15.       Mobility Integration

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15.1    History of CEN TC278 Mobility Integration


In 2015 the European Commission launched Mandate  M546:


  M/546 COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION C(2016)808 of 12.2.2016 on a standardisation request to the European standardisation organisations as regards Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in urban areas in support of Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport



  European standardisation organisations are requested to draft new European standards and European standardisation deliverables in support of the implementation of Article 8 of Directive Directive 2010/40/EU for multimodal information, traffic management and urban logistics in the urban ITS domain.


To assist this work the Commission funded CEN PT1701 ” Project Report: Pre-study Urban ITS - Standards and actions necessary to enable urban infrastructure coordination to support Urban-ITS (May 2016)  under contract reference. SA/CEN/ENTR/EFTA/000/2015-05 [which finally becomes CEN TR 17143 (2017).

This report in it’s Executive Summary stated that “The task of PT1701 was to identify gaps and overlaps in ITS standards that may be needed by Urban Administrations to assist them to implement Urban-ITS. The PT was further charged to outreach into the Urban Administration community and EC Urban-ITS related projects community to identify the scope and issues relating to its work, and subsequently, to validate its interim findings. The project team itself comprised 11 persons comprising: Urban Administrations; practitioners and advisers to Urban Administrations; professional standards developers; ITS industry; automotive industry.

Some 116 urban authority/related outreach direct contacts have been made, and more than 140 projects/reports studied for relevance and content. A list of outreach contacts can be found in Annex P.[of the report].

The interim findings were made available in January 2016. An open workshop was held on 11/12 February 2016, and as a result of discussion, based on early feedback from Urban administrations, the recommendations have been significantly consolidated, and the summary report and executive summary significantly (as expected) rewritten to focus on the issues as identified by the Urban Administrations, and to remove technical terms/jargon from the high level recommendations. In the INTERIM version, Use Cases were explored/examined and 103 interim recommendations made from these analyses. This revision retains those recommendations, and associates the recommendations to the priorities identified by Urban Administrations and other actors.”

…and made a detailed list of 103 recommendations: specific standards deliverables required and actions that are essential or desirable, and work required by other Committees and ESO’s."

The following 8 priority areas of its Executive Summary (Table 1) addressed the key priority issues. Table 1 summarises the areas for high level recommendations that PT1701 considers should be supported by the Commission Implementation Decision M/546 .

Section 2 of this report now aggregated the individual (and rather technical) recommendations (that evolved from Use Case evaluation) that aggregate into the project groupings shown in Table 1.

Table 2 identified priority areas that are already being prioritised under the EC ICT ‘Rolling Plan’ or should be for the attention of other Committees or ESOs.

Table 3 identified priority areas where action is required, to enable/support Urban-ITS but the action required does not result in a standards deliverable. In order to achieve its objectives for Urban-ITS, the European Commission is therefore challenged to find means to support these priority actions.

For detail of each of the aspects of this report and the process leading to, and logic behind, each of the recommendations, there is a detailed Annex, A. A high level compilation of the constituent recommendations behind these priority areas is also summarised in Section 2 of this report.

Table 1 — Summary areas for high level recommendations for Standardisation Projects under the CID.

15 table 1.PNG

PT1701, in addition to standards deliverables that it recommends to be supported under the CID, also identified several other areas where the area are already initiatives within CEN/TC 278, or other European or global standards organisations, is also required in order to support Urban administrations to implement/support Urban-ITS. Table 2 summarises these strategic subject areas.

Table 2 — Priorities for existing work under other lead, other Committees and ESO’s

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Table 3 summarised areas where support measures other than standards developments are required.

Table 3 — Priorities recommendations for other required support measures

(that do not lead to a formal standards deliverable)

15 table 3.PNG

Panoptic (Multi-category) standards and support issues

Although the pre-study was directed to consider three aspects of Urban-ITS, PT1701 has been careful to consider these in the context of the interoperable Urban-ITS paradigm and careful not to create three new ‘silos’ by dealing with these issues independently.

There are a number of policy and strategy issues that need consideration by the EU and CEN. PT1701 makes some recommendations to streamline the process in order to get deliverables to the marketplace earlier. Recommendations are also made to re-strategize standards development to fit the interoperable Urban-ITS paradigm, and propose measures (such as the use of C-ITS communication architecture procedures and protocols) in order to provide migration paths from the current legacy silo situation to the new interoperable Urban-ITS paradigm.

Urban-ITS application services or infrastructure provision is rarely a 1:1 relationship with its supporting standards. A number of standards are normally required to implement such application services or support infrastructure. Alone, Urban Administrations cannot be expected to have the expertise to know what is required, and they should not have to rely on external advisors. Therefore, a guide, “EUropean ITS Communications, Information and Protocols”, (EU_ICIP) will be necessary, and is required urgently. (Use Case ULG-0001).

The role envisaged for EU-ICIP would be to act as a focal point to guide, inform and advise about the existing large set of standards, and how and in which combinations to use them. Such a guide and support framework would assist the introduction and instantiation of Urban-ITS in a consistent manner across Europe, without binding the Nation States to implement a large raft of measures and standards, but by guidance as to the best options available, and would be beneficial in the wider context of the ISO community worldwide.


Many of the recommendations in this report are concerned with the development of standardised data models, data formats, and exchange of standardised data. However, the meta-data relating to this data, and indeed common definition of terms used, need to exist in a freely available central meta-data registry. Without such a meta-data registry, even if data formats are standardised, their presence will be largely unknown, and new projects will re-invent similar (but different) data definitions, thus creating silos and impeding interoperability. This is already a large, and growing problem, that does not have an easily soluble business case. If the European Commission wishes to enable Urban Administrations to implement Urban-ITS, it needs to establish and maintain such a central meta-data registry. (To be clear this is a registry of meta-data [restricted to data definitions] not a repository of live data).

