and serves as a tabular ‘address’ of the pre-stored location details in the location table used by the service. A real-world location may have more than one location code within the same location table. However, within a given location table, each location code refers to one and only one location.

The following figure pictures some of the main concepts of this standard:

 

Figure 19.5: ALERT-C location reference defined by a pre-defined primary location + extent

(source: EN ISO 14819-3)

The following standards are necessary to apply this part of the standard:

ISO 639-1, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code

ISO 14819-1, Intelligent transport systems — Traffic and travel information messages via traffic message coding — Part 1: Coding protocol for Radio Data System-Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) using ALERT-C

ISO 15924, Information and documentation — Codes for the representation of names of scripts


 

 

This document is not directly cited in any European regulatory text (Directive or regulation) but it is one of the LRS adopted by DATEX II which is cited in several European regulations implementing the Directive 2010/40/EU ("ITS Directive").

ICIP_Figure19.4.jpg
ICIP_Figure19.5.jpg

 

19.1.3.3.3           ISO 21219 series

 

The TPEG2 series comprises standards and technical specifications published under the general title "Intelligent transport systems — Traffic and travel information via transport protocol exports group, generation 2 (TPEG2)" and is composed of 20 published parts (some others are under development). Among the published parts only three deal with location referencing systems used by TPEG2.

  • ISO TS 21219 Part 7 " Location referencing container (TPEG2-LRC)" (2017): "This document establishes the method of signalling the specific location referencing used by all TPEG2 applications that require detailed location information to be delivered to client devices such as TPEG2-TEC. The TPEG2-location referencing container (TPEG2-LRC) is described and shows how it is used to signal which specific location referencing method is in use for a particular TPEG message. It is able to handle location referencing methods that are external to the present ISO series and the internal location referencing methods defined as parts of this series."

 

This document does not define an LRS by itself but allows any TPEG2 service to use any compatible LRS through this mechanism. Besides the LRS defined in Parts 21 and 22 it also allows using different LRS defined in ISO 17572-2:2015.

 

The following standards are necessary to apply this part of the standard:

  • ISO 17572-2:2015, Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Location referencing for geographic databases — Part 2: Pre-coded location references (pre-coded profile) [11]

[11] Note: Superseded today by ISO 17572-2:2018.

  • ISO 17572-3, Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Location referencing for geographic databases — Part 3: Dynamic location references (dynamic profile)

 

This document is not cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation).

  • ISO 21219 Part 21 "Geographic location referencing (TPEG-GLR)" (2018): "This document defines a method of using geographic location referencing (GLR) that can be used by relevant TPEG applications. The GLR type is defined in this document. It is used for defining geographic location references (points, polylines, and geographical areas). The GLR method is intended to be one of the methods that can be transported inside a TPEG-location referencing container (TPEG-LRC) for those TPEG applications providing information for primarily geographical locations (e.g. weather).

 

The GLR specification is kept basic and compact on purpose, such that it can also be employed advantageously in non-navigation devices for simple TPEG services such as weather information, safety alerts, etc. As such, the GLR location referencing method is intended to be complementary to map-related location referencing methods, where the focus rather is on the referencing of man-made artefacts such as roads and highways.

The scope of GLR is limited to geographic locations on the Earth’s surface for the above-mentioned rationale."

 

This document is not cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation).

  • ISO 21219 Part-22 "OpenLR location referencing (TPEG2-OLR)" (2017): "This document specifies the logical data format of OpenLR™ location references and general requirements of the method in Clause 6 and defines the structure of the TPEG toolkit for OpenLR location referencing (OLR) in Clauses 7, 8 and 9. The toolkit is intended to be used in the TPEG location referencing container (TPEG-LRC).

 

OpenLR™ has been designed for the use case of transferring traffic information from a centre to in-vehicle systems, built-in or used as an add-on (PND, smart phone). The information transferred can consist of the current traffic situation at a certain location, a traffic forecast or special alerts. The corresponding locations are roads, a list of connected roads, points of interest, or areas.

In order to transmit location information from a sending to a receiving side, the OpenLR™ method defines rules for generating map-independent location references, that is, the actual location references are generated dynamically not requiring use of pre-defined location references."

NOTE: OpenLR is a trademark registered by the TomTom company. It is covered by patents registered by this company but unlike AGORA-C (basis of ISO 17572-3) the specifications are freely accessible and can be used for free.

This document is not directly cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation) but it is one of the LRS adopted by DATEX II which is cited in several European regulations implementing the Directive 2010/40/EU ("ITS Directive").

19.1.3.4              The ISO/TC 211 standards

 

Currently there is one standard developed by ISO/TC 211 about location referencing methods and systems: EN ISO 19148, Geographic information - Linear referencing (ISO 19148). Its scope is defined as " specify(ing) a conceptual schema for locations relative to a one-dimensional object as measurement along (and optionally offset from) that object. It defines a description of the data and operations required to use and support linear referencing.

This International Standard is applicable to transportation, utilities, location-based services and other applications which define locations relative to linear objects."

The approach followed by this standard is based on the "Generalised Model for Linear Referencing" based on several studies including one carried out by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) in USA. It is applicable to any network where elements can be generalised as linear element (not only road network). Especially it covers different types of linear referencing methods based on:

  • Absolute method where the distance expression is determined from the start point (possibly different from an absolute zero) of the linear element along it. The following figure illustrates this case:

 

Figure 19.6: Absolute Linear Referencing Method with non-zero linear element start

(source: EN ISO 19148)

  • Relative method where the distance expression is determined from a known location on the linear element (named "referent"). E.g. this referent can be a kilometre-post or a milepost. The following figure illustrates this case:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.7: Linearly referenced along location A with a relative Linear Referencing Method

(source: EN ISO 19148)

  • Interpolative where the distance expression is determined as the ratio between the distance along the linear element and the length of this element. The following figure illustrates this case:

 

Figure 19.8: Linearly referenced along location A with an interpolative Linear Referencing Method

(source: EN ISO 19148)

This standard also contains for expressing the transversal expression of the location (named "offset" in the standard) compared to the linear element used for the distance expression.

The following standards are necessary to apply this part of the standard:

ISO 19103, Geographic information — Conceptual schema language

EN ISO 19107, Geographic information — Spatial schema

EN ISO 19108, Geographic information — Temporal schema

EN ISO 19111, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates

 

 

This document is not directly cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation) but it is one of the LRS adopted by DATEX II which is cited in several European regulations implementing the directive 2010/40/EU ("ITS directive"). It also fulfils the specification of the consolidated Regulation (EU) 1089/2010.

19.1.3.5              The other specifications

 

Among the other specifications that contains some provisions for defining location references the following ETSI standards can be mentioned:

  • ETSI EN 302 637-2 "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 2: Specification of Cooperative Awareness Basic Service" (v1.4.1 – 2019-04),

  • ETSI EN 302 637-3 "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 3: Specifications of Decentralized Environmental Notification Basic Service" (v1.3.1 – 2019-04).

Both use the data frame "ReferencePosition" as "Position and position accuracy measured at the reference point of the originating ITS-S" (ITS station). "It represents a geographic point position." It is composed of a position featured by 3D geographic coordinates and of position confidence information expressing the accuracy of positioning. First designed for positioning mobile ITS stations (vehicles) its use has been extended to also cover static ITS stations.

19.1.3.6              The lane definition of roads

 

It is to mention there is no universal way to identify and name the different lanes and other transversal elements of a road. Each (set of) standard(s) has defined its own rules which are generally discording. It is advised to observe what is specified in the adopted standard but it may make the transformations and conversions between two different LRS more difficult.

19.1.4  Road traffic data

19.1.4.1              Introduction

 

The expression "road traffic data" can be understood of different ways. The definition provided in the delegated regulation (EU) 2015/962 is the following: "data on road traffic characteristics". The point 3 of the annex of this regulation lists several types without being limitative:

  • traffic volume;

  • speed;

  • location and length of traffic queues;

  • travel times;

  • waiting time at border crossings to non-EU Member States.

 

Different means exist to produce these data: either acquired through roadside devices ("traffic counting station") or directly computed in traffic control centres. In the first case, these data ae called "measured"; in the second case, they are called "elaborated".

 

Another distinction currently applied is between individual measures and aggregated measures. The first case deal with measures determined for one vehicle; in the second case the values are determined rom a set of measures acquired during a given time.

 

It is to note that there is no European or international standard specifying the data produced by traffic counting station. On the other hand, some countries like France have published national standards that can be relevant for defining data (e.g. AFNOR NF P99-300).

19.1.4.2              The DATEX II standards

 

The DATEX II standards published by CEN under the reference EN 16157 is composed of several parts the number of which is rapidly increasing.

The part dealing with traffic data is the following:

 

EN 16157-5 "Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 5: Measured and elaborated data publications" (2020): "This document is the fifth part of the DATEX II European Standard which deals with the publication sub-models within the DATEX II model that support the exchange of measured and elaborated information. These publications are intended to support the exchange of informational content from the organization having the measured data and creating elaborated data to other organisations providing ITS services or onward information exchange. It also includes the exchange of static information about measurement sites. This is specified in three sub-models, a DATEX II Measurement Site Table Publication sub-model, a DATEX II Measured Data Publication sub-model and a DATEX II Elaborated Data Publication sub-model."

As stated in its title it covers measured data and elaborated data. The main difference is about the attachment of these data to a counting station in the first case and to road section or an itinerary in the second case. The measurement types are not very distinctive.

 

For measured data there are two data flows (named "publication"):

  • One for measurement sites that group the static characteristics of these stations including those of the measurement types acquired by these stations. Dealing with static data are only exchanged in case some characteristics have been added or modified ("MeasurementSiteTablePublication");

  • The other for the measured data themselves. This publication links the measured data to the measurement types defined in the first publication through an index system This allows very compact data sets which may be published intensively ("MeasuredDataPublication").

 

The following figure 19.9 details the dependencies existing between objects of both publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.9: Organisation and relations of publications for measured data

(source: Guide Cerema on DATEX II – Part 2)

The following types of aggregated data are available for traffic data in DATEX II:

  • Traffic concentration (density and occupancy);

  • Traffic flow (vehicle flow, axle flow, PCU flow, percentage of long vehicles, averaged daily traffic);

  • Traffic gap and traffic headway (time and distance);

  • Traffic speed (average, normally expected, minimum, maximum, speed percentile).

 

For elaborated data there is only one data flow or publication, "ElaboratedDataPublication", where every traffic data different of the default value is attached to the corresponding location reference (often a road section). This location reference can also be a complete itinerary.

 

The following figure 19.10 shows the dependencies between objects of this publication:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.10: Organisation of the publication for elaborated data

(source: Guide Cerema on DATEX II – Part 2)

The following types of data can be easily used with this publication:

  • Traffic status (stationary, queuing, slow, heavy, normal…);

  • Travel time (current, free flow, delay, normally expected).