Even with such a meta-data registry, data has been defined in ITS standards and common practices over a period of more than 25 years. The specifications for this data are in most cases inconsistent. Urban-ITS requires the exchange, sharing and re-use of data, which is of course required in standardised format. A harmonisation programme needs to be undertaken to identify these inconsistencies, bring the relevant parties together to find a common future standard data format, and to identify a translation/migration path for presently implemented solutions.

New standards are required in the area of security, especially for wireless transactions. A number of proposals are made to support trust between entities whilst protecting privacy.

A number of recommendations concern data and access to data. The pre-study makes recommendations for joint initiatives to provide new data concepts and transactions in the Urban-ITS paradigm.

 ‘Multimodal Information Services’

The base of current standards for many multimodal information services, come from the ‘Public Transport’ sector (called ‘transit’ in many countries), and one of the core standardisation initiatives relevant to Urban-ITS in this area are the “Transmodel/ IFOPT” series of Standards, including the associated NeTEx and SIRI Standards. This work is undertaken by CEN/TC 278/WG 3. This is already recognised in the European Commission “Rolling Plan for ICT Standardisation 2016” (DG GROW).

Initiatives to extend and improve Transmodel are already overdue, and the Transmodel standards may need revising to better fit into the new “Multimodal Information Services” paradigm, and this pre-study encourages CEN/TC 278/WG 3 to proceed with this work with as much urgency as possible, and recommends that EC funding is found to support project teams where this is deemed to be necessary. This work is considered essential by public transport experts to enable Urban-ITS to function efficiently,

Further attention and standards are needed in the area of location referencing.

A significant number of the other new MIS proposals in this area concern enabling “new modes” and “trip planning” service provision. Most are not provided for in Transmodel. Similarly, this pre-study encourages CEN/TC 278/WG 3 to proceed with this work with as much urgency as possible, and recommends that EC funding is found to support project teams where this is deemed to be necessary.

‘Traffic Management’

Traffic management is reasonably mature and locally well served with solutions for traffic management. Unfortunately, many of these lock Urban Administrations into particular vendors, and many of the proposals in this report face the issues of opening the ‘European Single Market’, removing vendor lock-in while at the same time enabling good relations to be maintained with system providers. Further work is required to enable the interoperable exchange of data. Two new data modelling standards, data standards, and interface standards, and a number of support measures, such as a ‘Concept of Operations’ (CONOPs) to assist Urban Administrations to move to the new multimodal business paradigm of Urban-ITS, and avoid vendor lock-in, are proposed.

A Project Team is proposed to develop standard(s) supporting multi-vendor integration interface providing vendor independent remote configuration of integrated and interconnected TM subsystems; linkage of roadside devices (such as signal controllers) to a central system; status and fault messaging for the monitoring of field-level sub-systems and their (semi-automated) fault clearance; and integration of widely used traffic adapted control and data processing methods in a traffic signal controller environment.

A Project Team is proposed to develop a domain overarching data exchange standard, supporting the exchange of traffic & network condition data (traffic volume, occupancy rates, average speed, travel times, traffic conditions (LoS) and planned and unplanned events/incidents (Roadworks, road/bridge/tunnel closures, bad weather and road surface conditions…) and traffic management data (circulation and traffic management plans), (subject areas which are currently not covered by DATEX II).

Along with other domains, a Project Team is proposed to harmonise location-referencing standards, (see above).

 ‘Urban Logistics’

Urban logistics is the least mature and least organised/more diverse of the three subject areas that form the core of this pre-study.

New measures proposed as priorities by Urban Administrations include standards for emissions monitoring, geofencing, low emission zones data and applications; standardised emissions data; Geofencing data and applications. A project team is required urgently to develop technical specifications to fulfil these requirements. (Three use cases are elaborated in the report: UL-0301;UL-0302; UL-0303).

Energy efficient intersections services, and delivery vehicle real-time mapping/route optimisation, are considered desirable and a project team will probably be required meet these needs. Adaptations of existing standards and new standards have to be engaged for future ‘Valet Parking’ applications. New Mode examples of priorities suggested by Urban Administrations are smart ‘Park & Ride’ bicycles services (detection, communications); parking, reservation of parking; green waves; etc.

Many other concepts for urban logistics use-cases have been proposed, but at this stage are not well enough developed to make firm proposals.

Communications and security

It turns out that the C-ITS architecture, security and protocols are not only essential in order for Urban-ITS to operate and co-exist in the upcoming world of Cooperative-ITS, but provide an efficient migration path from current silos to the interoperable Urban-ITS paradigm, and provide solutions to security issues that have largely yet to be addressed in the Urban-ITS paradigm. The existing SDO’s that are working on these issues are encouraged to complete their work on C-ITS security as a matter of urgency.

The reader is also directed to the work of the DG MOVE C-ITS Platform. WG5, Security.


Coherence with ‘FRAME’ ITS architecture

The remit to PT1701 requires the PT to consider coherence to the ‘FRAME’ ITS architecture. An analysis of the Use Cases developed by PT1701 shows a good degree of coherence the FRAME architecture. Where coherence is lacking it is usually because either what is identified in the particular Use Case is not explicit in the FRAME architecture, or the Use Case represents an evolution of ITS that has taken place since the architecture was last updated.

Two of the recommendations in Annex K of the report are for updates to be made to the FRAME Architecture. Implementation of these would enable the coherence issues to be resolved and would also provide the opportunity for further promotion of the benefits to European ITS stakeholders that arise from using the FRAME architecture. However, this work is not identified as a priority, and in many cases not seen even as relevant, by Urban Administrations responding giving outreach feedback to this project.

15.2      Creation of CEN TC278 WG17 as “Urban ITS”


CEN responded to the Commission’s initiative by creating a working group “Urban ITS” to handle this category of work, and applied for and were rewarded with project team funding in order to progress these Commission priorities, and these projects formed the backbone of  WG17s work and deliverables in the period 2017 – 2019.