 

NOTE: even if this latter publication is suitable for publishing travel time data, it is also acceptable to publish travel times by using measured data publication.

The following standards are necessary to apply this part of the standard:

EN 16157-2, Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 2: Location referencing

EN 16157-7:2018, Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 7: Common data elements

This document is not directly cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation) but globally through the mention of DATEX II in several European regulations implementing the Directive 2010/40/EU ("ITS Directive").

NOTE: Indeed, the European Commission Regulations cite CEN/TS 16157 as DATEX II specification that is now mostly superseded by EN 16157.

19.1.4.3              Regulatory aspects

 

The Commission delegated regulation "(EU) 2015/962 of 18 December 2014 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services" "establishes the specifications necessary in order to ensure the accessibility, exchange, re-use and update of road and traffic data by road authorities, road operators and service providers for the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services".

Among the three mentioned categories of relevant data for this priority action, the third one as dealing with "road traffic data" is directly linked with the data presented in this subsection.

19.1.5  Road weather data

19.1.5.1              Introduction

 

Road weather data are very similar to weather data as they are defined by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) but they are some differences justified by the specificities of road traffic.

Two broad categories of weather information are to consider:

  • Qualitative data issued from observation (e.g. "fog", "snow on the road"…);

  • Physical quantities issued from measurement devices (e.g. "air temperature", "visibility distance"…).

 

Strictly speaking, only the latter category can be qualified of "road weather data" and are considered here.

19.1.5.2              The DATEX II standard

 

If weather information issued from observation are considered in DATEX II as situation elements and thus specified in EN 16157-3 about situation publication, road weather data are published in DATEX II using the same Part 5 already presented for road traffic data. This means the same publications can be used. More specifically:

  • The measurement site table publication is used to provide data on weather stations and the different possible weather measurements;

  • The measured data publication is used to provide the physical quantities actually measured by the weather station.

 

Besides, the different weather-related physical quantities are defined in another part:

EN 16157-7:2018, "Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 7: Common data elements " (2018):

 

"This document specifies and defines component facets required to support the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for data content, data structure and relationships, communications specification. This document is applicable to:

  • traffic and travel information which is of relevance to road networks (non-urban and urban),

  • public transport information that is of direct relevance to the use of a road network (e.g. road link via train or ferry service),

  • traffic and travel information in the case of Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS).

 

This document establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors:

  • Traffic Information Centres (TICs),

  • Traffic Control Centres (TCCs),

  • Service Providers (SPs).

 

Use of this document can be applicable for use by other actors. This document covers, at least, the following types of informational content:

  • road traffic event information

  • planned and unplanned occurrences both on the road network and in the surrounding environment,

  • information about operator-initiated actions - including both advisory and mandatory measures,

  • road traffic measurement data, status data, and travel time data,

  • travel information relevant to road users, including weather and environmental information,

  • road traffic management information and information and advice relating to use of the road network.

 

This part of EN 16157 specifies common informational structures, relationships, roles, attributes and associated data types required for publishing information within the DATEX II framework. This is specified as a DATEX II sub-model which is part of the DATEX II platform independent model, but this part only covers common elements that are used by more than one publication. It excludes those elements that relate to location information which are specified in EN 16157-2."

The different road weather data considered in this part are the following:

  • Humidity;

  • Pollution (pollutant concentration);

  • Precipitation (intensity, deposition depth);

  • Pressure;

  • Road surface condition (temperature of/above/below road surface, protection temperature, de-icing application rate, friction, depth of snow, thickness of water film or ice-layer, ice percentage in the water);

  • Temperature (air temperature, dew point, maximum, minimum);

  • Visibility (minimum distance);

  • Wind (speed, maximum speed and direction).

 

The following standards are necessary to apply this part of the standard:

EN ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country codes (ISO 3166-1)

ISO 639-1, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code

ISO 8601:2004, Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times [12]

[12] Note: Superseded today by ISO 8601-1:2019 and ISO 8601-02:2019.

 

ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS)

 

This document is not directly cited in any European regulatory text (directive or regulation) but globally through the mention of DATEX II in several European regulations implementing the Directive 2010/40/EU ("ITS directive").

19.1.5.3              Regulatory aspects

 

The delegated regulation (EU) 2015/962 implementing the Directive 2010/40/EU only contains provisions about on dynamic road status data regarding weather and weather-related road condition. Nothing is included about road weather data.

 

 

 

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19.2     Description of services

19.2.1 Overall description

As already mentioned in 19.0, five services have been selected from the ARC-IT architecture as they are dealing with data (geographic, traffic or weather) by itself and not as fuel for services having a finality of e.g. information (like traffic information services) or management (like freight management services).

For each service are proposed:

  • Its description;

  • The actors (as physical entities but also as roles). Even if the singular is used for each they can represent several instances of one actor in the service;

  • The system context including these actors (including roles) and the exchanged data flows;

  • A list of the relevant standards: some are already defined in subsection 19.1 and are only cited. For the others an abstract is also given besides their titles;

  • A list of the relevant legal texts: some are already defined in subsection 19.1 and are only cited. For the others an abstract is also given besides their titles.

 

The interest of ARC-IT is to present a very comprehensive portfolio of ITS services. The reader should note this architecture is of USA origin and is maintained on behalf of the US Department of Transportation. Therefore, some actors, definitions, concepts are US-centric. As much as possible, it has been tried to adapt these actors, definitions or concepts to a European context.