One relevant and frequent comment received when progressing most of this work was “we understand the relevance of this work to the urban situation, but why limit the standards to the urban situation when it is relevant in interurban and highway as well”. And of course the standards, (even the standard for UVAR [urban vehicle access restrictions]) can be used in any area-centric  ‘vehicle restriction’ paradigm, not just towns and cities. And once the requirements of the M546 Mandate were fulfilled, WG17 started to search for a more appropriate name.

However, since its creation, CEN TC278 WG17 has had a remit different to other CEN TC278 working groups. Standards working groups and the consensus process are slow and often slow to react, and badly organised into historical ‘silo’s’ of expertise and specialisation, whereas the Commission had shown in M546 that it was problem-area problem-solving focussed in a way that crossed traditional and historic boundaries.

WG17 was created to respond appropriately to the need and to kick off initial work to meet the need, and search across the experience base from within and beyond the Technical Committee to address it. Having responded to the initial requirement with a broad base of expertise its draft deliverables are often handed at a draft stage to a different working group to finalise, maintain, and develop further.

So working group 17 has developed with the help of experts from other working groups as well as pulling in new blood. And, as the sector evolves to become more ‘connected’, and crossing traditional silo’s of expertise, the role of WG17 (now working jointly with its sister group ISO TC204 WG19) has evolved into integration and interoperability in a joined up borderless paradigm, providing a platform where experts from different experiences can work together, handing off it’s work to other WG’s where that becomes appropriate, and retaining work items that cross traditional boundaries to create interoperability and integration in the area of ITS.

One significant disruptive aspect that is changing, and may change more fundamentally the travellers approach to travel, and politically seen as of significant benefit to the long term livability and environment of cities, is the concept of ‘mobility as a service’.[more of which later].

CEN TC 278 WG17 is structured slightly differently to most TC278 WG’s that have a Convenor and, if they are lucky, a secretary. WG17 has an active secretariat and also has a Coordinator to share the project submission process and cross working with other WGs, and to make more resource available to liaise with the European Commission.

In 2019, WG17 changed its title to “Mobility Integration” to better reflect the nature of the work it was undertaking, and to consolidate with its new sister working group, ISO TC204 WG19.


15.3 Creation of ISO TC204 WG19 as “Mobility Integration”


ISO TC204, CEN TC278’s sister committee in the International Standards Organisation has worked closely with CEN TC278 since TC204’s inception in late 1993. Indeed, CEN TC278 member countries were founder members and influencers in TC204, preferring cooperative effort to competition. Many CEN and ISO ITS WGs work together on work items, in some cases acting as a joint WG.

ISO TC204 watched the evolution of CEN TC278 WG17 with interest. Although there was not the initiative of stimulus from the European Commission, as the concept of connectivity was evolving in ITS globally it had similar cross working group issues to solve. The ‘mobility as a service’ concept was a growing globally developing concept, and, particularly, the issues facing vulnerable road users were also not confined to specific silo’s of expertise. Parking involved road management, traffic management, off road parking facilities where there was no historic silo of expertise, and the sidewalks were about to become populated with robots and drones for delivery, services such as washing, cleaning, snow clearing, and these devices had to cross and sometimes use road space, deal with vulnerable road users, etc, etc.

And so, in 2019, ISO TC204 formed its WG19 “Mobility Integration” with a similar remit to CEN TC278 WG17, but in a global capacity. The two committees agreed to work together closely, sharing many work items. The Convenor, Coordinator and Secretary are also common.

WG19 Mobility Integration purpose and scope

TC204 has defined WG19’s role as:

  • Act as Integration facilitator for Mobility standards development, including
    Urban and Smart City aspects.

  • Be the harmonization and consensus forming group for Mobility in liaison with other ITS standards groups:

  • Liaise with other WGs of ISO TC204

  • Liaise with other ISO TCs

  • Liaise with other SDOs (IEEE, SAE, ETSI, ITU,...)

  • Act as coordinator of external groups (e.g. Govt supported) to progress and integrate relevant work items quickly

  • Develop relevant Mobility documents that do not fall under other TC/WG scope and responsibilities

  • Joint work with CEN TC278 WG17 Mobility Integration

ISO Cross-cutting Work Items or Issues

  • The recognized ISO TC204 cross-cutting areas are

    • All TC204 WGs

  • There is no intention from WG19 to develop standards under other WGs areas of competence

    • It is respectfully requested that representatives of these WGs are appointed to WG19 to facilitate coordination


ISO Liaison and outreach activities

  • The scope of WG19 involves extensive liaisons and outreach to multiple actors

    • Other TC204 WGs and other ISO TCs

    • Other SDOs such as CEN TC/WG, ETSI, IEEE, SAE

    • Governement groups (e.g. EC Deployment Platform, Expert Groups)

    • Special Interest Groups (e.g. DATEX, TN-ITS, TM 2.0)

    • Urban ITS stakeholders and stakeholder groups

    • Smart cities social media groups


15.4 Mobility as a Service


The publication “Automated vehicles and MaaS - Removing the Barriers” (Williams. Published by Wiley & Sons, 2021 ISBN 9781119765349), by kind permission of the Author, allow us to provide their quick initial summary of MaaS:


The MaaS Paradigm

We first have to be clear about what MaaS – ‘Mobility as a Service’ – actually means. If you lock four MaaS experts in a room together you are sure to get at least half a dozen different definitions. The difference is largely caused by difference in the objectives for MaaS as perceived by the different actors involved. And this means that the envisaged objectives, expectations and limits, are often quite different.


Purist Definition for MaaS

The best ‘purist’ definition that I can provide is that ‘MaaS is a mindset that changes the focus of attention of the travel journey experience away from the technical means of travel (car, bus, train, bicycle, etc.) to the travel requirement of the traveller using the optimal mix of travel modes, in order to provide a cohesive, safe, efficient, comfortable, cost-efficient journey, at a specific point in time. MaaS starts where the traveller is now, and ends when the traveller has arrived at his/her chosen destination’.

Vehicle Manufacturer Perspective for MaaS

To the manufacturer of automobiles, some may now see or be advised (McKinsey (2016)) that MaaS can redesign parts of his business model away from selling vehicles to drivers, to selling ‘ride-hailing’ services to provide links in a MaaS journey, or indeed the whole journey (and manufacturing/ providing and operating the vehicles to provide these services [but thereby obtaining its greatest revenue income from the service provision]).

 This is of course a very narrow view of a market opportunity to be part of a new integrated paradigm, as a way of developing/ saving the manufacturer’s business model. In this paradigm it is seen that there will be many less vehicles on the road (raising hoorahs from city planners – but not necessarily their accountants), but those vehicles on the road will drive many more miles, so need to be replaced far more often (Ford has suggested maybe every four years).

Traditional Transport Service Provider Perspective for MaaS

From the perspective of the traditional transport service provider, public or private sector, MaaS is often viewed as using a refocus to the travellers’ objectives, to ease access to and transfer between, modes of transport, increasing the attractiveness of the service provider’s offering by providing a complete multimodal travel offer connecting from the first to the last mile, via a Maas ‘app’ that plots the routes and obtains the tickets. This paradigm envisages a MaaS service being provided usually by the local public transport provider, or by an independent MaaS ‘broker’ service.

MaaS from the Perspective of the MaaS Broker

Whereas the MaaS service provision is seen by public transport providers as part of the local public transport service offering, others see the MaaS service as a commercial brokerage service business opportunity, best provided by an independent organisation, because in this model, service providers do not have to share potentially confidential information with competitors.

However, in either the PT (public transport/transit) service provided model, or the independent ‘broker’ model, MaaS is the term used to describe digital platforms (often smartphone apps) through which people can access a range of public, shared and private transport, using a system that integrates the planning, booking and paying for travel, using a single app to acquire and pay for tickets, and is generally limited to these aspects.


From an architectural perspective, a typical MaaS paradigm from the perspective of the PT service provider model, or the independent ‘broker’ model, the system architectures are similar.

fig 15 1 maas current.PNG
fig 15 2  MaaS objective.PNG
fig 15 3 MaaS services.PNG

The roles above are explained by ISO TC204 WG19 as:

15.4.1            Transport Service

The transport service is the core service in integrated mobility as it covers the transport of a person or goods from A to B. The transport mode could be road, rail, sea or air and the transport means could be any transport facility that is used to transport people or goods.

Typical examples are car, truck, bicycle, tram, train, metro, micromobility, passenger ferry and plane. Transport means also includes facilities that are not directly linked to any of the four transport modes, e.g. a gondola or a cable car in hill/mountain climbs/river crossings, etc. The transport means are usually driven by fossil or electric power, but they could also be powered by the transport user himself, e.g. bicycling or walking.

15.4.2        Planning and Booking Service

The planning and booking service is also a core service in integrated mobility. Based on the requirements and constraints of the user of the mobility service, a set of alternative integrated mobility services (often called ‘products’ in public transport) are presented to the user. Based on the user preferences, e.g. price, travel time and route, comfort, sustainability, transport mode and means, the user chooses his preferred alternative, books the integrated mobility service and receives the access rights to the integrated mobility service.

The set of alternative integrated mobility services are bundles of transport services linked together providing a seamless and effective travel for the user of the integrated mobility service.

15.4.3        Payment Service

The payment service enables the user of the integrated mobility service to pay for the service when the service is booked, at the moment the service is used, or after the service has been used. Hence, the service is either pre, or post,-paid. The payment could be stored in a central account or it could be stored on the payment media – which could be the same media as carrying the access rights, e.g. a smartphone or a wireless smartcard.

15.4.4     Transport Infrastructure Service

The transport means move around in a transport infrastructure built and operated for the transport means, e.g. a road network, a rail network and a traffic corridor along a coast. The transport means are depending on a safe, secure, available and effective transport infrastructure to provide the integrated mobility service with the requested and necessary quality. Hence, the building, maintenance and operation of a transport infrastructure is also a core service. Traffic management in a city is a part of this service.


15.4.5         Information Service

The information service is another core service supporting the integrated mobility service. The service includes both collection of information, information management and information distribution to other core services that are depending on information for their own service processes. Typical examples are transport service information (specification of the travel product) provided by the transport service operators and dynamic transport infrastructure information used for planning of the integrated mobility service.

The information service covers the information models and messages between the objects in the integrated mobility service domain, i.e. the ‘soft’ part of the information infrastructure.


15.4.6      Information and Communication (ICT) Service

The information and communication (ICT) service covers the ‘hard’ part of the ICT infrastructure. That means the provision and operation of the equipment required for the secure storage and transfer of information between the different services described above enabling the provision of the integrated mobility service.

15.4.7      Authority Regulations

The last domain supporting the integrated mobility is not a service, but (access to) the authority regulations defining the regulatory framework for the integrated mobility service. These could be national regulations, e.g. laws and regulations issued by the Ministry for Transport, or it could be city regulations that, e.g. define the operational prerequisites and conditions for the implementation of integrated mobility services in the city, or access control limits for various vehicle types at various times, parking restrictions, one-way traffic. etc




15.4.8       High-level Value Network

MaaS can therefore be described as a high-level value network for integrated mobility systems where the value network can be defined as a web of relationships that generate economic value and other benefits through complex dynamic exchanges between two or more individuals, groups or organisations. The figure below shows an example on a value network for the ITS service real-time road and traffic information.

fig 15 4 IMOVE.PNG

15.5         MaaS as a Tool for Social Engineering


Move now to the perspective of City Authorities and Planners, Governments, and The European Commission, even the United Nations. (UN ECE Workshop on MaaS: ‘As more of the world’s cities become congested and polluted, new business models and technologies are emerging to solve the mobility challenge. In 2014, global venture-capital investments into mobility services amounted to more than $5 billion, up from less than $10 million in 2009.’).

From this viewpoint MaaS is potentially a way to remove traffic from city centres, reduce traffic congestion, reduce pollution, achieve CO2 reduction targets, encourage healthier lifestyles, and improve quality of life for citizens, and even countering global warming. This is a heavy social engineering paradigm, whose objectives are much more radical than simply improving the travel experience of travellers.