Regarding standardisation, only standards that are considered as specific to ITS or geographic information have been included. The more general standards of the ICT domain, including those numerous prepared by ISO/IEC JTC1, are of interest but very few have been kept.

 

 

 

 

19.2.2  The ITS data warehouse service package

19.2.2.1              Description

 

This service package provides access to transport data to support transport planning, condition and performance monitoring, safety analysis, and research. Configurations range from focused repositories that house data collected and owned by a single entity (road operator, private sector provider, or research institution) to broad repositories that contain multimodal, multidimensional data from varied data sources covering a broader region. Both central repositories and physical distributed ITS data repositories are supported. Requests for data that are satisfied by access to a single repository in the ITS Data Warehouse service package may be parsed by the local repository and dynamically translated to requests to other repositories that relay the data necessary to satisfy the request. The repositories could include a data registry capability that allows registration of data identifiers or data definitions for interoperable use throughout a region.

 

 

19.2.2.2              Actors

 

The different actors involved in this service package can be split up into several groups:

  • A first group that groups the road network and traffic actors:

  • The road operator centre (called "maintenance and construction management centre" in ARC-IT): monitors and manages construction and maintenance activities for road infrastructure. It represents both public entities and private contractors that provide these functions.

  • The traffic information centre (TIC): collects, processes, stores, and disseminates transportation information to system operators and the travellers. Therefore, it has two functions: 1) to collect and process data; 2) to disseminate traffic information and also in this case traffic regulations.

  • The asset management system: represents the systems that support decision-making for maintenance, upgrade, and operation of physical transport assets (road surface, bridge…). It is an external actor.

  • The weather service system: provides weather, hydrologic, and climate information and warnings of hazardous weather including thunderstorms, flooding, storms, winter weather, and climate events (observations and forecasts). It is an external actor.

  • The surface transport weather service: represents the providers of value-added sector-specific meteorological services. It is an external actor.

  • The C-ITS roadside equipment (i.e. "roadside ITS station");

  • The other roadside equipment (including those for parking management);

  • The archived data administrator: it is an external actor.

 

 

 

  • A second group with the actors dealing with public transports, parking and freight when the data warehouse also integrates public transport and parking data in a global multimodal perspective:

  • The public transport management centre (called "transit management centre" in ARC-IT);

  • The parking management centre;

  • The alternative mode transport centre: provides the interface through which other transport systems (e.g., airlines, ferry services, rail) can exchange data (It is an external actor).

  • The freight intermodal terminal: represents the terminal areas corresponding to modal change points for freight. The basic unit of cargo handled by the intermodal terminal actor is the container.

  • The road toll and parking service provider (called "payment administration centre" in ARC-IT): generally, it is in relation with road toll chargers and parking operators;

 

 

 

  • A third group that includes actors that can possibly exchange data with this data warehouse:

 

  • The road authorities (considered as an extension of "commercial vehicle administration centre" of ARC-IT): performs administrative functions supporting credentials, tax, and safety regulations including traffic regulations or authorisations for specific transports (dangerous goods, abnormal indivisible loads)

  • The customs administration: also includes immigration services and border protection (called here "Border inspection administration centre");

  • The emergency management centre: in charge of different security and public safety-oriented applications;

  • The emission management centre: provides the capabilities for air quality managers to monitor and manage air quality. These capabilities include collecting emissions data from distributed emissions sensors (included in ITS Roadway Equipment) and directly from connected vehicles.

 

 

 

19.2.2.3              System context

 

The systems involved in this service package can be represented by the following architecture view:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.11: The ITS data warehouse physical diagram

(source: ARC-IT)

 

This diagram illustrates the different data flows between the ITS data warehouse actor (with functions like "Situation data archive" and "Archive data repository") and the other entities. To summarise, the functions of this data warehouse are double: archiving data from different sources and cataloguing/qualifying/aggregating data from different sources to allow for a wide set of users and uses. It may include registration of data source through repositories.

 

 

 

19.2.2.4              Relevant standards

 

The standards applicable for this service package are limited. Besides the standards already mentioned above and that deal with data definition and dictionaries, one can mention a specific ISO standard (in three parts) and more specially two of them:

 

 

  • ISO 14817-1: Intelligent transport systems — ITS central data dictionaries — Part 1: Requirements for ITS data definition

Its scope is to "specif(y) the logical structure (framework) and the data content (substance) of intelligent transport systems (ITS) data dictionaries (DDs). Specifically, this part of ISO 14817 specifies the following:

  • framework used to identify and define all data concepts;

  • meta-attributes used to describe, standardize and manage each of the data concepts defined within this framework;

  • requirements used to record these definitions;

  • naming conventions for the data concepts;

  • a set of preferred data concepts within the ITS domain;

  • data modelling method for defining ITS data concepts, when used.

 

DDs support data concepts derived from any number of international, regional or national system architecture methodologies and/or techniques. Common data formats and operating procedures will ease migration and interoperability between such approaches.

A data concept registry is an electronic data dictionary that supports some additional features. The Central ITS Data Concept Registry” (CIDCR) concept refers to the specific implementation of an ITS data concept registry that is operated under the auspices of ISO/TC 204. The term "data concept registries" may refer to the CIDCR and/or any other national or regional data concept registry that chooses to conform to this part of ISO 14817."

 

 

  • ISO 14817-3: Intelligent transport systems — ITS data dictionaries — Part 3: Object identifier assignments for ITS data concepts:

 

Its scope is to " specif(y) how to assign an object identifier to a data concept under the "its" arc of the international object identifier tree."