Fig 15 5 MaaS quote.PNG

In the European Commission (2019) the EC opines:

Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) will increasingly catalyse the public-private co-development and co-delivery of mobility and transport systems and services, as well as shared and open use of public space, data and infrastructure. The principal prospects for decarbonisation are strong better utilisation of underused assets in transport fleets and infrastructures can accommodate increasing demand and reduce the share of unsustainable travel modes. Smart mobility systems and services have the promise to contribute to the needed decarbonisation of the transport sector and might also help address persistent problems of congestion and accessibility. However, new innovations in technologies and use need to optimise the whole transport system not road-based car travel only to make a long-term contribution to decarbonisation.


Technological, socio-demographic and behavioural change are facilitating a move towards multimodal transport – combining walking, cars, buses, bikes, trains and other forms of shared transportation. Driven by the transition from ‘owning’ to ‘using’, MaaS enables multimodal mobility by providing user-centric information and travel services such as navigation, location, 


Fig 15 6 MaaS responsibilities.PNG

Public and private business models, payment methods, technologies, and user choices will continue to coevolve alongside data sharing by users and public infrastructures, and increasing cooperation between the public and private sectors. MaaS should also provide more cost-efficient mobility options to consumers and households by reducing vehicle acquisition and maintenance expenditures.

………… The transformation and convergence of transport and mobility systems and services presents a unique opportunity to develop post-fossil, user-centric, smart mobility systems based on access to individual, public, shared and active mobility, rather than ownership of private automobiles.

…………Integrated Mobility-on-Demand services can contribute to modal shift to public transport and also address the spatial inefficiencies of private individual motorised transport. User-centric urban mobility systems will provide ubiquitous check-in/check-out user access to enable both inter- and multi-modal mobility on demand and enhance overall transport efficiency. In future integrated and sustainable mobility-on-demand systems, electric mobility will become a component of both power and public transport infrastructure and systems. The smart integration of tariff structures, data and user interfaces as well as the disposition of rolling stock across these sectors is a central challenge, which requires new business models and scheduling, booking, navigating, ticketing and charging solutions.

…… . . . .Autonomous electric vehicles are expected to form a significant component of ‘MaaS’ for urban transport. As with sharing models, autonomous vehicle (in public or private service) technology will blend with MaaS models and can potentially also enable ubiquitous smart traffic management. In deploying electric and shared autonomous vehicles (SAEVs) the benefits of these mobility strategies can be combined to greater effect.

Fig 15 7 MaaS value networks.PNG

This is heavy social engineering and a world away from the more modest ambition of most MaaS service brokers. But pressures to reduce CO2 emissions and reduce pollution will mean that there is continual and growing pressure to achieve these social ambitions. But whether or not that is in line with the purists’ objective to ‘improve the travellers journey experience’ is another matter.

Further, the provision of even very competent MaaS ‘apps’ and single payment journey planning/management, by itself, does little to prize drivers out of their vehicles. But too many planners/social engineers are relying on these MaaS Apps to change behaviour, just because the MaaS apps are created.

15.6    CEN Urban ITS/Mobility Integration Standards Deliverables


15.6.1 Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - European ITS communications and information protocols 


WI 00278427 This Report/Guide/Website resource



15.6.2 CEN/TS 17378:2019    Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Air quality management in urban areas    


00278428         Published


This document provides

• information, guidance and specifications on how o to set up an air quality and emissions management policy; o to deploy reliable and scalable technologies to monitor air quality on a continuous or regular basis; o to react with adequate measures; o to specify air quality levels for triggering a scenario;

 • a toolkit of parameters and data definitions that a regulator can use; • means to measure the air quality required by relevant EU directives

 • to specify use of TS Intelligent transport systems - Urban-ITS - 'Controlled Zone' management using C-ITS, for the purposes of geofenced controlled zones for emissions management NOTE: In order to maximise European harmonisation, it is recommended that this specification is used in combination with a module of standardised data concepts, however, this version of this document, which is focussed on policies and procedures, does not provide these data concept specifications.




15.6.3 CEN/TR 17143:2017   Intelligent transport systems - Standards and actions necessary to enable urban infrastructure coordination to support Urban-ITS     


00278454         Published                       


The scope of this project is to undertake a pre-study providing stakeholder mapping, framework identification, gap analysis and identification of standards and related actions required to address the urban infrastructure aspects: the provision of

a) multimodal information services;

b) traffic management;

c) urban logistics,


 that are required to support the provision of Urban-ITS. Specifically, the scope of this pre-study is to produce a technical report that will (by December 2015), for each area, specifically address the standardisation requirements to meet the following technical challenges: - stakeholder engagement; - common/interoperable data; - multimodality; - creation of (multimodal) transport datasets; - multiple means of communication; - urban logistics management - creation of urban-interurban interfaces; - use of open standards, architectures and specifications; - enable rather than prescribe or proscribe. It is the intention that, while the formal deliverable of this pre-study will be a technical report, that the project team will also identify areas for draft ‘New Work Item Proposals’ (and justifications) for work items to fill the identified gaps, where those gaps can be filled by Standards deliverables, and that the pre-study will also consider and make recommendations for any other support measures that are considered important or essential in order for the successful implementation, management and support of Urban-ITS in an environment where this is an administration controlled and led activity and not a community-wide managed or controlled activity. The pre-study report, in addition to its submission to the European Commission, shall be in a format suitable for adaptation to a European standardisation deliverable on Use Cases addressing the three areas of this request and highlighting their possible interdependencies. Specifically, a gap analysis identifying additional requirements and priorities for:


d) Architecture: high level proposals outlining the parameters for a European standardisation deliverable for Urban-ITS architecture integrating the three areas of this request and highlighting connexions or interfaces with surrounding ITS applications as well as compatibility or coherence with existing standards, technical specifications, data models.


e) Multimodal Information Services: Standardisation deliverables in support of new mobility services, such as car sharing, car-pooling, public bike sharing services, park & ride, bike & ride, etc. Alternative fuel infrastructure, including information on location and availability of stations, charging models and capacity at stations, (integrated) payment schemes, etc. A European standardisation deliverable on reference data model, common data dictionary and metadata structure for multimodal information services.

f) Traffic Management: Standardisation deliverables in support of European standards for: a set of traffic management measures (encompassing the necessary infrastructure / static road data, dynamic road status data, traffic data or traffic control data, weather data), a set of traffic re-routing, traffic prioritisation and access regulation measures including intersections management (supplemented by vehicle identification data). In particular, the different types of road user charging models set up in various cities as well as the modalities of shared use of dedicated lanes by different types of vehicles (e.g. freight, public transport, emergency vehicles) should be considered. European standards or European Standardisation deliverables on reference data model, common data dictionary and metadata structure for traffic management including access regulation.

 g) Urban Logistics (Including parking management): Standardisation deliverables in support of European standards for: Intelligent parking for light vehicles, commercial vehicles and trucks.


15.6.4 Intelligent transport systems - Management for Electronic Traffic Regulations (METR) - Part 1: General concept and architecture


00278472   Waiting      Not Published  00.60.0000



15.6.5 CEN/TR 17297-1:2019             Intelligent transport systems - Location referencing harmonization for Urban ITS - Part 1: State of the art and guidelines

00278474         Published


This document presents: - a concise tutorial on location referencing methods; - applicable location referencing specifications, standards and directives; - an introduction into challenges given by a multiplicity of different location referencing systems.



15.6.6 CEN/TS 17297-2:2019 Intelligent transport systems - Location Referencing Harmonisation for Urban-ITS - Part 2: Transformation methods

00278473         Published


This document specifies requirements, recommendations, and permissions related to translations between location referencing methods applicable in the urban transport environment.


15.6.7 CEN/TS 17241:2019    Intelligent transport systems - Traffic management systems - Status, fault and quality requirements    


00278478         Published         


This document: - illustrates quality and performance criteria, and approaches to their evaluation, for the operation of traffic management systems, including factors affecting the effective integration of field and centre systems and services, and - specifies a data model for system status and faults of components of traffic management systems. This document provides supporting information in a use case for the use of the quality and performance criteria, considering design, procurement, and performance management.



15.6.8 CEN/TS 17413:2020    Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Models and definitions for new modes  


00278491         Published


This document defines new modes in a reference data model, in order to allow integration of these modes into urban multimodal travel services (e.g. trip planning systems).



15.6.9 CEN/TS 17380:2019    Intelligent transport systems - Urban-ITS - 'Controlled Zone' management for UVARs using C-ITS

00278501         Published


This document provides information and specifications enabling management of road traffic in controlled zones applying geofencing. Specifically, this document provides

- a "Controlled Zone Data Dictionary" (CZDD) for management of controlled zones providing an extendible toolkit that regulators can use e.g. to inform potential CZ users, e.g. vehicles, about - the CZ area, i.e. the geographical boundaries of the CZ;

- CZ access conditions including exempts;

 - time windows indicating when these CZ access conditions are applicable, allowing the potential CZ users to select an appropriate routing, either by pre-trip planning or ad hoc re-routing,


 - and illustrations and guidelines on how to use this toolkit. The toolkit is designed in compliance with the general ITS station and communications architecture specified in ISO 21217, and optionally applicable C-ITS protocols and procedures, e.g. ISO 22418:2018  on "Service Announcement", EN ISO 18750 on the "Local Dynamic Map", and EN ISO 17419  on globally unique identifiers. Enforcement is out of scope of this document.


15.6.10              CEN/TS 16157-8:2020 Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 8: Traffic management publications and extensions dedicated to the urban environment   


00278521         Published


This document constitutes a Part of the CEN 16157 DATEX II series of standards and technical specifications. This series specifies and defines component facets supporting the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for exchanges, the modelling approach, the data content, the data structure and relationships and the communications specification. Part 8, this document, specifies additional data model structures that are applicable for traffic management applications in the urban environment.


This Part addresses data concepts to support the exchange of Traffic Management Plans, rerouting, extensions of the existing DATEX II core model to better support application to the urban environment. It establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors: - Traffic Information Centres (TICs), - Traffic Control Centres (TCCs), - Service Providers (SPs). Use of this document may be applicable for use by other actors.




15.6.11              CEN/TS 16157-9:2020 Intelligent transport systems - DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information - Part 9: Traffic signal management publications dedicated to the urban environment


00278520         Published


This document constitutes a part of the CEN 16157 DATEX II series of standards and technical specifications. This series specifies and defines component facets supporting the exchange and shared use of data and information in the field of traffic and travel. The component facets include the framework and context for exchanges, the modelling approach, the data content, the data structure and relationships and the communications specification. Part 9, this document, specifies additional data model structures that are applicable for traffic signal management applications in the urban environment.

This part specifies data concepts to support the exchange of traffic signal status messaging, intersection geometry definition and attribution in a consistent way with existing C-ITS standards and technical specifications. It establishes specifications for data exchange between any two instances of the following actors: - Traffic Information Centres (TICs), - Traffic Control Centres (TCCs), - Service Providers (SPs). Use of this document may be applicable for use by other actors.



15.6.12              CEN/TS 17400:2020   Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Mixed vendor environments, methodologies & translators

00278522         Published


This TS  focuses on the principal aspects of urban ITS where vendor lock-in is a technical and financial problem: primarily centre-to field communications and traffic management systems. It will cover the following scope:

- Analysis of vendor lock-in challenges, and mitigation and migration options - Technical options for interworking multiple vendors' products

- Review of principal approaches taken to date to implement these options in community frameworks and specifications

- Translation between frameworks/products

- Technical and management protocols to achieve interworking, using product/interface adaptation, translation products, replacement/reengineering, and other migration strategies


15.6.13              CEN/TR 17401:2020  Intelligent transport systems - Urban-ITS - Mixed vendor environment guide   

00278525         Published

This document provides specifications for a “Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for the introduction and maintenance of a “Mixed Vendor Environment” (MVE) in the domain of urban-ITS. Structured as:


PART I "Context and issues to be addressed" Describing the context, background, objective of the MVE Guide, and the architectural context.