 

 

19.2.2.5              Regulatory aspects

 

The legal framework of such ITS data warehouses is defined by several legal texts. One can mention:

 

Another important text to consider is the European Commission regulation on metadata ((EC) 1205/2008).

 

Its scope is to "set out the requirements for the creation and maintenance of metadata for spatial data sets, spatial data set series and spatial data services corresponding to the themes listed in Annexes I, II and III to Directive 2007/2/EC." According to the Directive, "'metadata’ means information describing spatial data sets and spatial data services and making it possible to discover, inventory and use them". Especially they should define:

 

  • the title, type, abstract and locator of the data set or data service, the resource language;

  • the topic category and for a data service its classification;

  • a set of keywords;

  • the geographic location (bounding box) and the temporal reference;

  • quality and validity;

  • conformity;

  • constraints related to access and use;

  • the organisation responsible of data;

 

There are also metadata on metadata (point of contact for metadata, metadata date and language).

 

The delegated regulations supplementing  Directive 2010/40/EU are also of interest for designing this data warehouse. There is a special mention to the Commission delegated regulation (EU) 2017/1926 "with regard to the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services".

 

Its scope is to

1) "establish the necessary specifications in order to ensure that EU-wide multimodal travel information services are accurate and available across borders to ITS users.

2)This Regulation applies to the entire transport network of the Union.

3)This Regulation shall apply in accordance with Article 5 of Directive 2010/40/EU".

 

This regulation has retained several standards and specifications to apply according to the transport mode:

  • For road transport, the stipulations are identical as for real-time traffic data (delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/962), i.e. DATEX II for dynamic information;

  • For public transports: NeTEx (CEN TS 16614 (all parts)) has been adopted for static data and SIRI (EN 15531 (all parts)) for dynamic data. Both are based on Transmodel – EN 12896 (all parts);

  • For rail data the TAP-TSI technical documents are to use (see Regulation (EU) 454/2011);

  • For air transport the technical documents elaborated by IATA are to apply;

  • For the spatial network it is based on Directive 2007/2/EC (Inspire).

 

A third text of the European legislation is also to consider when creating such an ITS data warehouse, namely Directive 96/9/EC of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases.

 

Its scope is to define "the legal protection of databases in any form. For the purposes of this Directive, 'database' shall mean a collection of independent works, data or other materials arranged in a systematic or methodical way and individually accessible by electronic or other means. Protection under this Directive shall not apply to computer programs used in the making or operation of databases accessible by electronic means".

 

This Directive recognises that "databases which, by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents, constitute the author's own intellectual creation shall be protected as such by copyright. No other criteria shall be applied to determine their eligibility for that protection."

 

On another hand, "the copyright protection of databases provided for by this Directive shall not extend to their contents and shall be without prejudice to any rights subsisting in those contents themselves".

On another hand this Directive creates in its chapter III sui generis right for database content that is distinct from copyright. It is conditional upon the fact "that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database" (Art. 7). Of courses, some limitations and restrictions have been introduced (Art. 9 and 11). The term of protection is limited to 15 years (Art. 10).

 

 

 

19.2.3  The Data distribution service package

19.2.3.1              Description

 

This service package manages the distribution of data from data providers to data consumers and protects those data from unauthorized access. It informs data providers of how to provide data, manages data subscriptions, and provides data-forwarding capabilities. The service package also maintains a directory of system users that want data and supports multiple distribution mechanisms including publish-subscribe and directly from data provider to data consumer. It allows data consumers to specify (and change the specification of) data they wish to receive.

 

19.2.3.2              Actors

 

The different actors involved in this service package are:

  • The data distribution system: it collects, processes, and distributes ITS data, connecting data producers with data consumers and facilitating data exchange.

  • The road operator centre: it has two functions: 1) managing the data subscriptions from clients (end-users); 2) collecting and storing information created in the centre.

  • The C-ITS roadside equipment (i.e. "roadside ITS station");

  • The vehicle on-board equipment (OBE i.e. "vehicle ITS station");

  • The personal device which allows receiving formatted travel information wherever travellers are.

  • The data distributor system operator: it is an external actor.

 

 

19.2.3.3              System context

 

The systems involved in this service package can be represented by the following architecture view:

 

Figure 19.12: The "Data distribution" physical diagram

(source: ARC-IT)



Figure 19.12 illustrates the different data flows around the data distribution system (with both functions "data access management" and "data collection and aggregation"). There is no cross-referring data from different sources/producers.

 

19.2.3.4              Relevant standards

 

There are no specific standards about this service package although the standards on data definition aforementioned (see 19.1) are still applicable.

 

Nevertheless, the DATEX II technical specification on communication is to consider as it is focusing on centre-to-centre exchanges. It was developed for the DATEX II environment and can be implemented on different platforms like XML.

 

Currently only the Platform-independent model specification is published. In the future other specifications should become available for platforms like XML, JSON, …

 

 

CEN ISO TS 19468:2022, Intelligent transport systems — Data interfaces between centres for transport information and control systems — Platform independent model specifications for data exchange protocols for transport information and control systems (CEN ISO/TS 19468:2019)

 

This second edition has replaced the 2019 version. Its scope is to " define and specify component facets supporting the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for exchanges, the data content, structure and relationships necessary and the communications specification, in such a way that they are independent from any defined technical platform.

 

CEN ISO TS 19468:2022, establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors:

  • Traffic Information Centres (TIC);

  • Traffic Control Centres/Traffic Management Centres (TCC/TMC);

  • Service Providers (SP).