PART II "Work concepts" Examines aspects of system design and architecture , and presents the basic knowledge required for the application of Part III.


PART III "Practice" Provides system design and procurement on three levels against the background of a procedure model. - user level - conceptual explanation - examples.


PART IV "Outlook" Specifies guidance and requirements for the application of MVE for future business.





15.6.14              CEN/TS 17402:2020  Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Use of regional traffic standards in a mixed vendor environment 

00278526         Published


This document provides a background to the relevance of standards concerning mixed vendor environments in the context of urban-ITS. It will describe key mixed vendor environments interfaces. It defines:

- Open specifications for sensor systems: existing open specifications and provides common specifications

- Open specifications for traffic control: existing open specifications and provides common specifications

- Open specifications for traffic information: existing open specifications and provides common specifications

- Open specifications for public transport information systems: existing open specifications and provides common specifications

- Open specifications for distributed C-ITS: existing open specifications and provides common specifications

 - Open specifications for central systems: existing open specifications and provides common specifications

It will describe openly plied proprietary standards and extant communications protocols that can be used in mixed vendor environments in the context of urban-ITS.                     


15.6.15              CEN/TS 17466:2020   Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Communication interfaces and profiles for traffic management

00278523         Published

This document identifies traffic management interfaces between central stations and specifies related ITS communication profiles enabling standardized data exchange over these communication interfaces, applicable for a variety of platforms including ITS station units (ITS-SUs) compliant with ISO 21217:2014.


This document further specifies requirements on encoding of data. These traffic management interfaces enable - the provision of appropriate and relevant traffic information, e.g. congestion and travel times, to users across a variety of platforms; - exchange of data such as: - network performance data, e.g. traffic conditions, travel times, and - planned and unplanned events and incidents, e.g. - roadworks, - closures of roads, bridges, and tunnels, - bad weather, - road surface conditions. This document recognizes specifications from DATEX II in order to avoid duplicate specifications. In doing so, this document aligns with existing products of CEN/TC 278/WG 8 and the additional work being undertaken within the DATEX community.

15.6.16  CEN Intelligent transport systems - ITS data management, access and mobility issues - Governance using secure interfaces: High level specifications & information resource          




This work item is a placeholder so that the in-process ISO TS 5616 (same title) can be fast tracked as a CEN/ISO deliverable  ( the ISO process was already well underway by the time WG17 adopted this work item, so the process was not delayed)  See ISO 5616 below.



15.7    ISO ITS Standards Deliverables


15.7.1 ISO/AWI 24317  Mobility integration needs for vulnerable users and light modes of transport

Being renamed to “Intelligent Transportation Systems— Mobility Integration – C-ITS for light mode conveyances and accessibility travel standards gap assessment” this work item is in process.

The scope of this white paper is to assess Mobility Integration standardization efforts supporting all travellers using active and light transport modes and identify gaps where additional Standards deliverables are required.  The gap assessment will focus on Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS) for all users, including people with disabilities, as they plan, manage and journey their “complete trip” - including all connections and transfers, from end-to-end.


Conveyances will address C-ITS for light power and active modes such as micromobililty vehicles (e.g., e-scooters), power or power-assisted vehicles (e-bikes, power wheelchairs), and full powered vehicles (e.g., motorcycles, mopeds).

This investigation identifies areas and scopes where standards deliverables are required to solve problems/opportunities/ challenges, particularly with respect to enhanced safety, and the provision of end-to-end multimodal journey provision and support.

This investigation, by itself, will not solve the problems identified but will provide the scope sections for future standards deliverables that will address these issues.




15.7.2 ISO/AWI TS 5206-1     Parking — Part 1: Core data model


In Development. See Section 16. Parking



15.7.3 ISO/DTR 4447 Comparison of two mainstream Integrated mobility concepts


In development




15.7.4 ISO/DTR 4445 Role model of ITS service application


In Process

This Technical Report describes a basic role model of smart city ITS service applications as a common platform for smart city instantiation, directly communicating via ‘Secure ITS Interfaces’. It provides a paradigm describing:

a)          A framework for the provision of cooperative telematics application services for ITS service applications.

b)          A description of the concept of operation, regulatory aspects and options and the role models.

c)          A conceptual architecture between actors involved in the provision/receipt of ITS service applications

d)          References for the key documents on which the architecture is based;

e)          A taxonomy of the organisation of generic procedures;



15.7.5 ISO 4448-1: Intelligent transport systems - Ground based robotic systems/drones  -  Part 1: Overview of Paradigm

In Development – see Section 13 Kerbside

This document- Part 1 of a multi-part standard for the description and management of Sidewalk and Kerb Behaviour for Automated Vehicles: Arriving, Stopping, Parking, Waiting, and Loading.


The Scope of this deliverable (Part 1) is to provide an overview of the ground based robot paradigm, which covers such kerbs and sidewalks as are suitable for co-temporal, collaborative use by various classifications and combinations of automated and non-automated, wheeled or ambulatory, as well as motorized and non-motorized, mobility-related vehicles and devices as well as for various levels of automated operation of such vehicles. This includes vehicles and devices that move people as well as goods.

A general (non-prescriptive) overview of likely architectures is included in this Part (and will be further detailed in Part 3).

NOTE: This work is descriptive and therefore a Technical Report.