 

CEN ISO TS 19468:2022, can be applied for use by other actors, e.g. car park operators. This document includes the following types of information:

  • the use cases and associated requirements, and features relative to different exchange situations;

  • the different functional exchange profiles;

  • the abstract elements for protocols;

  • the data model for exchange (informational structures, relationships, roles, attributes and associated data types required).

 

In order to set up a new technical exchange framework, it is necessary to associate one functional exchange profile with a technical platform providing an interoperability domain where plug-and-play interoperability at technical level can be expected. The definition of such interoperability domains is not part of this document but can be found in other standards or technical specifications, e.g. ISO 14827‑3.

It is restricted to data exchange. Definition of payload content models is beyond the scope of this document.

Besides evolutions in the content itself in comparison with the previous version the main change was to introduce the description of the exchange pattern and the functional exchange profile for collaborative ITS services.

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19.2.3.5              Regulatory aspects

Most of the Commission delegated regulations supplementing the "ITS Directive" (2010/40/EU) require member States to set up National Access Points (NAP) for sharing data.

 

An "access point" means a digital interface where at least the static travel and historic traffic data together with the corresponding metadata are made accessible for reuse to users, or where the sources and metadata of these data are made accessible for reuse to users. (source: Delegated regulation (EU) 2017/1926)

 

For example, in this regulation, its Article 3 stipulates "Each Member State shall set up a national access point. The national access point shall constitute a single point of access for users to at least the static travel and traffic data and historic traffic data of different transport modes, including data updates, as set out in the Annex, provided by the transport authorities, transport operators, infrastructure managers or transport on demand service providers within the territory of a given Member State." And also "National access points shall provide discovery services to users, for example services allowing for the search of the requested data using the contents of the corresponding metadata and displaying such contents".

 

The same article also stipulates the provision of metadata to discover and use the datasets made available through NAP and the possibility for a Member State to use its NAP already set up in accordance to other delegated acts supplementing the ITS Directive. Last, Articles 4 et 5 prescribe to make APIs ("application programming interface") publicly accessible by users and end-users.

 

The other delegated acts as (EU) 885/2013, (EU) 886/2013 and (EU) 2015/962 also include provision about NAPs.

 

A second source of legislation is the Directive Inspire (2007/2/EC) supplemented by several regulations including the Commission Regulation (EC) 976/2009 "as regards the Network Services". Several network services shall be set up by Member States to allow users and end-users to use spatial data sets:

 

  • Discovery services making it possible to search for spatial data sets and services on the basis of the content of the corresponding metadata and to display the content of the metadata;

  • View services making it possible, as a minimum, to display, navigate, zoom in/out, pan, or overlay viewable spatial data sets and to display legend information and any relevant content of metadata;

  • Download services, enabling copies of spatial data sets, or parts of such sets, to be downloaded and, where practicable, accessed directly;

  • Transformation services, enabling spatial data sets to be transformed with a view to achieving interoperability;

  • Services allowing spatial data services to be invoked. (Source: Directive 2007/2/EC – Article 11).

 


Figure 19.13 depicts the different Inspire network services (DT NS) with the corresponding data sets (DT DS) and metadata (DT MD).

 

 

 

Figure 19.13: INSPIRE Technical Architecture Overview

(source: CEN/TS 17268)

 

 

The Commission regulation (EC) 976/2009 defines requirements in terms of performance, capacity and availability (quality of service). It also defines a list of "search criteria" and "operations" for "Discovery services" as well as a list of "operations" with some characteristics for "View services".

 

Besides these legal documents JRC has produced a lot of non-binding Technical Guidelines describing detailed implementation aspects and relations with existing standards, technologies, and practices for implementing these services. These documents are available on the Inspire web site of the European Commission.

 

Last but not least, one needs to mention the European legislation about the re-use of public sector information. It is now defined by the Directive (EU) 2019/1024 on open data and the re-use of public sector information. It has superseded the Directive 2003/98/EC on the re-use of public sector information.

 

Its purpose is to "establish a set of minimum rules governing the re-use and the practical arrangements for facilitating the re-use of:

 

(a) existing documents held by public sector bodies of the Member States;

(b) existing documents held by public undertakings that are:

(i) active in the areas defined in Directive 2014/25/EU;

(ii) acting as public service operators pursuant to Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 1370/2007;

(iii) acting as air carriers fulfilling public service obligations pursuant to Article 16 of Regulation (EC) No 1008/2008; or

(iv) acting as Community shipowners fulfilling public service obligations pursuant to Article 4 of Regulation (EEC) No 3577/92;

(c) research data pursuant to the conditions set out in Article 10. (Art. 1)

 

The objective is "to promote the use of open data and stimulate innovation in product and services". Article 1 also stipulates that "the obligations imposed in accordance with this Directive shall apply only insofar as they are compatible with the provisions of international agreements on the protection of intellectual property rights, in particular the Berne Convention, the TRIPS Agreement and the WCT.

 

The right for the maker of a database provided for in Article 7(1) of Directive 96/9/EC shall not be exercised by public sector bodies in order to prevent the re-use of documents or to restrict re-use beyond the limits set by this Directive.

 

This Directive governs the re-use of existing documents held by public sector bodies and public undertakings of the Member States, including documents to which Directive 2007/2/EC applies." (Art. 1).

 

Its general principle is for Member States to "ensure that documents to which this Directive applies in accordance with Article 1 shall be re-usable for commercial or non-commercial purposes" (Art. 3). Chapter III defines the conditions for re-use (in terms of available formats, free-of-charge re-use, transparency, and the use of standards licences) whereas Chapter IV defines the conditions of non-discrimination and fair trading.