15.7.6 ISO 4448-2: Intelligent transport systems  -  Ground based robotic systems/drones  -  Part 2: Data definitions for ground based robotic systems/drones

In Development – see Section 13 Kerbside




15.7.7 ISO 4448-3: Intelligent transport systems  -  Ground based robotic systems/drones  -  Part 3: Communications and cybersecurity for ITS ground based robotic systems/drones

In Development – see Section 13 Kerbside

This part of ISO 4448 (Part 3) provides the following for cooperative telematics applications for Ground based robotic systems directly communicating via a ‘Secure Interface’:

a)          A framework for the provision of cooperative telematics application services for Ground based robotic systems;

b)          A description of the concept of operation, regulatory aspects and options and the role models;

c)          A conceptual architecture using an on-board platform and wireless communications to a regulator or his agent;

d)          References for the key documents on which the architecture is based;

e)          Specification of the architecture) of the facilities layer;

f)           A taxonomy of the organisation of generic procedures;


The scope of this document also defines the requirements for a secure vehicle interface for the provision of GBRS/D (Ground based robotic systems/drones) application services data.



15.7.8 ISO 4448-4: Intelligent transport systems  -  Ground based robotic systems/drones - Part 4: Kerb/Kerb loading / unloading for ground based robotic devices

In Development – see Section 13 Kerbside



15.7.9 ISO 4448-5: Intelligent transport systems - Ground based robotic systems/drones  -  Part 5: Pavement/sidewalk procedures and protocols for ground based robotic devices

In Development – see Section 13 Kerbside



15.7.10              ISO 4448-6: Intelligent transport systems - Ground based robotic systems/drones  -  Part 6: Integration of kerb and pavement/sidewalk deployment

In Development – see Section 13 Kerbside




15.7.11              PWI: (TR) Integrated Mobility Concept

Under development.

  • Integrated mobility -

    • A seamless travel from A to B whilst having access to connected, interoperable and multimodal transport services

    • An ISO Technical report (TR) on IM will provide a generic concept that any concept could be mapped to, enabling a common understanding, exchange of information and knowledge and a convergence towards one world-wide IM concept terminology

Fig 15 8 IM Overview.PNG
Fig 15 9 IM Concept.PNG

15.7.12              ISO/PWI 24318 Architecture for automation


In development



15.7.13              ISO/PWI 24315-1 Intelligent transport systems - Management for Electronic Traffic Regulations (METR) — Part 1: General concept and architecture



In development



15.7.14              ISO/PWI 24312 Urban ITS — Air quality management in urban areas


This is an ISO investigation as to its suitability for adaptation to an ISO deliverable. The study finds the existing work to be too Euro-centric. So this WI will cease. However, this as noted as an area of interest that may be progressed if resources become available.



15.7.15              ISO/PWI 24311 Urban ITS — 'Controlled zone' management for UVARs using C-ITS


This is an ISO investigation as to its suitability for adaptation to an ISO deliverable. It was found to be. An investigation was carried out to see if it needed any significant adaptation. None being found it is being progressed for vote as an ISO TS.



15.5.16              ISO/PWI 24309-1 Location referencing harmonization for Urban ITS — Part 1: State of the art and guidelines

This is an ISO investigation as to its suitability for adaptation to an ISO deliverable. It was found to be. An investigation was carried out to see if it needed any significant adaptation. None being found it is being progressed for vote as an ISO TS.



15.7.17              ISO/PWI 24309-2 Location referencing harmonization for Urban ITS — Part 2: Transformation methods

This is an ISO investigation as to its suitability for adaptation to an ISO deliverable. It was found to be. An investigation was carried out to see if it needed any significant adaptation. None being found it is being progressed for vote as an ISO TS.


15.7.18              ISO/PWI TR 23797 Gap and overlap analysis of ISO/TC 204 work programme for mobility integration


Under development



15.7.19              ISO/NP TS 5616  ITS data management, access and mobility issues — Governance using secure interfaces : High level specifications & information resource


In Process.

This specification provides a single ITS Data Management Governance paradigm for most Intelligent Transport System (ITS) applications using Secure Interfaces (and particularly secure vehicle interfaces) in the context of cooperative connected, automated mobility.


To be more specific, ITS applications may involve

a)          Communications between vehicles (V><V)

b)          Communications between vehicles and the infrastructure functions (V><I)

c)          Communications between vehicles and an OEM host (cloud based) (V><IC)

d)          Communications between off-board service providers/users and the vehicle(I><V)

e)          C-ITS communications (V><X, X><V)

f)           Communications between infrastructure systems and functions (I><I; S*><I)




The scope includes communications means, access, cybersecurity, migration, data interoperability and definition.


Governance of generic service provision is included, but detail of specific use case service provision, beyond governing principles and cybersecurity, are outside the scope of these specifications.


NOTE: Where an ITS Data Management and access paradigm is already in existence, this document proposes only that it provides a suitable checklist for any assessment of its competency.  This document does not propose that existing arrangements that are acceptably competent are changed.

NOTE: This Deliverable will not affect proprietary OEM communications using ExVe, but will provide means for its complementary  coexistence.



15.7.21              ISO/AWI TS 5255-1 Mobility integration low-speed automated driving (LSAD) system service architecture — Part 1: Overall architecture

In Process

This document scope is specialized in examining, analysing, and defining the requirements of the basic role and functional model of service applications for the introduction of low-speed automated driving system services including infrastructure facilities to support mobility in urban and rural areas.


In-vehicle control system is not in scope of this document.


This document is limited to the services using LSADS equipped vehicles.


This document defines the requirements of overall service role and functional model including infrastructure side facilities and road furniture (driving monitoring platform, emergency response platform, operation management platform, user service platform such as online reservation and online payment, infrastructure platform to support automated driving system, etc.). This document can contribute to the development of future automated driving system service business cases other than LSAD system. Part 1 describes the requirements of overall role and functional model of LSAD system "People, goods and services" mobility support.  First aim is to TS, then upgraded to IS in the future.



15.7.22              ISO/PWI TR 5255-2 Intelligent transport systems - Mobility integration low-speed automated driving (LSAD) system service architecture — Part 2: Gap analysis


In Development

15. 7.23             ISO/PWI 5255-3 Intelligent transport systems - Mobility integration low-speed automated driving (LSAD) system service architecture — Part 3: System components


In Development

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