 

 

 

 

 

19.2.4     The Map management service package

19.2.4.1              Description

 

This service package defines interfaces that can be used to download or update all types of map data used to support intelligent transport systems. These map data are accessed by data centres, roadside equipment, and vehicles or other road users. The service package can also be used to collect data from vehicles (through Cooperative ITS or other technologies), data that can be used to verify, refine and enhance geographic map data.

 

 

19.2.4.2              Actors

 

The different actors involved in this service package are:

  • The map update centre: it provides the map functionality necessary to support map updates and use within an operational centre. It manages map data for the centre and provides map data to centre applications that use a map. It also supports the provision of the map data that are used directly by vehicles and other mobile actors.

  • The road operator centre (called "maintenance and construction management centre" in ARC-IT): monitors and manages construction and maintenance activities for road infrastructure. It represents both public entities and private contractors that provide these functions.

  • The road authorities (considered as an extension of "commercial vehicle administration centre" of ARC-IT): performs administrative functions supporting credentials, tax, and safety regulations including traffic regulations or authorisations for specific transports (dangerous goods, abnormal indivisible loads).

  • The C-ITS roadside equipment (i.e. "roadside ITS station");

  • The other roadside equipment (including those for parking management);

  • The vehicle on-board equipment (OBE i.e. "vehicle ITS station");

  • The mapmaker (called "map GIS operator" in ARC-IT): it is an external actor.

 

 

 

19.2.4.3              System context

 

The systems involved in this service package can be represented by the following architecture view   Figure 19.14:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.14: The Map management physical diagram

(source: ARC-IT)

 

This diagram illustrates the different data flows between the map management function (implemented in the actor "Map Update System") and the other entities. To summarise, on one hand the data flow to the Map management centre are about change inputs in road network and ancillary elements in order to allow map update; on another hand data flows from the Map management centre are about updated map data sets.

 

19.2.4.4              Relevant standards

 

Besides the standards already presented that deal with data definition (see 19.1.2), there is only one standard that deals with map updates. It is ISO 24099:2011 “Navigation data delivery structures and protocols”. Its purpose is to define "the data structures and protocols used for the delivery and update of map-related data from a service centre (supplier of map data) to different users. It also specifies the message generation protocols on the sender’s side and the message receiving protocols in the in-vehicle systems. The protocols targeted here are understood as temporal sequences of map-related data interactions between system components that implement map-related data delivery and update. There is no provision for communication aspects.

 

Another standard which can be of interest for the data flow between the "map update system" and the vehicle OBE is CEN ISO/TS 19091. It covers distribution of both "static" data about intersection (the "MAP" C-ITS message) and "dynamic" data about traffic signals stages and timing (the "SPaT" C-ITS message).

 

About the data flows between road operator and map update system, there is also in the DATEX II series EN 16157-3 that deals with the publication of traffic situation data.

 

For the data flows between vehicles and roadside units one can also mention both ETSI standards about CAM and DENM messages: ETSI EN 302 637-2 and ETSI EN 302 637-3. Both of these standards have been drafted to use the ITS-G5 technology for C-ITS. This technology implies to use a bundle of standards  (see Section 8 for further detail).

 

19.2.4.5              Regulatory aspects

 

In EU as it was already mentioned several times, the pillar for legal aspects in ITS is the Directive 2010/40/EU, also named “ITS Directive” and its delegated acts supplementing it and adopted as indicated above. Especially the Commission regulation (EU) 2015/962 adopted in the frame of the priority action "b" deals with "the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services” i.e. static data on the road network like geometry, dynamic data like road closures and traffic data like traffic flow.

 

An Annex in (EU) 2015/962 defines the categories and which data are targeted. The articles 4 to 6 stipulate the conditions of accessibility, exchange and re-use of these data whereas the articles 7 to 10 target data updates.

 

Lastly, as there are data flow from vehicles to roadside units the privacy issue is at stake: that means all the data collections need to comply with GDPR regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679). It has for objective to "lay down rules relating to the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and rules relating to the free movement of personal data. This Regulation protects fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons and in particular their right to the protection of personal data. The free movement of personal data within the Union shall be neither restricted nor prohibited for reasons connected with the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data (Art.1). This Regulation applies to the processing of personal data wholly or partly by automated means and to the processing other than by automated means of personal data which form part of a filing system or are intended to form part of a filing system. (Art. 2).

ICIP_Figure19.13.jpg
ICIP_Figure19.14.jpg
 
 

19.2.5      The Traffic code dissemination service package

19.2.5.1              Description

 

This service package disseminates current local, regional or national regulations or orders, that have been adopted by local, regional or national authorities that govern the safe, orderly operation of motor vehicles, cycles and pedestrians on public roads and space. The focus of this service package is electronic distribution to automated vehicles and their drivers so that automated vehicles can safely operate in compliance with the traffic or motor vehicle code for the current region and locality, although this information would also be useful to human drivers.

 

19.2.5.2              Actors

 

The different actors involved in this service package are:

  • The traffic management centre/traffic control centre (TMC or TCC): it monitors and controls traffic and the road network. It represents centres that manage a broad range of transport devices including motorway systems, rural and suburban road systems, and urban and suburban traffic control systems.

  • The map update centre: it provides the map functionality necessary to support map updates and use within an operational centre. It manages map data for the centre and provides map data to centre applications that use a map. It also supports the provision of the map data that are used directly by vehicles and other mobile actors.

  • The traffic information centre (TIC): collects, processes, stores, and disseminates transportation information to system operators and travellers. Therefore, it has two functions: 1) to collect and process data; 2) to disseminate traffic information and in this case traffic regulations.

  • The enacting authorities (named "traffic regulatory authority centre"): authoritative source of traffic regulations and orders that must be observed by all road users including automated vehicles.

  • The vehicle on-board equipment (OBE i.e. "vehicle ITS station");

  • The personal device which allows receiving formatted travel information wherever travellers are.

 

19.2.5.3              System context

 

The systems involved in this service package can be represented by the following architecture view:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.15: The Traffic code dissemination physical diagram

(source: ARC-IT)

 

Figure 19.15 illustrates the different data flows between the traffic regulation dissemination function (implemented in the physical entity "Traffic Information Centre") and the other entities. One can remark there are two groups of data flows towards vehicles and personal devices: one through the map update system; the other in direct.

 

19.2.5.4              Relevant standards

 

The data flow between enacting authorities and mapmakers is submitted to the application of CEN TS 17268 (see 19.1.2.2.2) with the restriction this specification deals with road attribute that are defined by applying the traffic regulations/orders and not directly traffic regulations/orders. This has nevertheless one advantage because it alleviates the work to interpret these regulations by mapmakers. ISO 24099 may be applied for map updates since it is only a specific case regarding what is developed in 19.2.4.4. For the other flows no specific standard exists.

Another relevant specification is CEN TS 16157-11" Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 11: Publication of machine interpretable traffic regulations”: Approved beginning of 2022 a revised 2022 version is under publication. Its objective is to “specif(y) a publication sub-model within the DATEX II model that supports the publication of electronic traffic regulations. This publication is intended to support the exchange of informational content from road traffic authorities issuing traffic regulation orders and organisations implementing these orders to other organisations providing ITS services or onward information exchange.” Therefore, it is complementary to CEN TS 17268 as having different targets.

 

19.2.5.5              Regulatory aspects

 

For this service there is a deep change of paradigm: the other services covered by the different delegated regulations implementing the ITS Directive only deal with informative services and the driver remains the final decision-maker. In this case, when also targeting automated vehicles of level 3 or above the driver may be out of the loop. The service is no longer informative but shall provide the legislation as it is in a form so that a vehicle is able to integrate it. The legal implications are therefore obvious. Being yet in an embryonic state, it is the reason why no legal document has been adopted yet.

NOTE    Even if for the level 3 the dynamic driving task fallback is expected to be undertaken by a human driver it does not imply for the human person to continuously supervise road signing on the road.

 

 

19.2.6  The Weather data collection service package

19.2.6.1              Description

 

This service package collects current road and weather conditions using data collected from environmental sensors deployed on and about the road. It also collects data from vehicles in the road network that can be used to directly measure or infer current environmental conditions. It leverages vehicle on-board systems that measure temperature, sense current weather conditions (rain and sun sensors) and also can monitor aspects of the vehicle operational status (e.g., use of headlights, wipers, and traction control system) to gather information about local environmental conditions. In addition, environmental sensor systems located on road operator maintenance vehicles are also potential data sources. The collected environmental data is used by the "Weather Information Processing and Distribution" service package to process the information and make decisions on operations. The collected environmental data may be aggregated, combined with data attributes and sent to meteorological systems for data qualification and further data consolidation. The service package may also request and receive qualified data sets from meteorological systems.

 

19.2.6.2              Actors

 

The different involved actors in this service package are:

  • The traffic management centre/traffic control centre (TMC or TCC): it monitors and controls traffic and the road network. It represents centres that manage a broad range of transport devices including motorway systems, rural and suburban road systems, and urban and suburban traffic control systems.

  • The road operator centre (called "maintenance and construction management centre" in ARC-IT): monitors and manages construction and maintenance activities for road infrastructure. It represents both public entities and private contractors that provide these functions.

  • The weather service system: provides weather, hydrologic, and climate information and warnings of hazardous weather including thunderstorms, flooding, storms, winter weather, and climate events (observations and forecasts). It is an external actor.

  • The surface transport weather service: represents the providers of value-added sector-specific meteorological services. It is an external actor.

  • The C-ITS roadside equipment (i.e. "roadside ITS station");

  • The other roadside equipment (for "carriageway environmental monitoring");

  • The vehicle on-board equipment (OBE) (i.e. "vehicle ITS station"): also includes "road operator maintenance vehicles".

  • The road operator personnel (called "maintenance and construction centre personnel" in ARC-IT): it is an external actor.

 

 

 

 

19.2.6.3              System context

 

The systems involved in this service package can be represented by the following architecture view (Figure 19.16):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19.16: The Road weather data collection physical diagram

(source: ARC-IT)

 

This diagram illustrates the different data flows between the roadside entities (either C-ITS roadside units or roadside stations) (implementing the functions "environmental monitoring", either coming from connected vehicles or from more traditional automatic weather-monitoring station) and the other entities. There are some external data flows with between external weather services and the centres operated by a road operator.

 

 

 

19.2.6.4              Relevant standards

 

Besides the standards already presented that deal with data definition (see 19.1.5.2), there are no ITS standards that cover this topic.

 

Nevertheless regarding winter weather data, one should mention a couple of standards dealing winter maintenance that are prepared by CEN/TC 337 "Road operation equipment and products", i.e. the EN 15518 series "Winter maintenance equipment – Road weather information systems" especially with its Part 1 "Global definitions and components" and its